Therapists in 22701

Photo of Pederec INC in 22701, VA
Pederec INC
PhD, BCBA, LBA
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
PEDEREC INC. is an ABA Therapy and Consultancy Services company that works with families to meet families’ needs by providing practical ABA therapy services for children diagnosed with autism and related disorders. Pederec Inc. strives to improve lives, one family at a time. Our services are tailored to safeguard each family’s needs, considering both cultural and ethnic values. In addition, Pederec Inc. facilitates community engagement and empowers those impacted by ASD to become independent, supported, and contributing members of their communities.
PEDEREC INC. is an ABA Therapy and Consultancy Services company that works with families to meet families’ needs by providing practical ABA therapy services for children diagnosed with autism and related disorders. Pederec Inc. strives to improve lives, one family at a time. Our services are tailored to safeguard each family’s needs, considering both cultural and ethnic values. In addition, Pederec Inc. facilitates community engagement and empowers those impacted by ASD to become independent, supported, and contributing members of their communities.
(540) 202-1397 View (540) 202-1397
Photo of Brittany M Jenkins, LPC, PLCC, Licensed Professional Counselor in 22701, VA
Brittany M Jenkins, LPC, PLCC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
I encourage clients to take the lead on what they would like to discuss in therapy. I love working with juniors-seniors in high school as they are navigating their next steps as well as college students who need a listening ear. I also love working with adult women as they navigate their own mental health concerns as well as problems in their relationship, work, family, friendships etc. I have recently developed an interest in the last year of working with prenatal, postnatal and perinatal women after the birth of my daughter years ago. I know how difficult this process is and empathize with how long it takes to feel "normal" again.
I encourage clients to take the lead on what they would like to discuss in therapy. I love working with juniors-seniors in high school as they are navigating their next steps as well as college students who need a listening ear. I also love working with adult women as they navigate their own mental health concerns as well as problems in their relationship, work, family, friendships etc. I have recently developed an interest in the last year of working with prenatal, postnatal and perinatal women after the birth of my daughter years ago. I know how difficult this process is and empathize with how long it takes to feel "normal" again.
(540) 253-1592 View (540) 253-1592
Photo of Amy (Campbell) Columbus, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22701, VA
Amy (Campbell) Columbus
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Culpeper, VA 22701
Waitlist for new clients
As a person centered and trauma focused therapist, I enjoy helping others who are in need of peace, recovery, and healing. I have experience working with children, adolescents, and adults struggling with eating disorders, body image, depression, grief, anxiety, mood disorders, and other co-occurring issues in multiple levels of care through a trauma lens. I have a background as a school social worker, medical social worker in which I bring tremendous experience in working with complex family situations, multidisciplinary teams, and through a lens of growth and change towards recovery and strength.
As a person centered and trauma focused therapist, I enjoy helping others who are in need of peace, recovery, and healing. I have experience working with children, adolescents, and adults struggling with eating disorders, body image, depression, grief, anxiety, mood disorders, and other co-occurring issues in multiple levels of care through a trauma lens. I have a background as a school social worker, medical social worker in which I bring tremendous experience in working with complex family situations, multidisciplinary teams, and through a lens of growth and change towards recovery and strength.
(434) 236-8608 View (434) 236-8608
Photo of Gary Rafala , Counselor in 22701, VA
Gary Rafala
Counselor, LPC, LMFT
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
I have worked for over 25 years as a counselor and mental health administrator. I have worked in public mental health as well as private practice. I have experience working with urban as well as rural populations. I am past president of the Virginia Association of Clinical Counselors. We maintain a small intimate office with connections to local health care providers.
I have worked for over 25 years as a counselor and mental health administrator. I have worked in public mental health as well as private practice. I have experience working with urban as well as rural populations. I am past president of the Virginia Association of Clinical Counselors. We maintain a small intimate office with connections to local health care providers.
(540) 534-0571 View (540) 534-0571
Photo of Hope Water Wellness, LLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22701, VA
Hope Water Wellness, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
**Not able to accept new individual session clients at this time/Practice is full. Trauma Center Trauma Sensitive Yoga (TCTSY) Groups are forming.** Hope Water Wellness, LLC, a Culpeper counseling practice offers individual, group, and family counseling in support of women, children, adolescents, and families. With over 20 years of experience, Amanda Findley, LCSW, brings wisdom, maturity, compassion, life experience, and a little humor when needed to create a safe therapeutic environment. Amanda gladly partners with other community resources and disciplines to bring about sustained growth, empowerment, and resilience.
**Not able to accept new individual session clients at this time/Practice is full. Trauma Center Trauma Sensitive Yoga (TCTSY) Groups are forming.** Hope Water Wellness, LLC, a Culpeper counseling practice offers individual, group, and family counseling in support of women, children, adolescents, and families. With over 20 years of experience, Amanda Findley, LCSW, brings wisdom, maturity, compassion, life experience, and a little humor when needed to create a safe therapeutic environment. Amanda gladly partners with other community resources and disciplines to bring about sustained growth, empowerment, and resilience.
(540) 307-6062 View (540) 307-6062
Photo of Arminda Cheshier-Perch, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22701, VA
Arminda Cheshier-Perch
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MBA, MSW, LCSW
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701  (Online Only)
Do you ever feel like everything's okay on the outside, but inside, you're feeling stuck, overwhelmed, or down? And deep down, you know you want things to change because how you feel inside is affecting how you live your life. Maybe you've been through trauma, loss, dysfunction, or mistreatment. You might be dealing with anxiety, burnout, illness, depression, or pain. Or maybe you're struggling spiritually. Whatever your story, you deserve to feel better. It's really brave of you to look for help, and I'm here to support you every step of the way.
Do you ever feel like everything's okay on the outside, but inside, you're feeling stuck, overwhelmed, or down? And deep down, you know you want things to change because how you feel inside is affecting how you live your life. Maybe you've been through trauma, loss, dysfunction, or mistreatment. You might be dealing with anxiety, burnout, illness, depression, or pain. Or maybe you're struggling spiritually. Whatever your story, you deserve to feel better. It's really brave of you to look for help, and I'm here to support you every step of the way.
(540) 469-5148 View (540) 469-5148
Photo of Gianna Giuoco, Licensed Professional Counselor in 22701, VA
Gianna Giuoco
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, NCC, LPC
Verified
2 Endorsed
Culpeper, VA 22701  (Online Only)
Sometimes life brings you challenges that may wear you down and keep you standing still. You might be experiencing an array of emotions such as anxiety, fear, irrational thoughts, chronic pain, or low self-esteem that have become heavy and overwhelming. The negative emotions you are experiencing may be making your life difficult to maneuver. You may even be experiencing challenging life changes or transitions and need some support to help as you traverse the path. This is where the counseling process may help find the hope, strength, and the courage needed to motivate you to move in right direction and find harmony in your life.
Sometimes life brings you challenges that may wear you down and keep you standing still. You might be experiencing an array of emotions such as anxiety, fear, irrational thoughts, chronic pain, or low self-esteem that have become heavy and overwhelming. The negative emotions you are experiencing may be making your life difficult to maneuver. You may even be experiencing challenging life changes or transitions and need some support to help as you traverse the path. This is where the counseling process may help find the hope, strength, and the courage needed to motivate you to move in right direction and find harmony in your life.
(703) 691-5052 View (703) 691-5052
Photo of Kris Marowski, Licensed Professional Counselor in 22701, VA
Kris Marowski
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, ACS, RPT-S™, CCMHC
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
Being a parent can be tough, especially when your child is struggling with anxiety, challenging behaviors, school-related issues, depression, or traumatic experiences. Knowing what to do and how best to help is hard. Your commitment to caring for your child is commendable! You have recognized your child's need for assistance and are taking the necessary steps to ensure that they receive the help they require. Your actions demonstrate compassion and courage. You should be proud of yourself for being there for your child when they need you the most.
Being a parent can be tough, especially when your child is struggling with anxiety, challenging behaviors, school-related issues, depression, or traumatic experiences. Knowing what to do and how best to help is hard. Your commitment to caring for your child is commendable! You have recognized your child's need for assistance and are taking the necessary steps to ensure that they receive the help they require. Your actions demonstrate compassion and courage. You should be proud of yourself for being there for your child when they need you the most.
(540) 827-4376 View (540) 827-4376
Photo of Daniel L. Price, Psychologist in 22701, VA
Daniel L. Price
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
Psychotherapy helps people achieve what they want in their lives by mobilizing their energy in a positive way and problem solving the things that stand in their way. Emotional issues from the past can be worked through to happier healthier functioning. Improved mood and functioning without anxiety can be achieved.
Psychotherapy helps people achieve what they want in their lives by mobilizing their energy in a positive way and problem solving the things that stand in their way. Emotional issues from the past can be worked through to happier healthier functioning. Improved mood and functioning without anxiety can be achieved.
(540) 986-4459 View (540) 986-4459
Photo of Adam Doane, LCSW, Child / Family Counseling, PLLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22701, VA
Adam Doane, LCSW, Child / Family Counseling, PLLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CSOTP
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
Waitlist for new clients
I have worked with children, adolescents and families for nearly 15 years. I bring a trusting, unique, personal approach to focus on individuals, families, couples, school-based, community-based needs. I look forward to working with you through your journey to wellness.
I have worked with children, adolescents and families for nearly 15 years. I bring a trusting, unique, personal approach to focus on individuals, families, couples, school-based, community-based needs. I look forward to working with you through your journey to wellness.
(540) 274-1162 View (540) 274-1162
Photo of Horse and Soul Counseling , Licensed Professional Counselor in 22701, VA
Horse and Soul Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
We believe it takes small steps to work towards improving your quality of life. We specialize in working with children, adolescents, teens, adults, and families. We are an advocate for family counseling and often find this essential when completing goals towards a positive mental health. We believe counseling is short-term where your family relationships are forever. We offer traditional talk therapy services and animal assisted counseling services. Most of our participants enjoy integrating the horses into counseling sessions while others prefer the comfort of our office on site.
We believe it takes small steps to work towards improving your quality of life. We specialize in working with children, adolescents, teens, adults, and families. We are an advocate for family counseling and often find this essential when completing goals towards a positive mental health. We believe counseling is short-term where your family relationships are forever. We offer traditional talk therapy services and animal assisted counseling services. Most of our participants enjoy integrating the horses into counseling sessions while others prefer the comfort of our office on site.
(540) 212-6176 View (540) 212-6176
Photo of Cynthia R. M. Rafala, Counselor in 22701, VA
Cynthia R. M. Rafala
Counselor, LPC, LMFT
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
I have 25 plus years providing tailored, individualized services in a small private office, focused on helping clients find their most healthy, creative, and positive selves. This includes the clinical assessment and treatment of myriad challenges/diagnoses, both personally and relationally. I have positive working relationships with numerous community resources. My clinical style is informed by training and experience in person centered, interpersonal, cognitive behavioral, acceptance and commitment therapy, elements of internal family systems work, systematic desensitization, and concepts in neuropsychotherapy.
I have 25 plus years providing tailored, individualized services in a small private office, focused on helping clients find their most healthy, creative, and positive selves. This includes the clinical assessment and treatment of myriad challenges/diagnoses, both personally and relationally. I have positive working relationships with numerous community resources. My clinical style is informed by training and experience in person centered, interpersonal, cognitive behavioral, acceptance and commitment therapy, elements of internal family systems work, systematic desensitization, and concepts in neuropsychotherapy.
(540) 384-4631 View (540) 384-4631
Photo of Wendy Swenson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22701, VA
Wendy Swenson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
Hello. My work comes from a strength-based perspective. We are each doing our best with what we have at the time, but we can also learn, grow, and change at any age. Timing and finding the “right match or fit” for you is important. If this is your time, let’s talk. Call me to set a time to talk about your specific concerns and needs. The insurance is processed through Grow Therapy. I can send you the link to see if you are covered; if you are interested, send me your email.
Hello. My work comes from a strength-based perspective. We are each doing our best with what we have at the time, but we can also learn, grow, and change at any age. Timing and finding the “right match or fit” for you is important. If this is your time, let’s talk. Call me to set a time to talk about your specific concerns and needs. The insurance is processed through Grow Therapy. I can send you the link to see if you are covered; if you are interested, send me your email.
(540) 679-7475 View (540) 679-7475
Photo of Victoria S McClave, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22701, VA
Victoria S McClave
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701  (Online Only)
I enjoy clients from a variety of walks of life. The common denominator is wanting change in their lives and or change in how they treat themselves or think about themselves. They are also tired of being disrespected by others including family members and co-workers and they want guidance for stopping this.
I enjoy clients from a variety of walks of life. The common denominator is wanting change in their lives and or change in how they treat themselves or think about themselves. They are also tired of being disrespected by others including family members and co-workers and they want guidance for stopping this.
(540) 660-3827 View (540) 660-3827
Photo of Dr. Eric Swift, Psychologist in 22701, VA
Dr. Eric Swift
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
Approach: My training is a blend of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic therapies. These backgrounds allow working at symptom reduction while also helping people understand their past and developing more effective ways of achieving their goals for the future. I feel my strength is in being able to meet clients where they are and, at their pace, discover how to bring about the changes that are needed to live a more fulfilling and productive life.
Approach: My training is a blend of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic therapies. These backgrounds allow working at symptom reduction while also helping people understand their past and developing more effective ways of achieving their goals for the future. I feel my strength is in being able to meet clients where they are and, at their pace, discover how to bring about the changes that are needed to live a more fulfilling and productive life.
(540) 827-4268 View (540) 827-4268
Photo of Rachel Doane, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22701, VA
Rachel Doane
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CSOTP
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
We would probably all like to be living our best life but many of us can’t quite figure out how to make that happen. Maybe we find ourselves stuck in unhealthy patterns of communicating and we don't know how to change. We might have personal goals we are trying to reach but just can seem to make them happen. Perhaps we have trauma that we need to resolve that has left an impact on our day-to-day functioning. Maybe we are looking for connection with others but continue feeling disconnected and unfulfilled by our personal relationships. It is possible to experience satisfaction and fulfillment in our daily lives.
We would probably all like to be living our best life but many of us can’t quite figure out how to make that happen. Maybe we find ourselves stuck in unhealthy patterns of communicating and we don't know how to change. We might have personal goals we are trying to reach but just can seem to make them happen. Perhaps we have trauma that we need to resolve that has left an impact on our day-to-day functioning. Maybe we are looking for connection with others but continue feeling disconnected and unfulfilled by our personal relationships. It is possible to experience satisfaction and fulfillment in our daily lives.
(540) 792-4022 View (540) 792-4022
Photo of Shayla Gray, Marriage & Family Therapist in 22701, VA
Shayla Gray
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LCMFT, MA
Verified
1 Endorsed
Culpeper, VA 22701  (Online Only)
I believe people strive to live the best life they possibly can. At times, life can throw in a few challenges and reaching out for help is not always easy. I am here to help! Together we can face those challenges and get you closer to your goals. I work with adults, families, and couples who may have experienced trauma or who may feel overwhelmed, lonely, worried, hopeless, afraid, worthless, angry or unmotivated. My style of therapy is targeted to help people heal and grow into the best version of themselves. Wondering where to start? Contact me for a free consultation.
I believe people strive to live the best life they possibly can. At times, life can throw in a few challenges and reaching out for help is not always easy. I am here to help! Together we can face those challenges and get you closer to your goals. I work with adults, families, and couples who may have experienced trauma or who may feel overwhelmed, lonely, worried, hopeless, afraid, worthless, angry or unmotivated. My style of therapy is targeted to help people heal and grow into the best version of themselves. Wondering where to start? Contact me for a free consultation.
(434) 566-0764 View (434) 566-0764
Photo of Bryna R. May, Counselor in 22701, VA
Bryna R. May
Counselor, LPC, LMHC, CSAC, CSOTP
Verified
2 Endorsed
Culpeper, VA 22701
Not accepting new clients
To be seen and known by others is an incredible feeling of connection but it means being authentic and vulnerable. Sadly, we live in a time with the illusion of connection while being more disconnected than ever. You may feel disconnected from others and even from yourself. Though you are a gift to this world, it is often blocked and unexpressed. This may leave you feeling alone and invisible. The truth is, you may be starving for deeper connection and that starvation looks like depression, anxiety, stress, and more. When you are living disconnected, you are abandoning yourself.
To be seen and known by others is an incredible feeling of connection but it means being authentic and vulnerable. Sadly, we live in a time with the illusion of connection while being more disconnected than ever. You may feel disconnected from others and even from yourself. Though you are a gift to this world, it is often blocked and unexpressed. This may leave you feeling alone and invisible. The truth is, you may be starving for deeper connection and that starvation looks like depression, anxiety, stress, and more. When you are living disconnected, you are abandoning yourself.
(716) 869-0074 View (716) 869-0074
Photo of Seasons Counseling, PLLC , Licensed Professional Counselor in 22701, VA
Seasons Counseling, PLLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701
Greetings! I am Anne Luckinbill, LPC. Seasons Counseling has a team of caring therapists who are skilled at assessing and diagnosing mental health concerns based on current struggles and your historical information. Your concerns about behavior, emotion, personality, and relationships will be treated using Emotionally Focused Therapy, EMDR, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Trauma concerns will be addressed with an understanding that trauma impacts daily function and interactions. Likewise, early relationships and attachment patterns impact our current relationships. We serve children, adolescents, adults, families, and couples.
Greetings! I am Anne Luckinbill, LPC. Seasons Counseling has a team of caring therapists who are skilled at assessing and diagnosing mental health concerns based on current struggles and your historical information. Your concerns about behavior, emotion, personality, and relationships will be treated using Emotionally Focused Therapy, EMDR, and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Trauma concerns will be addressed with an understanding that trauma impacts daily function and interactions. Likewise, early relationships and attachment patterns impact our current relationships. We serve children, adolescents, adults, families, and couples.
(540) 274-1010 View (540) 274-1010
Photo of Michelle Booth, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in 22701, VA
Michelle Booth
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Culpeper, VA 22701  (Online Only)
I specialize in trauma work and can help you with relief from emotions and relationships that are intense or emotionally painful. By working with me you can recover from traumatic childhood memories, combat experiences, and eating disorders; you can experience recovery and live a productive life. I will invest myself in helping you transform the relationship with your life stressors and put an end to nightmares and flashbacks. I am a certified instructor and practitioner of Traumatic Incident Reduction (TIR) and Life Stress Reduction (LSR), which are highly effective and resolve conditions in months instead of years.
I specialize in trauma work and can help you with relief from emotions and relationships that are intense or emotionally painful. By working with me you can recover from traumatic childhood memories, combat experiences, and eating disorders; you can experience recovery and live a productive life. I will invest myself in helping you transform the relationship with your life stressors and put an end to nightmares and flashbacks. I am a certified instructor and practitioner of Traumatic Incident Reduction (TIR) and Life Stress Reduction (LSR), which are highly effective and resolve conditions in months instead of years.
(571) 512-7631 View (571) 512-7631

See more therapy options for 22701

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in 22701

50+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in 22701 who prioritize treating:

92% Anxiety
90% Depression
75% Relationship Issues
75% Trauma and PTSD
73% Self Esteem
73% Stress
61% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

18 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

81% Anthem | Elevance
70% BlueCross and BlueShield
70% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in 22701 see their clients

71% In Person and Online
29% Online Only

Gender breakdown

86% Female
12% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in 22701?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.