Therapists in Cincinnati, OH

View neighborhoods in Cincinnati
Holly Mundon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW , LISWS , CCTP , CDCA
Verified Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45208
Are you having struggles in your job or relationship? Have you been diagnosed with a mental illness and need coping skills as you learn to manage all that it entails? Do you need education, support, and encouragement? I work with grief/loss, trauma, Depression, Anxiety, coping skills & boundaries, relationship and job stressors, life transitions, and general support. I am passionate about helping those who are 'helping professions' and work with health professionals and first responders dealing with secondary trauma. We will work together to set goals for taking the next steps to feel better.
Are you having struggles in your job or relationship? Have you been diagnosed with a mental illness and need coping skills as you learn to manage all that it entails? Do you need education, support, and encouragement? I work with grief/loss, trauma, Depression, Anxiety, coping skills & boundaries, relationship and job stressors, life transitions, and general support. I am passionate about helping those who are 'helping professions' and work with health professionals and first responders dealing with secondary trauma. We will work together to set goals for taking the next steps to feel better.
(513) 540-1212 View (513) 540-1212
Photo of Audrey Shroyer, MSW, LISW-S, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Audrey Shroyer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW-S, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45208
As a therapist who has been in therapy throughout my life, I bring a unique perspective to my work with adolescents, individuals, and families. I offer trauma-informed care that fosters healing and empowers people to move forward. I employ a strengths-based approach and tailor various treatment modalities to fit each client and their unique journey. I want you to leave our sessions equipped with the tools, skills, understanding, and positive beliefs needed for your ongoing journey.
As a therapist who has been in therapy throughout my life, I bring a unique perspective to my work with adolescents, individuals, and families. I offer trauma-informed care that fosters healing and empowers people to move forward. I employ a strengths-based approach and tailor various treatment modalities to fit each client and their unique journey. I want you to leave our sessions equipped with the tools, skills, understanding, and positive beliefs needed for your ongoing journey.
(513) 214-2790 View (513) 214-2790
Photo of Monica Bolton, LPCC, Counselor
Monica Bolton
Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45202  (Online Only)
I am a passionate clinical mental health therapist. I specialize in substance use and dual diagnosis. I have extensive training in crisis intervention and trauma treatment. I enjoy getting to know my clients and their specific needs while developing a good rapport.
I am a passionate clinical mental health therapist. I specialize in substance use and dual diagnosis. I have extensive training in crisis intervention and trauma treatment. I enjoy getting to know my clients and their specific needs while developing a good rapport.
(513) 880-8421 View (513) 880-8421
Photo of Sherrita L Mercer - Daring Well, LLC, MA, LPCC-S
Daring Well, LLC
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MA, LPCC-S
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45230  (Online Only)
Accepting new coaching clients. Quickly uncover the barriers of mindset blocks, stress, and overwhelm that has kept you stuck so you can find more balance, attract more joy, and embrace a healthy mindset. I provide holistic wellness coaching for individuals on a journey to embrace holistic wellness & develop healthy coping skills. As a Wellness Coach, I offer holistic coaching to support growth through mindfulness, stress management, & mind and body practices. My expertise incorporates nearly a decade of experience in Mental Health & Wellness and over two decades in Business & Organizational Leadership and Human Resources.
Accepting new coaching clients. Quickly uncover the barriers of mindset blocks, stress, and overwhelm that has kept you stuck so you can find more balance, attract more joy, and embrace a healthy mindset. I provide holistic wellness coaching for individuals on a journey to embrace holistic wellness & develop healthy coping skills. As a Wellness Coach, I offer holistic coaching to support growth through mindfulness, stress management, & mind and body practices. My expertise incorporates nearly a decade of experience in Mental Health & Wellness and over two decades in Business & Organizational Leadership and Human Resources.
(513) 880-1195 View (513) 880-1195
Photo of Jenna Reynolds, IMFT, ATR-BC, Art Therapist
Jenna Reynolds
Art Therapist, IMFT, ATR-BC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45242
Life can be hard and overwhelming. You might know what you need to do, but not be able to put the pieces together. Or you might not have any idea how to change your current cycles or patterns. I can help. My approach is friendly and conversational. I help clients to build insight, awareness, and coping skills. We work to use those skills to manage life stressors. past and present, more effectively. I have many tools and can focus treatment based on your individual needs. If one approach does not work, we will try another until finding something that helps.
Life can be hard and overwhelming. You might know what you need to do, but not be able to put the pieces together. Or you might not have any idea how to change your current cycles or patterns. I can help. My approach is friendly and conversational. I help clients to build insight, awareness, and coping skills. We work to use those skills to manage life stressors. past and present, more effectively. I have many tools and can focus treatment based on your individual needs. If one approach does not work, we will try another until finding something that helps.
(513) 951-8423 View (513) 951-8423
Photo of Tina Pocock, MSW, LSW, CTP, CAIP, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Tina Pocock
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LSW, CTP, CAIP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45240
Are you struggling in silence? Have you experienced such pain in your life that you feel alone and isolated? Are you fearful to share because you believe no one will understand? Well, you are not alone. If this is how you feel or have felt, there is hope. You don't have to fight alone. There is support for you. There is someone who understands and will provide you with the tools to to walk through this journey. I am available to meet with individuals, couples and families in-person and through teletherapy appointments. I am a Certified Trauma Professional and Certified Anxiety Informed Professional.
Are you struggling in silence? Have you experienced such pain in your life that you feel alone and isolated? Are you fearful to share because you believe no one will understand? Well, you are not alone. If this is how you feel or have felt, there is hope. You don't have to fight alone. There is support for you. There is someone who understands and will provide you with the tools to to walk through this journey. I am available to meet with individuals, couples and families in-person and through teletherapy appointments. I am a Certified Trauma Professional and Certified Anxiety Informed Professional.
(513) 463-5329 View (513) 463-5329
Photo of Kathy Jakucki, MA, LPCC
Kathy Jakucki
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45227
Hi there! Is your child or teen struggling to express or control their emotions? Maybe they experienced a traumatic or life changing event? Or perhaps they're having increased anxiety or feeling depressed? Welcome to my counseling practice, where I strive to create a warm and inviting space for children seeking guidance and support. I understand that as a parent or guardian, you want the very best for your child, and I share in that commitment. Childhood can be a time of joy, discovery, and wonder, but it can also present its own set of challenges and difficulties.
Hi there! Is your child or teen struggling to express or control their emotions? Maybe they experienced a traumatic or life changing event? Or perhaps they're having increased anxiety or feeling depressed? Welcome to my counseling practice, where I strive to create a warm and inviting space for children seeking guidance and support. I understand that as a parent or guardian, you want the very best for your child, and I share in that commitment. Childhood can be a time of joy, discovery, and wonder, but it can also present its own set of challenges and difficulties.
(513) 712-8990 View (513) 712-8990
Photo of Latasha Davis-Crawford, MA, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Latasha Davis-Crawford
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45224
As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I am a firm believer that people deserve to live their lives to the fullest, walk in their truth, and become their best self. Will life present challenges? Absolutely! When life becomes difficult and we are presented with unforeseen circumstances that create challenges, certain individuals are destined to join our journey to help foster the healing process. Will you allow me to be that individual?
As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I am a firm believer that people deserve to live their lives to the fullest, walk in their truth, and become their best self. Will life present challenges? Absolutely! When life becomes difficult and we are presented with unforeseen circumstances that create challenges, certain individuals are destined to join our journey to help foster the healing process. Will you allow me to be that individual?
(513) 540-4242 View (513) 540-4242
Photo of Clinton Symons, LPCC, Counselor
Clinton Symons
Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45207
Clinton B. Symons, LPCC-S Clinton B. Symons is a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor-Supervisor in Ohio who has been practicing since 2009. He has an MA in Counseling. Clinton believes in a holistic approach to treatment. In his free time, Clinton enjoys snow skiing, hiking and travel.
Clinton B. Symons, LPCC-S Clinton B. Symons is a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor-Supervisor in Ohio who has been practicing since 2009. He has an MA in Counseling. Clinton believes in a holistic approach to treatment. In his free time, Clinton enjoys snow skiing, hiking and travel.
(513) 540-2103 View (513) 540-2103
Photo of Lynsey Gallagher, MA, LPCC
Lynsey Gallagher
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45227
I love walking alongside people as they realize their own resilience and strength. I am passionate about working collaboratively with my clients to find the best ways of helping them heal, grow, and thrive. I enjoy working with individuals of all ages on a variety of different topics, such as adjustment, attachment, anxiety, depression, relationship difficulties, and emotional regulation, but I have a great love for working with survivors of trauma, abuse, and those who are experiencing loss.
I love walking alongside people as they realize their own resilience and strength. I am passionate about working collaboratively with my clients to find the best ways of helping them heal, grow, and thrive. I enjoy working with individuals of all ages on a variety of different topics, such as adjustment, attachment, anxiety, depression, relationship difficulties, and emotional regulation, but I have a great love for working with survivors of trauma, abuse, and those who are experiencing loss.
(513) 854-0796 View (513) 854-0796
Photo of Liz Daumann, LISW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Liz Daumann
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45227
My passion lies in helping young minds navigate the complex emotions we all face. I aim to foster a supportive environment where individuals who are experiencing overwhelming feelings of worry, sadness, or hopelessness feel heard, understood, and empowered to make positive changes in their lives. Whether it's navigating academic stress, peer relationships, or life transitions, I am dedicated to providing comprehensive support tailored to each stage of development.
My passion lies in helping young minds navigate the complex emotions we all face. I aim to foster a supportive environment where individuals who are experiencing overwhelming feelings of worry, sadness, or hopelessness feel heard, understood, and empowered to make positive changes in their lives. Whether it's navigating academic stress, peer relationships, or life transitions, I am dedicated to providing comprehensive support tailored to each stage of development.
(513) 613-3118 View (513) 613-3118
Photo of Lisa Cuffari, LPCC, Counselor
Lisa Cuffari
Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45211  (Online Only)
Lisa Marie Cuffari, M.S., LPCC, is a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor (LPCC) with more than 4 years of experience. She has a great rapport with everyone she sees and utilizes many different therapeutic techniques to assist clients in achieving their goals. Lisa specializes in helping children, teens, and adults suffering from ADHD, anxiety, depression, grief, bereavement, trauma, mood disorders, and much more.
Lisa Marie Cuffari, M.S., LPCC, is a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor (LPCC) with more than 4 years of experience. She has a great rapport with everyone she sees and utilizes many different therapeutic techniques to assist clients in achieving their goals. Lisa specializes in helping children, teens, and adults suffering from ADHD, anxiety, depression, grief, bereavement, trauma, mood disorders, and much more.
(513) 654-1531 View (513) 654-1531
Photo of Maggie Botts, MSW, LISW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Maggie Botts
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW
Verified Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45206  (Online Only)
Does your child struggle with anxiety? Are you working to build their confidence or self esteem but still feel stuck? If you have been searching for a therapist to assist your family in working through these challenging times, I encourage you to reach out today. As a child therapist who uses play therapy components in addition to other appropriate modalities, I have successfully helped many families through this time in their lives.
Does your child struggle with anxiety? Are you working to build their confidence or self esteem but still feel stuck? If you have been searching for a therapist to assist your family in working through these challenging times, I encourage you to reach out today. As a child therapist who uses play therapy components in addition to other appropriate modalities, I have successfully helped many families through this time in their lives.
(513) 790-5751 View (513) 790-5751
Photo of Elizabeth Stasser, LPCC-S
Elizabeth Stasser
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LPCC-S
Verified Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45242
Not accepting new clients
Do you as a young adult or teen struggle with anxiety, sadness, lack of hope that affects your day-to-day life? Do you feel overwhelmed that there is no light at the end of the tunnel. Now more than ever teens and young adults are feeling anxious and uncertain about finding their place in life. I offer individual therapy where the first goal is to provide symptom relief from current distress. Once you feel ready, we work together on developing a plan to identify and break your negative patterns and create a blueprint of your goals.
Do you as a young adult or teen struggle with anxiety, sadness, lack of hope that affects your day-to-day life? Do you feel overwhelmed that there is no light at the end of the tunnel. Now more than ever teens and young adults are feeling anxious and uncertain about finding their place in life. I offer individual therapy where the first goal is to provide symptom relief from current distress. Once you feel ready, we work together on developing a plan to identify and break your negative patterns and create a blueprint of your goals.
(513) 838-3365 View (513) 838-3365
Photo of Joie de Bostock, LPCC-S, LICDC, ATR-BC, REAT, Counselor
Joie de Bostock
Counselor, LPCC-S, LICDC, ATR-BC, REAT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45202  (Online Only)
Life is hard. Full stop. Sometimes we need help - an extended ear or friendly face to continue to deal with our daily stressors or big life changes. Taking the first step to seeking help takes courage. Let’s take a moment to celebrate this first achievement toward a happier, healthier you! We are often hardest on ourselves, and I believe that focusing inward and allowing ourselves grace and kindness can go a long way.
Life is hard. Full stop. Sometimes we need help - an extended ear or friendly face to continue to deal with our daily stressors or big life changes. Taking the first step to seeking help takes courage. Let’s take a moment to celebrate this first achievement toward a happier, healthier you! We are often hardest on ourselves, and I believe that focusing inward and allowing ourselves grace and kindness can go a long way.
(513) 845-1656 View (513) 845-1656
Photo of Adam Bowman, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Adam Bowman
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45242
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) in the state of Ohio. I obtained my M.A. in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from Wheaton College in Illinois. I have experience working in a variety of clinical settings such as intensive outpatient (IOP) and partial hospitalization (PHP) programs, a halfway house for males with substance abuse related charges, an undergraduate counseling center, and private practice. I have experience working in the areas of depression, developmental trauma, spirituality, addiction, sexually compulsive behavior, grief and loss, and anxiety.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) in the state of Ohio. I obtained my M.A. in Clinical Mental Health Counseling from Wheaton College in Illinois. I have experience working in a variety of clinical settings such as intensive outpatient (IOP) and partial hospitalization (PHP) programs, a halfway house for males with substance abuse related charges, an undergraduate counseling center, and private practice. I have experience working in the areas of depression, developmental trauma, spirituality, addiction, sexually compulsive behavior, grief and loss, and anxiety.
(513) 654-1882 View (513) 654-1882
Photo of Kristy Martell, LPCC-S, LICDC, CS
Kristy Martell
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LPCC-S, LICDC, CS
Verified Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45202  (Online Only)
Hello, I'm Kristy Have you felt anxious or overwhelmed regarding emotions, relationships or physical health? Is it difficult to find peace amidst your daily schedule? Is it difficult to be kind to yourself while you are caring for others? I help clients communicate effectively and find balance while setting boundaries within relationships to decrease stress. Together, we can identify what's not working and develop a plan to develop internal motivation for choosing healthier responses.
Hello, I'm Kristy Have you felt anxious or overwhelmed regarding emotions, relationships or physical health? Is it difficult to find peace amidst your daily schedule? Is it difficult to be kind to yourself while you are caring for others? I help clients communicate effectively and find balance while setting boundaries within relationships to decrease stress. Together, we can identify what's not working and develop a plan to develop internal motivation for choosing healthier responses.
(513) 654-6850 View (513) 654-6850
Photo of Ben Dickstein, PhD, Psychologist
Ben Dickstein
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45202
Not accepting new clients
Hello! I'm Ben Dickstein, a psychologist in Downtown Cincinnati. I believe that disruptions in mental health make every aspect of our lives harder, and I'm dedicated to getting my clients relief in a nonjudgmental space that is tailored to them. If you're looking for the right therapeutic fit, I invite you to schedule a free consultation so that we can make introductions (a scheduling link is available on my website). I use the best, evidence-based treatments and believe that humor and self-disclosure serve important roles in therapy. I love to challenge my clients to push past their comfort zones and achieve their treatment goals.
Hello! I'm Ben Dickstein, a psychologist in Downtown Cincinnati. I believe that disruptions in mental health make every aspect of our lives harder, and I'm dedicated to getting my clients relief in a nonjudgmental space that is tailored to them. If you're looking for the right therapeutic fit, I invite you to schedule a free consultation so that we can make introductions (a scheduling link is available on my website). I use the best, evidence-based treatments and believe that humor and self-disclosure serve important roles in therapy. I love to challenge my clients to push past their comfort zones and achieve their treatment goals.
(513) 434-6929 View (513) 434-6929
Photo of Dr. Susannah Coaston, EdD, LPCC-S, CWC
Dr. Susannah Coaston
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, EdD, LPCC-S, CWC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Cincinnati, OH 45227
Do you struggle to live up to expectations – yours or others’? Do concerns you’d normally handle without much trouble now have you feeling like you’re in over your head? Have you lost touch with your sense of self, and found you have no idea what you want out of life anymore? Such experiences can be discouraging and exhausting, but you don’t have to navigate them on your own. I would like to help you reconnect to the person you want to be. I can’t promise to eliminate your stress, but I can help you tap into your inner strength, quiet your self-critical voice, and return to living life on your terms.
Do you struggle to live up to expectations – yours or others’? Do concerns you’d normally handle without much trouble now have you feeling like you’re in over your head? Have you lost touch with your sense of self, and found you have no idea what you want out of life anymore? Such experiences can be discouraging and exhausting, but you don’t have to navigate them on your own. I would like to help you reconnect to the person you want to be. I can’t promise to eliminate your stress, but I can help you tap into your inner strength, quiet your self-critical voice, and return to living life on your terms.
(513) 654-2551 View (513) 654-2551
Photo of Anthony J Barone, EdD, Psychologist
Anthony J Barone
Psychologist, EdD
Verified Verified
Cincinnati, OH 45208
Because of life's ever-present stresses and uncertainties, all of us must face a variety of changes and adjustments as we move through life. Sometimes this can result in personal difficulties that cannot be resolved alone. Intervention may be needed to help find solutions and avoid future problems. I am a clinical psychologist trained to address many developmental and life-adjustment issues for a broad spectrum of individuals from early childhood through adolescence, adulthood and later life. My training is designed to help individuals resolve their emotional/social conflicts, and cope more successfully with the demands of the world.
Because of life's ever-present stresses and uncertainties, all of us must face a variety of changes and adjustments as we move through life. Sometimes this can result in personal difficulties that cannot be resolved alone. Intervention may be needed to help find solutions and avoid future problems. I am a clinical psychologist trained to address many developmental and life-adjustment issues for a broad spectrum of individuals from early childhood through adolescence, adulthood and later life. My training is designed to help individuals resolve their emotional/social conflicts, and cope more successfully with the demands of the world.
(513) 348-1410 View (513) 348-1410

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Cincinnati, OH

1,000+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in Cincinnati, OH who prioritize treating:

90% Anxiety
87% Depression
72% Trauma and PTSD
72% Self Esteem
67% Relationship Issues
67% Coping Skills
61% Stress

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

77% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
76% Aetna
66% Optum

How Therapists in Cincinnati, OH see their clients

64% In Person and Online
36% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
19% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Cincinnati?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.