Therapists in Van Der Stel

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Photo of Cindy Lee Karen Visagie in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Cindy Lee Karen Visagie
PhD
Kuils River 7580
Welcome, I’m Cindy-Lee. Experience revealed just how daunting the therapeutic journey can be for most individuals. Therefore I am committed to facilitate your healing and growth in a safe space. Although pastoral counseling is my sweet spot, I lean towards Holistic approach of mind, body and spirit. My integrative approach includes art as a modality. Ultimately, I employ interventions that suit your needs. I am passionate about working with marginalized communities. I am also an affiliate to various Wellness Companies.I provide online counseling. Contact me for a free consultation to ascertain if I'm your best fit.
Welcome, I’m Cindy-Lee. Experience revealed just how daunting the therapeutic journey can be for most individuals. Therefore I am committed to facilitate your healing and growth in a safe space. Although pastoral counseling is my sweet spot, I lean towards Holistic approach of mind, body and spirit. My integrative approach includes art as a modality. Ultimately, I employ interventions that suit your needs. I am passionate about working with marginalized communities. I am also an affiliate to various Wellness Companies.I provide online counseling. Contact me for a free consultation to ascertain if I'm your best fit.
087 250 0914 x41 View 087 250 0914 x41
Photo of Nazanin Madadi-Coetzee. Meet Me On Skype, Registered Counsellor in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Nazanin Madadi-Coetzee. Meet Me On Skype
Registered Counsellor, MA, HPCSA - Counsellor
Verified
Stellenbosch 7599
Changing, healing, and transforming one to become strong, fulfilled, and content is my passion. With more than a decade of experience and serving thousands of clients from around the globe and South Africa, I am dedicated to help you to bring healing to your personal issues and relationship matters. My focus is in the field of marriage, relationship problems, helping clients to heal trauma, anxiety, depression and suppressed anger, addiction, codependency, and grief therapy. I love to teach self mastery.
Changing, healing, and transforming one to become strong, fulfilled, and content is my passion. With more than a decade of experience and serving thousands of clients from around the globe and South Africa, I am dedicated to help you to bring healing to your personal issues and relationship matters. My focus is in the field of marriage, relationship problems, helping clients to heal trauma, anxiety, depression and suppressed anger, addiction, codependency, and grief therapy. I love to teach self mastery.
087 250 2042 x90 View 087 250 2042 x90
Photo of Build to Strength, Registered Counsellor in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Build to Strength
Registered Counsellor, HPCSA - Counsellor
Verified
1 Endorsed
Kuils River 7579
I am an individual, like any other, who has experienced many challenges in my life. These experiences have built a desire in me to help and coach others through life’s trauma and stress. ​ I focus on inner healing, self-growth, identity and success. ​
I am an individual, like any other, who has experienced many challenges in my life. These experiences have built a desire in me to help and coach others through life’s trauma and stress. ​ I focus on inner healing, self-growth, identity and success. ​
087 250 0914 x70 View 087 250 0914 x70
Photo of Malissa Mariens, Registered Counsellor in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Malissa Mariens
Registered Counsellor, HPCSA - Counsellor
Verified
Kuils River 7580  (Online Only)
Hi Psychology Today community, I am Malissa and I am a Registered Counsellor. I have a deep passion for mental health and providing skills and tools to clients to improve their self-awareness, their intrapersonal skills and regulating their emotions and in return, enriching their understanding of themselves, how they interact with others and how they effectively manage their daily stressors and emotional turmoil. I have over 5 years of experience in the counselling and mental health field whereby I provide individual counselling, group counselling and psycho-educational workshops to adults and adolescents.
Hi Psychology Today community, I am Malissa and I am a Registered Counsellor. I have a deep passion for mental health and providing skills and tools to clients to improve their self-awareness, their intrapersonal skills and regulating their emotions and in return, enriching their understanding of themselves, how they interact with others and how they effectively manage their daily stressors and emotional turmoil. I have over 5 years of experience in the counselling and mental health field whereby I provide individual counselling, group counselling and psycho-educational workshops to adults and adolescents.
087 250 0049 x67 View 087 250 0049 x67
Photo of Kryska Jeno Marquard, Psychologist in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Kryska Jeno Marquard
Psychologist, MA, HPCSA - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Stellenbosch 7600
Waitlist for new clients
Taking the first step in your mental health is a brave venture. Finding the right therapist for this process is important. Therapeutic relationships should provide you with a sense of safety to explore the most vulnerable parts of you. In the words of Brené Brown "Owning our story can be hard but not nearly as difficult as spending our lives running from it. Embracing our vulnerabilities is risky but not nearly as dangerous as giving up on love and belonging and joy—the experiences that make us the most vulnerable. Only when we are brave enough to explore the darkness will we discover the infinite power of our light."
Taking the first step in your mental health is a brave venture. Finding the right therapist for this process is important. Therapeutic relationships should provide you with a sense of safety to explore the most vulnerable parts of you. In the words of Brené Brown "Owning our story can be hard but not nearly as difficult as spending our lives running from it. Embracing our vulnerabilities is risky but not nearly as dangerous as giving up on love and belonging and joy—the experiences that make us the most vulnerable. Only when we are brave enough to explore the darkness will we discover the infinite power of our light."
087 250 0592 x43 View 087 250 0592 x43
Photo of Alexander Armenis, Psychologist in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Alexander Armenis
Psychologist, MA, HPCSA - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Stellenbosch 7600
Operating from Stellenbosch, nestled in the heart of the historic Cape Winelands, I am an experienced clinical psychologist qualified to diagnose and treat a host of mental health issues. Passionate about working with adolescents, adults, couples and families; services range from managing day-to-day life stresses to treating severe mental health challenges such as anxiety and depression. My focus is on working with clients in a way that best suits their unique needs. I am dedicated to providing client-centered interventions within a warm and tranquil setting.
Operating from Stellenbosch, nestled in the heart of the historic Cape Winelands, I am an experienced clinical psychologist qualified to diagnose and treat a host of mental health issues. Passionate about working with adolescents, adults, couples and families; services range from managing day-to-day life stresses to treating severe mental health challenges such as anxiety and depression. My focus is on working with clients in a way that best suits their unique needs. I am dedicated to providing client-centered interventions within a warm and tranquil setting.
087 250 0162 x80 View 087 250 0162 x80
Photo of Hannelie L Spies, Psychologist in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Hannelie L Spies
Psychologist, MPsych, HPCSA - Ed. Psych.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Stellenbosch 7600
There are times in life when we feel stuck and there seems to be no way forward. You might struggle to concentrate, feel anxious and stressed all the time, lie awake at night, and get angry for no apparent reason. You might also experiences more severe symptoms like phobias, panic attacks, social anxiety, depression, PTSD, substance abuse, self harm, eating disorders etc. The reason might not be apparent, but sometimes it might relate back to unresolved traumatic experiences you've had growing up like bullying, sexual abuse or rape, family violence, sibling rivalry, parents divorce, death of a loved one.
There are times in life when we feel stuck and there seems to be no way forward. You might struggle to concentrate, feel anxious and stressed all the time, lie awake at night, and get angry for no apparent reason. You might also experiences more severe symptoms like phobias, panic attacks, social anxiety, depression, PTSD, substance abuse, self harm, eating disorders etc. The reason might not be apparent, but sometimes it might relate back to unresolved traumatic experiences you've had growing up like bullying, sexual abuse or rape, family violence, sibling rivalry, parents divorce, death of a loved one.
087 250 0442 x38 View 087 250 0442 x38
Photo of Heloise Breytenbach-Uys, Psychologist in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Heloise Breytenbach-Uys
Psychologist, MA, HPCSA - Couns. Psych.
Verified
Somerset West 7130
I believe in authenticity, compassion and self love. We are holistic beings - sensing, feeling, thinking and doing. We strive to have a meaningful relationship with ourselves, our significant others, our community as well as our environment. Life is a journey, not a race. Sometimes life is hard, but we have the capacity to heal, change and develop.
I believe in authenticity, compassion and self love. We are holistic beings - sensing, feeling, thinking and doing. We strive to have a meaningful relationship with ourselves, our significant others, our community as well as our environment. Life is a journey, not a race. Sometimes life is hard, but we have the capacity to heal, change and develop.
087 250 0442 x84 View 087 250 0442 x84
Photo of Philip Collier in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Philip Collier
MA
1 Endorsed
Somerset West 7130
I specialise in helping adults with ADHD. I have a master’s degree in psychology, and I have ADHD myself. I know how pervasive ADHD can be, affecting every aspect of life, no matter how big or small. As a therapist and coach, I draw on my expertise in how the brain is wired and on my own personal journey with ADHD to help clients like you understand how the ADHD brain works and how it affects you. Together, we'll address the thoughts and feelings, shaped by our unique lived experiences with ADHD, that may be holding you back. We'll focus on developing concrete and practical strategies to effectively manage ADHD in your daily life.
I specialise in helping adults with ADHD. I have a master’s degree in psychology, and I have ADHD myself. I know how pervasive ADHD can be, affecting every aspect of life, no matter how big or small. As a therapist and coach, I draw on my expertise in how the brain is wired and on my own personal journey with ADHD to help clients like you understand how the ADHD brain works and how it affects you. Together, we'll address the thoughts and feelings, shaped by our unique lived experiences with ADHD, that may be holding you back. We'll focus on developing concrete and practical strategies to effectively manage ADHD in your daily life.
087 250 0592 x48 View 087 250 0592 x48
Photo of Daniël Luttig, Psychologist in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Daniël Luttig
Psychologist, MPsych, HPCSA - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Kuils River 7579
I am a Clinical Psychologist based in the Northern Suburbs of Cape Town. I provide individual therapy to adults. I am fluent in Afrikaans & English.
I am a Clinical Psychologist based in the Northern Suburbs of Cape Town. I provide individual therapy to adults. I am fluent in Afrikaans & English.
087 250 2148 x77 View 087 250 2148 x77
Photo of Safe Space Therapy- Ms Emma Gibbons , Social Worker in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Safe Space Therapy- Ms Emma Gibbons
Social Worker, MA
Verified
Stellenbosch 7600
In a perfect world, everyone would be receiving professional mental health counselling. I have worked with individuals, families and couples from rural to urban communities. I want to provide an non judgmental and convenient environment for you to share your darkest thoughts and concerns. I am the vehicle of change, that brings you to your full potential.
In a perfect world, everyone would be receiving professional mental health counselling. I have worked with individuals, families and couples from rural to urban communities. I want to provide an non judgmental and convenient environment for you to share your darkest thoughts and concerns. I am the vehicle of change, that brings you to your full potential.
087 250 2748 x58 View 087 250 2748 x58
Photo of Ashley Wendy Lourens, General Counsellor in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Ashley Wendy Lourens
General Counsellor
Verified
Stellenbosch 7600
A particular area of interest for me is the effects of the hormonal and reproductive system on women’s mental health. Additionally, I have extensive experience with clients experiencing grief, depression, relationship difficulties, burnout, anxiety and trauma. I also have experience assisting clients to navigate and develop in the workplace. I prefer for my clients and me to focus on healing holistically. This means simultaneously addressing personal, relational and environmental (past/present) factors rather than focusing on a specific label.
A particular area of interest for me is the effects of the hormonal and reproductive system on women’s mental health. Additionally, I have extensive experience with clients experiencing grief, depression, relationship difficulties, burnout, anxiety and trauma. I also have experience assisting clients to navigate and develop in the workplace. I prefer for my clients and me to focus on healing holistically. This means simultaneously addressing personal, relational and environmental (past/present) factors rather than focusing on a specific label.
087 250 2219 x46 View 087 250 2219 x46
Photo of JustLive Coaching & Counselling-JustLive (Pty) Ltd, General Counsellor in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
JustLive Coaching & Counselling-JustLive (Pty) Ltd
General Counsellor, MPsych, ASCHP Specialist Wellness Counsellor
Verified
Stellenbosch 7600  (Online Only)
I am a Mental Health Counsellor & Life Coach - outgoing, flamboyant & caring describes some of my attributes. I’m passionate about people, their development, education and training, life coaching, empowerment, life enrichment & motivation. Additional to loving people, I love art, & simplicity & adore animals & nature. I balance my life by running & hiking, being a book enthusiast, obsessed nature lover, & passionate about my family.
I am a Mental Health Counsellor & Life Coach - outgoing, flamboyant & caring describes some of my attributes. I’m passionate about people, their development, education and training, life coaching, empowerment, life enrichment & motivation. Additional to loving people, I love art, & simplicity & adore animals & nature. I balance my life by running & hiking, being a book enthusiast, obsessed nature lover, & passionate about my family.
087 250 2293 x38 View 087 250 2293 x38
Photo of Juanita Myburgh, Registered Counsellor in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Juanita Myburgh
Registered Counsellor, HPCSA - Counsellor
Verified
2 Endorsed
Kuils River 7579
You deserve to live a life that leaves you excited to wake up every morning. Life is too short to let trauma control you, unhealthy relationships or be anxious/angry all the time. I want you to be free from emotional pain, able to deal with life's unpredictability and to find meaning and purpose in all areas of your life. I want to help you through whatever challenges you face, while enjoying the process as much as possible. Therapy does not always need to be painful. My ideal client is focused upon personal growth and healing. Starting therapy can be intimidating, but I hope you will take a moment to call and see how I can help.
You deserve to live a life that leaves you excited to wake up every morning. Life is too short to let trauma control you, unhealthy relationships or be anxious/angry all the time. I want you to be free from emotional pain, able to deal with life's unpredictability and to find meaning and purpose in all areas of your life. I want to help you through whatever challenges you face, while enjoying the process as much as possible. Therapy does not always need to be painful. My ideal client is focused upon personal growth and healing. Starting therapy can be intimidating, but I hope you will take a moment to call and see how I can help.
087 250 0902 x49 View 087 250 0902 x49
Photo of Purim Wellness Counselling, General Counsellor in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Purim Wellness Counselling
General Counsellor, BSocSci Hons
Verified
Strand 7140
With a passion for promoting holistic well-being, I specialize in providing guidance and support for individuals and families in their journey towards optimal wellbeing and vitality. My approach encompasses a wide range of wellness practices, including mindfulness, stress management, and holistic care for individuals, parents and elderly family members. I help individuals find inner peace and balance through mindfulness techniques.
With a passion for promoting holistic well-being, I specialize in providing guidance and support for individuals and families in their journey towards optimal wellbeing and vitality. My approach encompasses a wide range of wellness practices, including mindfulness, stress management, and holistic care for individuals, parents and elderly family members. I help individuals find inner peace and balance through mindfulness techniques.
087 250 2464 x67 View 087 250 2464 x67
Photo of Ruan Swanepoel | Me Therapy, General Counsellor in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Ruan Swanepoel | Me Therapy
General Counsellor
Stellenbosch 7600
Strategic business and career coaching & purposeful life coaching is my passion. Ambitious and career orientated professionals will benefit from the coaching process as it allows you to challenge your critical reasoning, leadership and strategic thinking skills.
Strategic business and career coaching & purposeful life coaching is my passion. Ambitious and career orientated professionals will benefit from the coaching process as it allows you to challenge your critical reasoning, leadership and strategic thinking skills.
078 485 4482 View 078 485 4482
Photo of Siphelele Msawenkosi Nguse, Psychologist in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Siphelele Msawenkosi Nguse
Psychologist, MSocSci, HPCSA - Clin. Psych.
Verified
1 Endorsed
Stellenbosch 7599
I am a Clinical Psychologist focusing on depression, anxiety, trauma, stress-related difficulties, suicidality, substance use and addiction, interpersonal and relational difficulties, and behavioural challenges. I also conduct forensic psychology assessments for court-related matters and employee wellness interventions. I conduct psychotherapy with individuals and groups from 11 years old, adults and the elderly. I work from a psychodynamic perspective to develop insight, optimize personal growth and healing. I am competent in different modalities; therefore, therapy is tailored according to your needs. This is your space!
I am a Clinical Psychologist focusing on depression, anxiety, trauma, stress-related difficulties, suicidality, substance use and addiction, interpersonal and relational difficulties, and behavioural challenges. I also conduct forensic psychology assessments for court-related matters and employee wellness interventions. I conduct psychotherapy with individuals and groups from 11 years old, adults and the elderly. I work from a psychodynamic perspective to develop insight, optimize personal growth and healing. I am competent in different modalities; therefore, therapy is tailored according to your needs. This is your space!
087 250 2748 x16 View 087 250 2748 x16
Photo of Alison Le Vieux, Registered Counsellor in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Alison Le Vieux
Registered Counsellor, BSocSci Hons, HPCSA - Counsellor
Verified
1 Endorsed
Stellenbosch 7600
Welcome! Whatever has led you here, please know that I would be honoured to hear and hold your story, to talk with you, and to share tools and techniques to help you move forward and create the life that is in your heart. We all have moments in our lives where we find ourselves just not coping; that feeling of constantly treading water with no end in sight; struggling with overwhelm, burnout, stress, fatigue, anger, or anxiety, doubting ourselves and never feeling good enough; being in conflict with others or feeling alone. Perhaps you have gone through a traumatic situation or major life transition?
Welcome! Whatever has led you here, please know that I would be honoured to hear and hold your story, to talk with you, and to share tools and techniques to help you move forward and create the life that is in your heart. We all have moments in our lives where we find ourselves just not coping; that feeling of constantly treading water with no end in sight; struggling with overwhelm, burnout, stress, fatigue, anger, or anxiety, doubting ourselves and never feeling good enough; being in conflict with others or feeling alone. Perhaps you have gone through a traumatic situation or major life transition?
087 250 2910 x87 View 087 250 2910 x87
Photo of Gerda Kriel, Psychologist in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Gerda Kriel
Psychologist, MA, HPCSA - Clin. Psych.
Verified
Somerset West 7130
Gerda Kriel is a Clinical Psychologist with experience in both private and public sector. She has a special interest in working with infant and maternal mental health challenges, but also sees clients who struggle with depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, PTSD or phase-of-life-challenges. She views therapy as a collaborative partnership in which both therapist and client join hands in developing the changes the client seeks. Her approach is informed by Narrative therapy, but she also works in more structured modalities such as Eye movement integration and Resource therapy for clients with trauma.
Gerda Kriel is a Clinical Psychologist with experience in both private and public sector. She has a special interest in working with infant and maternal mental health challenges, but also sees clients who struggle with depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety, PTSD or phase-of-life-challenges. She views therapy as a collaborative partnership in which both therapist and client join hands in developing the changes the client seeks. Her approach is informed by Narrative therapy, but she also works in more structured modalities such as Eye movement integration and Resource therapy for clients with trauma.
087 250 0914 x98 View 087 250 0914 x98
Photo of Michelle Temmers Counselling Services, General Counsellor in Van Der Stel, Western Cape
Michelle Temmers Counselling Services
General Counsellor
Kuils River 7580
The mission of MT Counselling Services is to reach families and children who do not necessarily have easy and affordable access to mental health support services. The services I provide are individually tailored to the specific need of the client whilst keeping the service cost-effective. The services I provide include the below Behavioural Assessments Behavioural Plans (Teachers and Parents) Leadership workshops (Grades 6-7 , Grades 10-12) Developmental Delays Assessment and Report Conflict Mediation Teaching mindfulness Family Sessions Trauma Counselling Teaching Coping Strategies Academic Support Girls and Boys Empowerment
The mission of MT Counselling Services is to reach families and children who do not necessarily have easy and affordable access to mental health support services. The services I provide are individually tailored to the specific need of the client whilst keeping the service cost-effective. The services I provide include the below Behavioural Assessments Behavioural Plans (Teachers and Parents) Leadership workshops (Grades 6-7 , Grades 10-12) Developmental Delays Assessment and Report Conflict Mediation Teaching mindfulness Family Sessions Trauma Counselling Teaching Coping Strategies Academic Support Girls and Boys Empowerment
087 250 2042 x25 View 087 250 2042 x25

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Van Der Stel

< 10

Counsellors in Van Der Stel who prioritize treating:

How Counsellors in Van Der Stel see their clients

2% Online Only
1% In Person and Online

FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Van Der Stel?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Psychologists listed in the directory are registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). The majority of General Counsellors featured in the directory align themselves with reputable professional bodies, particularly the Association for Supportive Counsellors and Holistic Practitioners. All Registered Counsellors listed must be registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). Social Workers listed in the directory must be registered with the South African Council for Social Service Professionals.

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for general counsellors in South Africa, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Psychologists, counsellors and social workers can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in South Africa.

Psychologists have five years training in psychology, have completed an internship over 12 months, and have completed the National Examination of the Professional Board for Psychology. They must be registered with Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). Registered Counsellors must have at least four years of study at a university or college, such as the Bachelor of Psychology and have completed the National Examination of the Professional Board for Psychology. General counsellors, such as Supportive Counsellors, Holistic Counsellors, and Wellness Counsellors, registered with the ASCHP must possess at least an NQF Level 4 qualification. Social Workers must possess a Bachelor of Social Work and must have completed an approved internship in the social service sector.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in South Africa could be between R600 and R1,500. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are registered with the HPCSA and professional organisations such as PsySSA or the ASCHP are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client, or as required by law, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.