Therapists in Blairgowrie

Photo of Sybrand Hagan, Psychologist in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Sybrand Hagan
Psychologist, MA, HPCSA - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
My name is Sybrand Hagan. I am a clinical psychologist based in Blairgowrie, Johannesburg. I offer psychotherapy for adolescents and adults who experience a range of psychological difficulties. I believe that therapy is a collaborative process and I tailor my therapeutic approach to suit the specific needs of each person. My aim is to offer a safe and non-judgemental space where you are able to explore the difficulties in your life, whether these are difficulties that you are currently facing or a pattern in your thoughts and behaviours that have caused a lack of satisfaction in your life.
My name is Sybrand Hagan. I am a clinical psychologist based in Blairgowrie, Johannesburg. I offer psychotherapy for adolescents and adults who experience a range of psychological difficulties. I believe that therapy is a collaborative process and I tailor my therapeutic approach to suit the specific needs of each person. My aim is to offer a safe and non-judgemental space where you are able to explore the difficulties in your life, whether these are difficulties that you are currently facing or a pattern in your thoughts and behaviours that have caused a lack of satisfaction in your life.
087 250 0914 x71 View 087 250 0914 x71
Photo of Jacqui Seiler, Social Worker in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Jacqui Seiler
Social Worker
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
Hi, My name is Jacqui. I came upon the decision of going into Social Work and Play Therapy in 2018. What guided me to this decision was the realization that I had a passion for helping people and for working with children. I think my personality is what makes me able to communicate so easily with children. I am a person who is fun, loving and caring and if a phrase could describe me it would be that “I am a child at heart”. What I offer here at Pondering Possibilities is a service that will help you and your child navigate the stressors of life, through activities focused on therapy and play. Look forward to meeting you soon.
Hi, My name is Jacqui. I came upon the decision of going into Social Work and Play Therapy in 2018. What guided me to this decision was the realization that I had a passion for helping people and for working with children. I think my personality is what makes me able to communicate so easily with children. I am a person who is fun, loving and caring and if a phrase could describe me it would be that “I am a child at heart”. What I offer here at Pondering Possibilities is a service that will help you and your child navigate the stressors of life, through activities focused on therapy and play. Look forward to meeting you soon.
087 250 2293 x82 View 087 250 2293 x82
Photo of daline lagesse, Psychologist in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
daline lagesse
Psychologist, MA, HPCSA - Ed. Psych.
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
The world is changing. We all have pivotal moments in our lives as part of our changing world. In these moments we are surrounded by an infinite number of possibilities. Most of us strive to live happy and peaceful lives, but pivotal moments are full of mental and emotional issues that can knock us off balance and keep us stuck or in a place of suffering.
The world is changing. We all have pivotal moments in our lives as part of our changing world. In these moments we are surrounded by an infinite number of possibilities. Most of us strive to live happy and peaceful lives, but pivotal moments are full of mental and emotional issues that can knock us off balance and keep us stuck or in a place of suffering.
087 250 2389 x49 View 087 250 2389 x49
Photo of Gail P Ramsey, Registered Counsellor in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Gail P Ramsey
Registered Counsellor, HPCSA - Counsellor
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
Is Energy Psychology / Medicine for you ?! The Journey to being your True Self. I am registered with the Health Professions Council (HPCSA) as a general counsellor, and am able to offer across-the-board types of counselling, from trauma to relationships and career, to debt and budget counselling, to health and nutrition. Soul Counselling is not about belonging or having any particular religion; it is about the intrinsic need in all human beings to find purpose and meaning in their life.
Is Energy Psychology / Medicine for you ?! The Journey to being your True Self. I am registered with the Health Professions Council (HPCSA) as a general counsellor, and am able to offer across-the-board types of counselling, from trauma to relationships and career, to debt and budget counselling, to health and nutrition. Soul Counselling is not about belonging or having any particular religion; it is about the intrinsic need in all human beings to find purpose and meaning in their life.
087 250 0160 x88 View 087 250 0160 x88
Photo of Geordie M Pilkington, Psychologist in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Geordie M Pilkington
Psychologist, MSc, HPCSA - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
I work with adults and adolescents who may be feeling very sad and want to make some changes in their lives. I have many years of experience working with people who are suffering from substance abuse disorders and wish to work on their emotional and psychological health, to boost their chances of sobriety. I also work with couples wishing to improve their relationship. I am an LGBTQ-friendly practitioner.
I work with adults and adolescents who may be feeling very sad and want to make some changes in their lives. I have many years of experience working with people who are suffering from substance abuse disorders and wish to work on their emotional and psychological health, to boost their chances of sobriety. I also work with couples wishing to improve their relationship. I am an LGBTQ-friendly practitioner.
087 250 0442 x52 View 087 250 0442 x52
Photo of Emma Lomberg, Psychologist in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Emma Lomberg
Psychologist, MSocSci, HPCSA - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
I am an English-speaking Counselling psychologist. I offer in-person and online therapy and assessment services for children, adolescents, adults and couples. I work from an integrative approach in which I use a variety of therapy approaches to best meet your individual needs. I aim to ensure that you feel safe and heard.
I am an English-speaking Counselling psychologist. I offer in-person and online therapy and assessment services for children, adolescents, adults and couples. I work from an integrative approach in which I use a variety of therapy approaches to best meet your individual needs. I aim to ensure that you feel safe and heard.
087 250 0049 x95 View 087 250 0049 x95
Photo of Dirk Schreuder, Registered Counsellor in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Dirk Schreuder
Registered Counsellor, HPCSA - Counsellor
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
Dirk is a registered counsellor, parent and engineer with a strong background in everyday counselling, helping you to disentangle yourself from the complexities of life, simplifying your lifestyle and claiming back your uniqueness and individuality. Experienced family practitioner assisting with relationship and parenting issues and everyday mental health struggles such as stress, anxiety, loss and depression. Grounded in pastoral/spiritual and mindfulness-based practices. Professional engineer, industry consultant, consummate with many aspects of life, career and business coaching.
Dirk is a registered counsellor, parent and engineer with a strong background in everyday counselling, helping you to disentangle yourself from the complexities of life, simplifying your lifestyle and claiming back your uniqueness and individuality. Experienced family practitioner assisting with relationship and parenting issues and everyday mental health struggles such as stress, anxiety, loss and depression. Grounded in pastoral/spiritual and mindfulness-based practices. Professional engineer, industry consultant, consummate with many aspects of life, career and business coaching.
087 250 2962 x74 View 087 250 2962 x74
Photo of Deanne Pickworth, Registered Counsellor in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Deanne Pickworth
Registered Counsellor, BSocSci Hons, HPCSA - Counsellor
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
I am a 'Solution Focused' Counsellor integrating a variety of evidence-based psychological techniques such as Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) to work with children (age 10 up), teenagers, adults, couples and families. I am particularly passionate about empowering teenagers and young adults to develop healthy coping skills and self-confidence to better manage challenging life situations such as bullying, toxic relationships, parental divorce or substance abuse. I enjoy interacting with diversity among people and aim to ensure that my clients feel safe, understood and supported throughout the counselling process.
I am a 'Solution Focused' Counsellor integrating a variety of evidence-based psychological techniques such as Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) to work with children (age 10 up), teenagers, adults, couples and families. I am particularly passionate about empowering teenagers and young adults to develop healthy coping skills and self-confidence to better manage challenging life situations such as bullying, toxic relationships, parental divorce or substance abuse. I enjoy interacting with diversity among people and aim to ensure that my clients feel safe, understood and supported throughout the counselling process.
087 250 2389 x11 View 087 250 2389 x11
Photo of Sharon Tsarafi, Psychologist in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Sharon Tsarafi
Psychologist, MA, HPCSA - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
We all struggle to cope with the challenges of life from time to time and starting therapy can offer you a grounded space of support. I am a Clinical Psychologist and offer a nurturing and private space, for you to unpack your thoughts and gain clarity. Psychotherapy is an ideal platform to explore your pain, give words to unspoken trauma and help you manage when you feel overwhelmed, down or anxious. My way of working lends itself better to medium or longer-term psychotherapy as I enjoy doing depth work with my patients. This includes exploring how our earliest experiences influence how we see oursehow we connect with others.
We all struggle to cope with the challenges of life from time to time and starting therapy can offer you a grounded space of support. I am a Clinical Psychologist and offer a nurturing and private space, for you to unpack your thoughts and gain clarity. Psychotherapy is an ideal platform to explore your pain, give words to unspoken trauma and help you manage when you feel overwhelmed, down or anxious. My way of working lends itself better to medium or longer-term psychotherapy as I enjoy doing depth work with my patients. This includes exploring how our earliest experiences influence how we see oursehow we connect with others.
087 250 2389 x36 View 087 250 2389 x36
Photo of Daniele Broadley, Psychologist in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Daniele Broadley
Psychologist, MA, HPCSA - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
I am a warm, amiable and down to earth psychologist based in Linden (Randburg) and online. While I work with adults of various ages and with a range of difficulties, I find it particularly rewarding to assist young adults (20s and 30s) grappling with depression, anxiety and childhood trauma. I also have an interest in helping clients with relationship difficulties, and working with major life changes, losses or events.
I am a warm, amiable and down to earth psychologist based in Linden (Randburg) and online. While I work with adults of various ages and with a range of difficulties, I find it particularly rewarding to assist young adults (20s and 30s) grappling with depression, anxiety and childhood trauma. I also have an interest in helping clients with relationship difficulties, and working with major life changes, losses or events.
087 250 2837 x98 View 087 250 2837 x98
Photo of TWS Wellness Hub, General Counsellor in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
TWS Wellness Hub
General Counsellor, BSocSci Hons, ASCHP Wellness Counsellor
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
As a counselor, my mission is to guide individuals who are seeking more fulfillment in life, empowering them to navigate the delicate balance between work, personal aspirations, and self-discovery. I specialize in supporting clients who feel a stirring desire for change, recognizing that they are capable of achieving more and yearning to unlock their full potential. In our sessions, we explore the unique challenges that arise from juggling the demands of daily life, families and parenthood while striving to pursue personal dreams and aspirations.
As a counselor, my mission is to guide individuals who are seeking more fulfillment in life, empowering them to navigate the delicate balance between work, personal aspirations, and self-discovery. I specialize in supporting clients who feel a stirring desire for change, recognizing that they are capable of achieving more and yearning to unlock their full potential. In our sessions, we explore the unique challenges that arise from juggling the demands of daily life, families and parenthood while striving to pursue personal dreams and aspirations.
087 250 2148 x47 View 087 250 2148 x47
Photo of The Tapestry Counselling, Social Worker in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
The Tapestry Counselling
Social Worker, MSocSci, SACSSP
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
It's a joy to walk with someone through the uncertain streets of mental health challenges. Help one to rebuild, and find "their sense of self', to learn and unlearn in order to attain a state of wellness. To help one set and follow through their life goals, be capacitated to handle future stressors but most of all to know when you are not ok and understand that it's ok, not to be ok. I work with children, teenagers, adults, couples, and the families. This is achieved with empathy and understanding that life is a Tapestry and Your journey of wellbeing is unique to you.
It's a joy to walk with someone through the uncertain streets of mental health challenges. Help one to rebuild, and find "their sense of self', to learn and unlearn in order to attain a state of wellness. To help one set and follow through their life goals, be capacitated to handle future stressors but most of all to know when you are not ok and understand that it's ok, not to be ok. I work with children, teenagers, adults, couples, and the families. This is achieved with empathy and understanding that life is a Tapestry and Your journey of wellbeing is unique to you.
087 250 0062 x16 View 087 250 0062 x16
Photo of Dr. Phillipa Haine, Psychologist in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Dr. Phillipa Haine
Psychologist, PhD, HPCSA - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
My therapy style is non-judgemental and collaborative; creating a warm, trusting and authentic space where clients can explore new insights into themselves while being equipped with skills to bring about constructive change and alleviate distress. Whilst I am guided by evidence-based psychological interventions, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), I acknowledge that mental health is multifaceted and subsequently my approach is strengths-based and holistic. This includes acknowledging the connection between the mind and body and thus considering the role of mental, physical and social factors on overall health and wellbeing.
My therapy style is non-judgemental and collaborative; creating a warm, trusting and authentic space where clients can explore new insights into themselves while being equipped with skills to bring about constructive change and alleviate distress. Whilst I am guided by evidence-based psychological interventions, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), I acknowledge that mental health is multifaceted and subsequently my approach is strengths-based and holistic. This includes acknowledging the connection between the mind and body and thus considering the role of mental, physical and social factors on overall health and wellbeing.
087 250 2910 x81 View 087 250 2910 x81
Photo of Dipasa David Shiringani, Psychologist in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Dipasa David Shiringani
Psychologist, MA, HPCSA - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Blairgowrie 2194
I am a male african Clinical Psychologist working in both the public and private. I am registered with the health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA)and the Board of Health Care Funders(BHF). I am passionate about mental health and cater for individuals of various ages and backgrounds
I am a male african Clinical Psychologist working in both the public and private. I am registered with the health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA)and the Board of Health Care Funders(BHF). I am passionate about mental health and cater for individuals of various ages and backgrounds
087 250 2910 x45 View 087 250 2910 x45
Photo of Christina Pereira, Psychologist in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Christina Pereira
Psychologist, MSc, HPCSA - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Blairgowrie 2194
Welcome! I'm Christina Pereira, a Clinical Psychologist driven by a passion for helping people transform their lives. I believe everyone deserves a sanctuary where they can genuinely feel secure. My work is fuelled by my desire to build collaborative relationships where people are able to gain mastery over their difficulties and relationships. I work integratively, meaning I use different modalities depending on the needs of the person, making therapy fit the person and not the other way around.
Welcome! I'm Christina Pereira, a Clinical Psychologist driven by a passion for helping people transform their lives. I believe everyone deserves a sanctuary where they can genuinely feel secure. My work is fuelled by my desire to build collaborative relationships where people are able to gain mastery over their difficulties and relationships. I work integratively, meaning I use different modalities depending on the needs of the person, making therapy fit the person and not the other way around.
087 250 2293 x17 View 087 250 2293 x17
Photo of Romy Morsner, General Counsellor in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Romy Morsner
General Counsellor
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Blairgowrie 2194
My ideal client is ready to face their denial, fears and aspects of themselves that they have been avoiding. Their issues range from fear of not being good enough, addiction or alcoholism, past trauma and abuse, neglect, depression, feeling alone, anxiety and co-dependency. They need to be heard and understood and feel that they are overwhelmed by their daily responsibilities. They need to feel safe and find a way to cope with their emotions. They want to find a way to feel less stressed and stuck. They want to overcome the fear that they have been living with.
My ideal client is ready to face their denial, fears and aspects of themselves that they have been avoiding. Their issues range from fear of not being good enough, addiction or alcoholism, past trauma and abuse, neglect, depression, feeling alone, anxiety and co-dependency. They need to be heard and understood and feel that they are overwhelmed by their daily responsibilities. They need to feel safe and find a way to cope with their emotions. They want to find a way to feel less stressed and stuck. They want to overcome the fear that they have been living with.
087 250 0592 x56 View 087 250 0592 x56

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Gerrit Henri Nel, Psychologist in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Gerrit Henri Nel
Psychologist, MA, HPCSA - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Randburg 2194
As a psychologist, my primary focus is on promoting the well-being of individuals. From my experience, everyone possesses the innate ability to actualise their full potential but may need guidance and support. My aim in life is to be a catalyst in people's journey of self-discovery, helping them identify their strengths, overcome challenges, and achieve their goals. By creating a safe and supportive environment, I aim to empower my clients to make positive changes in their lives and reach their full potential.
As a psychologist, my primary focus is on promoting the well-being of individuals. From my experience, everyone possesses the innate ability to actualise their full potential but may need guidance and support. My aim in life is to be a catalyst in people's journey of self-discovery, helping them identify their strengths, overcome challenges, and achieve their goals. By creating a safe and supportive environment, I aim to empower my clients to make positive changes in their lives and reach their full potential.
087 250 2293 x39 View 087 250 2293 x39
Cheryl Pruss
Psychologist, HPCSA - Clin. Psych.
Verified Verified
Bromhof 2188
I see psychotherapy both as a profession and a journey, which I undertake with my client. Psychotherapy is mostly about a safe, honest relationship, a unique one, between the client/s and the therapist. This relationship provides the confidential holding space in which the client learns about him/herself, how to trust, not just the therapist, but the self, and how to repair that which was damaged by life, either past or present, and how to head into the future. It empowers you to experience a growing sense of worth, better coping skills, and a personal sense of integration.
I see psychotherapy both as a profession and a journey, which I undertake with my client. Psychotherapy is mostly about a safe, honest relationship, a unique one, between the client/s and the therapist. This relationship provides the confidential holding space in which the client learns about him/herself, how to trust, not just the therapist, but the self, and how to repair that which was damaged by life, either past or present, and how to head into the future. It empowers you to experience a growing sense of worth, better coping skills, and a personal sense of integration.
087 250 0160 x16 View 087 250 0160 x16
Photo of Psychological and People Transformation Services , Psychologist in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Psychological and People Transformation Services
Psychologist, MSocSci, HPCSA - Couns. Psych.
Verified Verified
Randburg 2125
As Mahatma Gandhi said: “You can’t change how people treat you or what they say about you. All you can do is change how you react to it.” I believe that we all sometimes need help to manage how we are reacting to the situations in our lives. Hence, the first step in therapy is understanding what is happening in your life & deciding how we can change it.
As Mahatma Gandhi said: “You can’t change how people treat you or what they say about you. All you can do is change how you react to it.” I believe that we all sometimes need help to manage how we are reacting to the situations in our lives. Hence, the first step in therapy is understanding what is happening in your life & deciding how we can change it.
087 250 2962 x86 View 087 250 2962 x86
Photo of Tashwyn Sasha Mateman, General Counsellor in Blairgowrie, Gauteng
Tashwyn Sasha Mateman
General Counsellor
Verified Verified
Randburg 2169  (Online Only)
Life is tough enough to deal with without the added pains of past trauma, loss and grief, feelings of depression, anxiety and so much more. It is my passion to help you heal through these pains and empower you to continue on a lighter, happier path where these burdens no longer weigh you down. Going through therapy is a process, and you should be proud of yourself for taking the first step. I am here to start this process with you and facilitate your journey in a safe, non judgmental space.
Life is tough enough to deal with without the added pains of past trauma, loss and grief, feelings of depression, anxiety and so much more. It is my passion to help you heal through these pains and empower you to continue on a lighter, happier path where these burdens no longer weigh you down. Going through therapy is a process, and you should be proud of yourself for taking the first step. I am here to start this process with you and facilitate your journey in a safe, non judgmental space.
087 250 0049 x84 View 087 250 0049 x84

How does your Counsellor compare?

Number of Counsellors in Blairgowrie

10+

Average cost per session

R700

Counsellors in Blairgowrie who prioritize treating:

81% Anxiety
69% Relationship Issues
69% Depression
63% Self Esteem
63% Stress
56% Trauma and PTSD
56% Anger Management

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

88% Discovery Health
75% Momentum
75% GEMS

How Counsellors in Blairgowrie see their clients

100% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

79% Female
21% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counselling

How can I find a therapist in Blairgowrie?

Search for nearby psychologists or counsellors by inputting your city, postcode, or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or postcode into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

Psychologists listed in the directory are registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). The majority of General Counsellors featured in the directory align themselves with reputable professional bodies, particularly the Association for Supportive Counsellors and Holistic Practitioners. All Registered Counsellors listed must be registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). Social Workers listed in the directory must be registered with the South African Council for Social Service Professionals.

Providers whose professional membership or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Given that professional memberships are not a statutory requirement for general counsellors in South Africa, certain qualified professionals or organisations may choose not to maintain such memberships despite possessing the necessary qualifications. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counsellor?

Psychologists, counsellors and social workers can all provide counselling or talking therapy and have credentials and supervised, practical experience that enable them to do so in South Africa.

Psychologists have five years training in psychology, have completed an internship over 12 months, and have completed the National Examination of the Professional Board for Psychology. They must be registered with Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA). Registered Counsellors must have at least four years of study at a university or college, such as the Bachelor of Psychology and have completed the National Examination of the Professional Board for Psychology. General counsellors, such as Supportive Counsellors, Holistic Counsellors, and Wellness Counsellors, registered with the ASCHP must possess at least an NQF Level 4 qualification. Social Workers must possess a Bachelor of Social Work and must have completed an approved internship in the social service sector.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, the cost of a therapy session in South Africa could be between R600 and R1,500. If you have private insurance, your plan may cover some if not all of your sessions. You should contact your insurance provider to determine if they provide coverage for therapy sessions and to determine what, if any, requirements they might have in order for your sessions to be covered, such as a referral from your GP or medical specialist.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your postcode.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Therapists who are registered with the HPCSA and professional organisations such as PsySSA or the ASCHP are bound by an ethical framework that requires them to uphold a confidentiality agreement. Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship and only under specific circumstances, such as when there is the potential or known harm to the client, or as required by law, will a therapist be obligated to break the agreement. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed during the initial consultation.