Therapists in Eau Claire, WI

Photo of Leah Nightingale, Licensed Professional Counselor in Eau Claire, WI
Leah Nightingale
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC-IT, ATR-P
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
I have experience working with adolescents and adults coping with anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders. With the use of a humanistic and client-centered approach, I assist clients to uncover their emotions and give them resources on how to express themselves in a safe and healthy way. I strive to meet clients where they are at and help build a safe space for each client to grow toward the life they want to live. Utilizing artmaking can help guide the therapeutic process based on the needs of each client.
I have experience working with adolescents and adults coping with anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders. With the use of a humanistic and client-centered approach, I assist clients to uncover their emotions and give them resources on how to express themselves in a safe and healthy way. I strive to meet clients where they are at and help build a safe space for each client to grow toward the life they want to live. Utilizing artmaking can help guide the therapeutic process based on the needs of each client.
(715) 226-6489 View (715) 226-6489
Photo of Jennifer Speckien, Pre-Licensed Professional in Eau Claire, WI
Jennifer Speckien
Pre-Licensed Professional, LPC-IT, CSW
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Are you feeling overwhelmed, stressed, or stuck in life? Individual therapy can be a powerful tool to help you navigate through life's challenges and achieve personal growth and well-being. I offer tailored individual therapy services to support you on your journey towards a happier, more fulfilling life. I use evidence-based approaches to provide individual therapy services that are customized to your unique needs and goals. I believe in creating a safe and non-judgmental space where you can explore your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
Are you feeling overwhelmed, stressed, or stuck in life? Individual therapy can be a powerful tool to help you navigate through life's challenges and achieve personal growth and well-being. I offer tailored individual therapy services to support you on your journey towards a happier, more fulfilling life. I use evidence-based approaches to provide individual therapy services that are customized to your unique needs and goals. I believe in creating a safe and non-judgmental space where you can explore your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
(715) 334-8422 View (715) 334-8422
Photo of Cory Tischman, Marriage & Family Therapist in Eau Claire, WI
Cory Tischman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Waitlist for new clients
I enjoy working with people to create a nonjudgmental space that is tailored to their needs and goals. My view is that we are connected internally and externally in a web of different systems that impact us, and through understanding how these systems and the client are affecting one another do we get a comprehensive view of what’s going on. When appropriate and agreed upon, I will work with people in these different systems (e.g., family, loved ones, teachers, primary care providers, social workers, parole officers, etc.) to help provide continuity of care and a cohesive treatment plan.
I enjoy working with people to create a nonjudgmental space that is tailored to their needs and goals. My view is that we are connected internally and externally in a web of different systems that impact us, and through understanding how these systems and the client are affecting one another do we get a comprehensive view of what’s going on. When appropriate and agreed upon, I will work with people in these different systems (e.g., family, loved ones, teachers, primary care providers, social workers, parole officers, etc.) to help provide continuity of care and a cohesive treatment plan.
(715) 200-8259 View (715) 200-8259
Photo of Donald L Schade, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Eau Claire, WI
Donald L Schade
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701  (Online Only)
Donnie utilizes a solution-focused and client-centered approach that supports clients in setting and reaching personalized, obtainable goals that improve their overall wellbeing. He also draws on evidence-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to teach clients coping skills and help them develop a better understanding of the connections between their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. With almost ten years of clinical practice, Donnie has abundant experience integrating these therapy modalities in a manner best suited to meet the needs of each client.
Donnie utilizes a solution-focused and client-centered approach that supports clients in setting and reaching personalized, obtainable goals that improve their overall wellbeing. He also draws on evidence-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to teach clients coping skills and help them develop a better understanding of the connections between their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. With almost ten years of clinical practice, Donnie has abundant experience integrating these therapy modalities in a manner best suited to meet the needs of each client.
(715) 202-6490 View (715) 202-6490
Photo of Savana Stuhl in Eau Claire, WI
Savana Stuhl
MSW, APSW
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
I have experience working with adults living with mental health concerns that are impacting their daily lives. I am passionate about helping people find coping skills to assist them in achieving their goals. My areas of interest include young adults and adults with anxiety, depression, grief, low self-esteem, and who are navigating life transitions. I provide a trauma-informed, strengths-based approach and use skills based in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy. I pride myself in creating an environment of compassion and understanding to help clients feel comfortable, safe, and ready to meet their goals.
I have experience working with adults living with mental health concerns that are impacting their daily lives. I am passionate about helping people find coping skills to assist them in achieving their goals. My areas of interest include young adults and adults with anxiety, depression, grief, low self-esteem, and who are navigating life transitions. I provide a trauma-informed, strengths-based approach and use skills based in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy. I pride myself in creating an environment of compassion and understanding to help clients feel comfortable, safe, and ready to meet their goals.
(715) 504-0881 View (715) 504-0881
Photo of Victoria Zweifelhofer, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Eau Claire, WI
Victoria Zweifelhofer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
My clinical approach is integrative and collaborative as all people are different. Mindfulness is at the core of all approaches I utilize in practice. I utilize Cognitive and Dialectical Behavioral Therapy to help clients build a base of skills to improve their quality of life including decreasing unhealthy coping mechanisms and building healthier relationships. I work with a variety of techniques with individuals who struggle with PTSD or Complex PTSD including Self-Compassion, Prolonged Exposure, and Somatic therapies. I provide tools for clients to practice in between sessions to help them progress toward their individual goals.
My clinical approach is integrative and collaborative as all people are different. Mindfulness is at the core of all approaches I utilize in practice. I utilize Cognitive and Dialectical Behavioral Therapy to help clients build a base of skills to improve their quality of life including decreasing unhealthy coping mechanisms and building healthier relationships. I work with a variety of techniques with individuals who struggle with PTSD or Complex PTSD including Self-Compassion, Prolonged Exposure, and Somatic therapies. I provide tools for clients to practice in between sessions to help them progress toward their individual goals.
(715) 227-2090 View (715) 227-2090
Photo of Diana Stafford, LLC, Marriage & Family Therapist in Eau Claire, WI
Diana Stafford, LLC
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT, LCSW, RYT 500
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Change moves through all of us. Our essence is to have compassion, joy and well-being. I believe that all people have the capacity to heal, grow, and have quality lives.I work closely and intimately with clients to achieve the differences that they want. What I believe works is to be completely present with people as they look for changes and then to integrate those solutions in daily life. Therapy isn't about just about what happens in the counseling office. It is also about what unfolds in one's day, one's family, one's relationships. Together we create how.
Change moves through all of us. Our essence is to have compassion, joy and well-being. I believe that all people have the capacity to heal, grow, and have quality lives.I work closely and intimately with clients to achieve the differences that they want. What I believe works is to be completely present with people as they look for changes and then to integrate those solutions in daily life. Therapy isn't about just about what happens in the counseling office. It is also about what unfolds in one's day, one's family, one's relationships. Together we create how.
(715) 301-0513 View (715) 301-0513
Photo of Jodi Bright, Licensed Professional Counselor in Eau Claire, WI
Jodi Bright
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Waitlist for new clients
Life can leave us feeling disconnected from ourselves and the world around us, which can lead to difficult feelings like fear, sadness, shame, and confusion. Therapy provides space to explore and understand barriers to connection and to identify how to address them.
Life can leave us feeling disconnected from ourselves and the world around us, which can lead to difficult feelings like fear, sadness, shame, and confusion. Therapy provides space to explore and understand barriers to connection and to identify how to address them.
(715) 502-2823 View (715) 502-2823
Photo of Kevin Fisher, Licensed Professional Counselor in Eau Claire, WI
Kevin Fisher
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
I am a provider of professional counseling services, utilizing EMDR therapy and traditional psychotherapy to help with whatever you choose to work on (trauma, PTSD, divorce, relationship issues, substance abuse/dependency, life changes/transitions, depression, anxiety, childhood issues, etc.). I began my clinical work at Austin Recovery, working with individuals facing addiction and the many issues underlying addictive behaviors. During this work, I developed a strong interest in helping individuals deal with past traumatic experiences and negative life events.
I am a provider of professional counseling services, utilizing EMDR therapy and traditional psychotherapy to help with whatever you choose to work on (trauma, PTSD, divorce, relationship issues, substance abuse/dependency, life changes/transitions, depression, anxiety, childhood issues, etc.). I began my clinical work at Austin Recovery, working with individuals facing addiction and the many issues underlying addictive behaviors. During this work, I developed a strong interest in helping individuals deal with past traumatic experiences and negative life events.
(715) 496-6380 View (715) 496-6380
Photo of Stephanie Hurlburt, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Eau Claire, WI
Stephanie Hurlburt
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Do you find yourself dwelling on the past or worrying about the future? Are you feeling emotionally or mentally disconnected with yourself or in your relationships? Or maybe (if you're really being honest) there's a gap between what you know to be true about your Christian faith and what you actually believe in your heart? Stress and trauma can leave us feeling disconnected in so many ways. As a Christian therapist specializing in trauma, I help clients understand the deep impacts of trauma, while also supporting them in rebuilding a healthy connection with their body, soul, and spirit.
Do you find yourself dwelling on the past or worrying about the future? Are you feeling emotionally or mentally disconnected with yourself or in your relationships? Or maybe (if you're really being honest) there's a gap between what you know to be true about your Christian faith and what you actually believe in your heart? Stress and trauma can leave us feeling disconnected in so many ways. As a Christian therapist specializing in trauma, I help clients understand the deep impacts of trauma, while also supporting them in rebuilding a healthy connection with their body, soul, and spirit.
(715) 500-4611 View (715) 500-4611
Photo of Alexandra Dorn, Licensed Professional Counselor in Eau Claire, WI
Alexandra Dorn
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Eau Claire, WI 54701
I am experienced in treating a variety of mental-health-related concerns amongst adults of various ages and offer therapy to couples. I strive to always provide an open, accepting and honest environment that allows you the ability to embrace vulnerabilities in an effort to generate change. With newfound insight, you will have ability to navigate current and future obstacles successfully, and live a self-congruent and fulfilling life. I specialize in working with individuals struggling with disordered eating, substance use, and trauma-related experiences that may be negatively impacting current well-being.
I am experienced in treating a variety of mental-health-related concerns amongst adults of various ages and offer therapy to couples. I strive to always provide an open, accepting and honest environment that allows you the ability to embrace vulnerabilities in an effort to generate change. With newfound insight, you will have ability to navigate current and future obstacles successfully, and live a self-congruent and fulfilling life. I specialize in working with individuals struggling with disordered eating, substance use, and trauma-related experiences that may be negatively impacting current well-being.
(715) 322-3133 View (715) 322-3133
Photo of Kendra Dale, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Eau Claire, WI
Kendra Dale
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Not accepting new clients
I have a passion for working with adults of various ages, couples and children struggling with life transitions, grief, loss, aging, substance abuse, trauma, anxiety, and depression. I believe we experience grief and pain in all situations in life. Whether you are struggling with a recent death of loved one, experiencing a life change, or have experienced trauma, we learn to adapt and cope with our pain. Often, the way we learned to cope with our pain no longer works for us, and we may feel struck, not knowing how to help ourselves change. I strive to offer clients a person-centered approach toward healing and their desired change.
I have a passion for working with adults of various ages, couples and children struggling with life transitions, grief, loss, aging, substance abuse, trauma, anxiety, and depression. I believe we experience grief and pain in all situations in life. Whether you are struggling with a recent death of loved one, experiencing a life change, or have experienced trauma, we learn to adapt and cope with our pain. Often, the way we learned to cope with our pain no longer works for us, and we may feel struck, not knowing how to help ourselves change. I strive to offer clients a person-centered approach toward healing and their desired change.
(715) 496-6311 View (715) 496-6311
Photo of Grace Grambort, Licensed Professional Counselor in Eau Claire, WI
Grace Grambort
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Hello! My name is Grace and I am licensed in the state of Wisconsin as an LPC. I enjoy working with adults and a few teenagers that are wanting to improve their quality of life and mental health through individual psychotherapy. I treat a host of diagnoses, including anxiety and depressive disorders, and disorders associated with trauma. I have additional training in treating eating disorders and substance use disorders.
Hello! My name is Grace and I am licensed in the state of Wisconsin as an LPC. I enjoy working with adults and a few teenagers that are wanting to improve their quality of life and mental health through individual psychotherapy. I treat a host of diagnoses, including anxiety and depressive disorders, and disorders associated with trauma. I have additional training in treating eating disorders and substance use disorders.
(715) 322-3104 View (715) 322-3104
Photo of Gena L Callihan, Licensed Professional Counselor in Eau Claire, WI
Gena L Callihan
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, CTTP
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Do you struggle feeling a sense of trust and connection in your personal relationships? Do you have a fear of being left or difficulty forming an attachment with someone you really care about? Someone who is really important to you? Often this is the case when we've experienced attachment wounds from our earliest caregivers. This wounding becomes a part of nervous system and sets the stage for our adult relationships.
Do you struggle feeling a sense of trust and connection in your personal relationships? Do you have a fear of being left or difficulty forming an attachment with someone you really care about? Someone who is really important to you? Often this is the case when we've experienced attachment wounds from our earliest caregivers. This wounding becomes a part of nervous system and sets the stage for our adult relationships.
(715) 288-2543 View (715) 288-2543
Photo of Sara Bowe, Licensed Professional Counselor in Eau Claire, WI
Sara Bowe
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Now expanding to offer virtual night therapy! Feeling overwhelmed, over stimulated, and stuck? Burdened by the weight of expectations as a partner, parent, friend, and worker? It can be hard to find balance in our world right now. If you feel like you have to fit into a mold that doesn’t truly represent you, then the journey to transformation begins here. Your loved ones, your career, and most importantly, you, deserve the best version of yourself! We will work together to manage overwhelm and stress, rediscover your authenticity, build nurturing relationships, and achieve equilibrium by finding balance and reducing the mental load.
Now expanding to offer virtual night therapy! Feeling overwhelmed, over stimulated, and stuck? Burdened by the weight of expectations as a partner, parent, friend, and worker? It can be hard to find balance in our world right now. If you feel like you have to fit into a mold that doesn’t truly represent you, then the journey to transformation begins here. Your loved ones, your career, and most importantly, you, deserve the best version of yourself! We will work together to manage overwhelm and stress, rediscover your authenticity, build nurturing relationships, and achieve equilibrium by finding balance and reducing the mental load.
(715) 318-0420 View (715) 318-0420
Photo of Gina R Young, Licensed Professional Counselor in Eau Claire, WI
Gina R Young
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Relationships impact every aspect of our lives. It is especially problematic when the relationship with your spouse or partner is losing hope, joy, and satisfaction. Perhaps the distress is due to communication, betrayal, lack of care, expectations, or other relational issue. If you are experiencing disconnect and pain within your primary relationship, reach out. You do not have to walk through this type of distress alone.
Relationships impact every aspect of our lives. It is especially problematic when the relationship with your spouse or partner is losing hope, joy, and satisfaction. Perhaps the distress is due to communication, betrayal, lack of care, expectations, or other relational issue. If you are experiencing disconnect and pain within your primary relationship, reach out. You do not have to walk through this type of distress alone.
(715) 288-2859 View (715) 288-2859
Photo of Nikki Deziel, Licensed Professional Counselor in Eau Claire, WI
Nikki Deziel
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Not accepting new clients
Trauma and chronic stress can leave us disconnected from our sense of self and inner wisdom. This can make life difficult, as your guidance system is not easily accessible and external factors end up steering your life. You may also feel a general lack of safety in your body and this world. Healing past trauma, improving relational patterns and building self-trust, can support you in living a more aligned life. I know how hard this work is, including owning what you Actually want and holding yourself with compassion for what has already occurred.
Trauma and chronic stress can leave us disconnected from our sense of self and inner wisdom. This can make life difficult, as your guidance system is not easily accessible and external factors end up steering your life. You may also feel a general lack of safety in your body and this world. Healing past trauma, improving relational patterns and building self-trust, can support you in living a more aligned life. I know how hard this work is, including owning what you Actually want and holding yourself with compassion for what has already occurred.
(715) 519-8474 View (715) 519-8474
Photo of Julie M Benware, Licensed Professional Counselor in Eau Claire, WI
Julie M Benware
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Eau Claire, WI 54701
Not accepting new clients
I specialize in the treatment of children and adolescents within the context of individual and family therapy.
I specialize in the treatment of children and adolescents within the context of individual and family therapy.
(715) 955-4675 View (715) 955-4675
Photo of Karah Gonstead, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Eau Claire, WI
Karah Gonstead
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
The populations that I most enjoy working with are tweens, teens, and young adults (ages 11 - 25), as well as Mom's in their perinatal & postpartum journey. I love being able to work youth and adults through life transitions (going into middle/high school/college), struggles in communication, implementation of healthy boundaries, low self-worth, familial dysfunction, etc. Additionally, I have a huge passion for working besides Moms within their journey of motherhood and all of the internal and external transitions that this often includes. If you have questions, please don't hesitate to reach out!
The populations that I most enjoy working with are tweens, teens, and young adults (ages 11 - 25), as well as Mom's in their perinatal & postpartum journey. I love being able to work youth and adults through life transitions (going into middle/high school/college), struggles in communication, implementation of healthy boundaries, low self-worth, familial dysfunction, etc. Additionally, I have a huge passion for working besides Moms within their journey of motherhood and all of the internal and external transitions that this often includes. If you have questions, please don't hesitate to reach out!
(715) 737-9222 View (715) 737-9222
Photo of Julianna Tavale, Pre-Licensed Professional in Eau Claire, WI
Julianna Tavale
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW, APSW
Verified Verified
Eau Claire, WI 54701
I believe in creating a safe space for clients in order to collaborate as a team and to help individuals succeed in self-growth, quality of life enjoyment, and empowerment. I am skilled in providing support for adults experiencing challenges with anxiety, depression, relationship difficulties, negative self-image, communication and trauma. I support assisting individuals in identifying negative coping patterns and growth of adapting and learning new coping skills and adjusting those to benefit day-to-day life functioning.
I believe in creating a safe space for clients in order to collaborate as a team and to help individuals succeed in self-growth, quality of life enjoyment, and empowerment. I am skilled in providing support for adults experiencing challenges with anxiety, depression, relationship difficulties, negative self-image, communication and trauma. I support assisting individuals in identifying negative coping patterns and growth of adapting and learning new coping skills and adjusting those to benefit day-to-day life functioning.
(715) 489-5239 x176 View (715) 489-5239 x176

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Eau Claire, WI

70+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in Eau Claire, WI who prioritize treating:

96% Anxiety
89% Depression
77% Self Esteem
77% Stress
76% Trauma and PTSD
75% Life Transitions
72% Relationship Issues

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

71% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
71% Optum
56% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in Eau Claire, WI see their clients

74% In Person and Online
26% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
15% Male
6% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Eau Claire?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.