Therapists in Orange County, VT

View cities in Orange County
Photo of Susan G Jacobs, MA, LCMHC, LADC, EMDR, DCC, Counselor
Susan G Jacobs
Counselor, MA, LCMHC, LADC, EMDR, DCC
Verified Verified
Randolph, VT 05060
I really appreciate clients who are willing to look at themselves and are brave enough to ask for help. Asking for help shows a desire to understand themselves on a deeper more spiritual level. I work with people going through transitions in life ages 4-94. It doesn't matter the age, it is the heart behind the age that counts. I work with individuals, family, couples, and those working on addictions issues that are facing crossroads in their life. Therapy gives hope and renewed vision and allows support to those facing the fear of change.
I really appreciate clients who are willing to look at themselves and are brave enough to ask for help. Asking for help shows a desire to understand themselves on a deeper more spiritual level. I work with people going through transitions in life ages 4-94. It doesn't matter the age, it is the heart behind the age that counts. I work with individuals, family, couples, and those working on addictions issues that are facing crossroads in their life. Therapy gives hope and renewed vision and allows support to those facing the fear of change.
(802) 523-2848 View (802) 523-2848
Photo of Carol Elissa Owen, MSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Carol Elissa Owen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Thetford, VT 05074
Waitlist for new clients
My goal is to support clients in developing the specific skills, and taking the new actions, that will allow them to more effectively cope with the many challenges they face with the aging process. In addition, clients also find that one’s personal residence is the ideal place where a nurturing, supportive, and therapeutic relationship is established.
My goal is to support clients in developing the specific skills, and taking the new actions, that will allow them to more effectively cope with the many challenges they face with the aging process. In addition, clients also find that one’s personal residence is the ideal place where a nurturing, supportive, and therapeutic relationship is established.
(802) 424-9543 View (802) 424-9543
Photo of Kathy Marshall, LCMHC , MLADC, Counselor
Kathy Marshall
Counselor, LCMHC , MLADC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Vershire, VT 05079  (Online Only)
I believe that even in the most difficult times, there are opportunities to learn about your inner self and develop new perspective that can lead to finding joy and fulfillment in life. I have experience working with adults of all ages who struggle with addiction, depression, anxiety and past trauma. Personal experience with being a caregiver and supporting someone with a chronic illness. My clients are looking for a quiet and safe environment to share and explore their life experi
I believe that even in the most difficult times, there are opportunities to learn about your inner self and develop new perspective that can lead to finding joy and fulfillment in life. I have experience working with adults of all ages who struggle with addiction, depression, anxiety and past trauma. Personal experience with being a caregiver and supporting someone with a chronic illness. My clients are looking for a quiet and safe environment to share and explore their life experi
(802) 357-7293 View (802) 357-7293
Photo of Bonnie Haldeman Pomerantz, MA, MTS
Bonnie Haldeman Pomerantz
Unlicensed Psychotherapist, MA, MTS
Verified Verified
Chelsea, VT 05038  (Online Only)
Are you longing for greater joy? Happier relationships? Is your marriage or parenting feeling more challenging than you can sometimes bear? Are you needing support or are you ready for a change? I would like to be of help. While I specialize in couples and family work, I also work individually. I am excited to facilitate greater harmony, peace and happiness in all your relationships, relating to self as well as relating to others. Underneath our depression, sadness, anxiety, anger, heartache and hurt is a wellspring of love. I would like to help you connect with your well within.
Are you longing for greater joy? Happier relationships? Is your marriage or parenting feeling more challenging than you can sometimes bear? Are you needing support or are you ready for a change? I would like to be of help. While I specialize in couples and family work, I also work individually. I am excited to facilitate greater harmony, peace and happiness in all your relationships, relating to self as well as relating to others. Underneath our depression, sadness, anxiety, anger, heartache and hurt is a wellspring of love. I would like to help you connect with your well within.
(802) 431-0628 View (802) 431-0628
Photo of Amy Woodward, MS, LCMHC, LPC, Counselor
Amy Woodward
Counselor, MS, LCMHC, LPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Thetford Center, VT 05075  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Welcome! I'm so glad you're here. The decision to read this, and even consider counseling, is a huge step. I have spent my career working in mental health and am dedicated to helping people live the life they want. I have worked with people challenged by anxiety, depression, mood disorders, trauma, substance use, relationship issues, and difficult life transitions. It is my goal to understand where you are and be with you as you decide where you want to go. I believe that together we can develop a plan that works for you, identify strategies and skills to get you there, and the confidence to keep it going long after.
Welcome! I'm so glad you're here. The decision to read this, and even consider counseling, is a huge step. I have spent my career working in mental health and am dedicated to helping people live the life they want. I have worked with people challenged by anxiety, depression, mood disorders, trauma, substance use, relationship issues, and difficult life transitions. It is my goal to understand where you are and be with you as you decide where you want to go. I believe that together we can develop a plan that works for you, identify strategies and skills to get you there, and the confidence to keep it going long after.
(802) 444-8235 View (802) 444-8235
Photo of Renee L Schulze, MSW, LICSW, BCD, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Renee L Schulze
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW, BCD
Verified Verified
Wells River, VT 05081
I have treated people with all forms of mental health issues including depression, anxiety, mood disorders, PTSD, and ADHD. I’m an EAP therapist and help employees with work stress and coping with difficult situations at work . I’m also trained in relief from narcissistic abuse and understanding “gaslighting” and “deflection” skills . I believe that people can feel better emotionally. I moved to VT in 2002 from CT where I worked for 14 years as a therapist in state facilities for the Department of Children and Families, the Department of Mental Health and the Department of Corrections.
I have treated people with all forms of mental health issues including depression, anxiety, mood disorders, PTSD, and ADHD. I’m an EAP therapist and help employees with work stress and coping with difficult situations at work . I’m also trained in relief from narcissistic abuse and understanding “gaslighting” and “deflection” skills . I believe that people can feel better emotionally. I moved to VT in 2002 from CT where I worked for 14 years as a therapist in state facilities for the Department of Children and Families, the Department of Mental Health and the Department of Corrections.
(802) 789-8467 View (802) 789-8467
Photo of Cynthia Abry, LCMHC, CCATP, NCC, NCCMHC, Counselor
Cynthia Abry
Counselor, LCMHC, CCATP, NCC, NCCMHC
Verified Verified
Bradford, VT 05033  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
My specialty is working with adolescents and adults to improve communication and facilitate healing from trauma and/or issues that are impacting life in a negative way. I have extensive experience working to address the effects of sexual and physical abuse history, PTSD, OCD, as well as anxiety and depression. I am passionate about working with women who are dealing with transitions, marital, relationship and other challenges. I focus on building a trusting relationship, identifying solutions and strengths in order to facilitate transformation. I am trained in IFS, EMDR, and Play Therapy, among other approaches.
My specialty is working with adolescents and adults to improve communication and facilitate healing from trauma and/or issues that are impacting life in a negative way. I have extensive experience working to address the effects of sexual and physical abuse history, PTSD, OCD, as well as anxiety and depression. I am passionate about working with women who are dealing with transitions, marital, relationship and other challenges. I focus on building a trusting relationship, identifying solutions and strengths in order to facilitate transformation. I am trained in IFS, EMDR, and Play Therapy, among other approaches.
(802) 529-4054 View (802) 529-4054
Photo of Gregory V Wilson, DMin, Pastoral Counselor
Gregory V Wilson
Pastoral Counselor, DMin
Not Verified Not Verified
Vershire, VT 05079
Dr. Gregory Wilson offers affordable counseling for individuals, families, couples, and children. He has thirty years' experience, including working with codependency, anxiety and depression, and intimacy and communication issues. The focus is based on this question,” What needs to change to get you going where you want to go?, and what is gong on that the change has yet to happen? “The more the drive toward life is thwarted, the stronger is the drive toward destruction; the more life is realized, the less is the strength of destructiveness. Destructiveness is the outcome of unlived life.”
Dr. Gregory Wilson offers affordable counseling for individuals, families, couples, and children. He has thirty years' experience, including working with codependency, anxiety and depression, and intimacy and communication issues. The focus is based on this question,” What needs to change to get you going where you want to go?, and what is gong on that the change has yet to happen? “The more the drive toward life is thwarted, the stronger is the drive toward destruction; the more life is realized, the less is the strength of destructiveness. Destructiveness is the outcome of unlived life.”
(772) 919-8043 View (772) 919-8043
Photo of Erica Fayrie, LCMHC, LMHC, ATR, Counselor
Erica Fayrie
Counselor, LCMHC, LMHC, ATR
Verified Verified
Brookfield, VT 05036  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Email works best for quicker respond time! The purpose of our work together is to guide to a place of peace, love and self awareness. I strive to help you become your optimum self, not just surviving or managing but happy and excited about living your life. You may feel like you have never belonged or do not understand what your purpose is- I hope to help you discover all of your potential and the beautiful things you have to share with this world.
Email works best for quicker respond time! The purpose of our work together is to guide to a place of peace, love and self awareness. I strive to help you become your optimum self, not just surviving or managing but happy and excited about living your life. You may feel like you have never belonged or do not understand what your purpose is- I hope to help you discover all of your potential and the beautiful things you have to share with this world.
(802) 705-0184 View (802) 705-0184
Photo of Robin B Osborne, PhD, Psychologist
Robin B Osborne
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
East Thetford, VT 05043
Not accepting new clients
Thank you for your interest in my practice. At this time, I am no longer accepting new clients as I wind down my practice over time. I am maintaining this profile so that current/recent clients can contact me if they wish to schedule a session. If you are a current or recent client, or if you are seeking projective personality testing, you can reach me at 603-359-1339 - by text or voicemail. I will be moving my office on June 1, 2021 and will be located about a hundred yards away from my current office in the Bushway Insurance building on Rt. 5 in E. Thetford. The building is brown and sits just south of the Post Office.
Thank you for your interest in my practice. At this time, I am no longer accepting new clients as I wind down my practice over time. I am maintaining this profile so that current/recent clients can contact me if they wish to schedule a session. If you are a current or recent client, or if you are seeking projective personality testing, you can reach me at 603-359-1339 - by text or voicemail. I will be moving my office on June 1, 2021 and will be located about a hundred yards away from my current office in the Bushway Insurance building on Rt. 5 in E. Thetford. The building is brown and sits just south of the Post Office.
(802) 735-0681 View (802) 735-0681
Photo of Aubrey Welch, LCMHC, Counselor
Aubrey Welch
Counselor, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Wells River, VT 05081
I think the connection between a therapist and client is the most important aspect of the counseling work. When a good relationship is established you can reach your goals and challenge yourself in an environment that feels safe. I enjoy working with children, teens, and families in a variety of ways. I also enjoy supporting parents with the many challenges of raising children in todays society. My theoretical approach is supported by Internal Family Systems theory where we will work with parts of self to help understand, and support a healthier version of ourselves.
I think the connection between a therapist and client is the most important aspect of the counseling work. When a good relationship is established you can reach your goals and challenge yourself in an environment that feels safe. I enjoy working with children, teens, and families in a variety of ways. I also enjoy supporting parents with the many challenges of raising children in todays society. My theoretical approach is supported by Internal Family Systems theory where we will work with parts of self to help understand, and support a healthier version of ourselves.
(802) 424-8349 View (802) 424-8349
Photo of Kumari Patricia S Younce - Kumari Patricia Coach, MSW, MFA, CTA, Registered Psychotherapist
Kumari Patricia Coach
Registered Psychotherapist, MSW, MFA, CTA
Verified Verified
Strafford, VT 05072  (Online Only)
I am a life coach, counselor with a social work background. I believe in empowerment and the power of resiliency. I work with clients who are going through challenges and I lead them to transformations by listening, affirming and guiding their strengths. I believe in never giving up and the importance of community and reaching out to others. The first step in healing and creating change is walking through the door. I respect all differences and all stories and I work with individuals and I encourage stories to unfold over time. I work well with single parents and those who struggle with parenting, life transitions, stress.
I am a life coach, counselor with a social work background. I believe in empowerment and the power of resiliency. I work with clients who are going through challenges and I lead them to transformations by listening, affirming and guiding their strengths. I believe in never giving up and the importance of community and reaching out to others. The first step in healing and creating change is walking through the door. I respect all differences and all stories and I work with individuals and I encourage stories to unfold over time. I work well with single parents and those who struggle with parenting, life transitions, stress.
(802) 347-6642 View (802) 347-6642
Photo of Kimberly Lawrence Kol, PsyD, Psychologist
Kimberly Lawrence Kol
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
East Thetford, VT 05043
I am an active therapist, sensitive and authentic, with a deep respect for diversity and the individual's own path. Together we'll examine your life, alert to possible contradictions, exploring the wisdom or effectiveness of certain behaviors or beliefs. Through supportive listening, education, empowerment and expert guidance, you can become more aware of unhealthy patterns and hidden strengths, leading you to make positive changes to improve your life experience, strengthening your sense of what you want and what makes you feel good, moment to moment and long term. I do therapy with people struggling with a range of problems:
I am an active therapist, sensitive and authentic, with a deep respect for diversity and the individual's own path. Together we'll examine your life, alert to possible contradictions, exploring the wisdom or effectiveness of certain behaviors or beliefs. Through supportive listening, education, empowerment and expert guidance, you can become more aware of unhealthy patterns and hidden strengths, leading you to make positive changes to improve your life experience, strengthening your sense of what you want and what makes you feel good, moment to moment and long term. I do therapy with people struggling with a range of problems:
(802) 858-4993 View (802) 858-4993
Photo of Marge Crowe - Marjorie R Crowe, MSW, MSW, LICSW, ACSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Marjorie R Crowe, MSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW, ACSW
Verified Verified
Randolph, VT 05060
Not accepting new clients
I am most effective with people who want to do deep exploration and to grow spiritually and emotionally. We start with body awareness, developing skills to tolerate strong emotions and cultivate deeper connection with the resources that are inherent to us all. Using the Internal Family Systems model as the foundation, we will get to know parts of you who are burdened with painful emotions and beliefs and restore them to their natural state. We will increase your ability to live life from a calm, clear state.
I am most effective with people who want to do deep exploration and to grow spiritually and emotionally. We start with body awareness, developing skills to tolerate strong emotions and cultivate deeper connection with the resources that are inherent to us all. Using the Internal Family Systems model as the foundation, we will get to know parts of you who are burdened with painful emotions and beliefs and restore them to their natural state. We will increase your ability to live life from a calm, clear state.
(802) 589-4720 View (802) 589-4720
Photo of Lorraine A Kramer, MEd, LADC, Drug & Alcohol Counselor
Lorraine A Kramer
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, MEd, LADC
Verified Verified
Randolph, VT 05060
The goal of therapy is to help people rediscover their strengths and talents, often blocked or underdeveloped, so they can be happier and more fulfilled. Since 1987, my counseling practice has specialized in enhancing creativity and helping people overcome addictions. I work with professional artists seeking support on their path and with all people who have a desire to explore personal creativity in their lives. Through compassionate listening and a focus on connecting mind and body, I encourage people to develop a greater awareness of the present moment, their body's signals, thoughts, feelings and the needs that arise.
The goal of therapy is to help people rediscover their strengths and talents, often blocked or underdeveloped, so they can be happier and more fulfilled. Since 1987, my counseling practice has specialized in enhancing creativity and helping people overcome addictions. I work with professional artists seeking support on their path and with all people who have a desire to explore personal creativity in their lives. Through compassionate listening and a focus on connecting mind and body, I encourage people to develop a greater awareness of the present moment, their body's signals, thoughts, feelings and the needs that arise.
(802) 448-1575 View (802) 448-1575
Photo of Theressa Harrigan, MS, JD, LCMHC, Counselor
Theressa Harrigan
Counselor, MS, JD, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Bradford, VT 05033  (Online Only)
Over the last several years, we have all learned a great deal about our values. We have learned what we do and do not want out of life and our relationships. What is important is much clearer than before. Therapy can help navigate the way to that new life and to healthier relationships. I work with adults and couples of all ages with an emphasis on providing uncomplicated tools and communication skills strongly supported by research. Many clients struggle to stand up for themselves. I can teach that! Client sessions include humor, as it is a coping skill available to all of us.
Over the last several years, we have all learned a great deal about our values. We have learned what we do and do not want out of life and our relationships. What is important is much clearer than before. Therapy can help navigate the way to that new life and to healthier relationships. I work with adults and couples of all ages with an emphasis on providing uncomplicated tools and communication skills strongly supported by research. Many clients struggle to stand up for themselves. I can teach that! Client sessions include humor, as it is a coping skill available to all of us.
(802) 454-3144 View (802) 454-3144
Photo of Eve DesJardins, MA , MHC , DMT, Pre-Licensed Professional
Eve DesJardins
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA , MHC , DMT
Verified Verified
Chelsea, VT 05038
My strength-based practice welcomes children, tweens, primary caregivers - and individual adults. I work with men, women and non binary individuals. In my role as therapist, I act as guide, collaborator, and psycho-educator to help clients learn how to relate to thoughts, feelings, and a new sense of being. I support people to transform struggles into challenges that provide opportunity for growth. In sitting with you and your experiences, I offer validation, radical acceptance and compassion. I also invite clients to speak their truth about how I can best serve them. In these ways we share trust.
My strength-based practice welcomes children, tweens, primary caregivers - and individual adults. I work with men, women and non binary individuals. In my role as therapist, I act as guide, collaborator, and psycho-educator to help clients learn how to relate to thoughts, feelings, and a new sense of being. I support people to transform struggles into challenges that provide opportunity for growth. In sitting with you and your experiences, I offer validation, radical acceptance and compassion. I also invite clients to speak their truth about how I can best serve them. In these ways we share trust.
(802) 866-6599 View (802) 866-6599
Photo of Jessica B Londa, PhD, Psychologist
Jessica B Londa
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Thetford, VT 05074
The guiding philosophy of my practice is to help people understand themselves in the service of personal development within the context of a safe and reliable relationship with another person. I believe that deep and rich self-examination requires rigorous and systematic pursuit on the part of both therapist and patient as they work together. My philosophy places a high value on curiosity, creativity, purposeful aims, tolerance of discomfort, and the strength for meaningful work and satisfying relationships. These are experienced or learned through the medium of the psychotherapeutic relationship.
The guiding philosophy of my practice is to help people understand themselves in the service of personal development within the context of a safe and reliable relationship with another person. I believe that deep and rich self-examination requires rigorous and systematic pursuit on the part of both therapist and patient as they work together. My philosophy places a high value on curiosity, creativity, purposeful aims, tolerance of discomfort, and the strength for meaningful work and satisfying relationships. These are experienced or learned through the medium of the psychotherapeutic relationship.
(802) 785-2434 View (802) 785-2434
Photo of Mark Pehle, LCMHC, Counselor
Mark Pehle
Counselor, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Williamstown, VT 05679
Life can present us with very difficult situations and painful experiences. Sometimes we feel stuck. Coping skills that helped in the past may simply not help enough or even make things more difficult. In my practice, I work to provide a safe place in which you and I can build trust and explore together what you are dealing with. As we build a shared understanding of what you are facing and how your situation fits into the greater context of your life, we can work together to identify ways to respond that help you move forward.
Life can present us with very difficult situations and painful experiences. Sometimes we feel stuck. Coping skills that helped in the past may simply not help enough or even make things more difficult. In my practice, I work to provide a safe place in which you and I can build trust and explore together what you are dealing with. As we build a shared understanding of what you are facing and how your situation fits into the greater context of your life, we can work together to identify ways to respond that help you move forward.
(802) 236-8228 View (802) 236-8228
Photo of Gary Hillard, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Gary Hillard
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
Randolph, VT 05060
I have enjoyed working with individuals and families for over twenty years. I have extensive experience with families in difficult times, and in working with children who have difficulty in school.
I have enjoyed working with individuals and families for over twenty years. I have extensive experience with families in difficult times, and in working with children who have difficulty in school.
(802) 317-8121 View (802) 317-8121

See more therapy options for Orange County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Orange County, VT

40+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in Orange County, VT who prioritize treating:

85% Anxiety
79% Relationship Issues
79% Trauma and PTSD
74% Depression
64% Grief
64% Coping Skills
57% Self Esteem

Average years in practice

15 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

77% BlueCross and BlueShield
54% Medicaid
49% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Orange County, VT see their clients

62% In Person and Online
38% Online Only

Gender breakdown

77% Female
21% Male
2% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Orange County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.