Therapists in Virginia Beach, VA

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Photo of Beauty for Ashes Behavioral Health, PLLC in Virginia Beach, VA
Beauty for Ashes Behavioral Health, PLLC
MD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Virginia Beach, VA 23462  (Online Only)
Dr. Mary Butler, MD, the founder of Beauty For Ashes Behavioral Health, PLLC, is a skilled medical doctor. Her top priority is improving the mental health and well-being of her clients. She understands that it can be challenging to seek help when dealing with grief and mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression, PTSD, or others that may leave you feeling isolated, exhausted, misunderstood, and overwhelmed. Dr. Butler strives to offer clients a comfortable and safe environment to discuss their concerns without feeling rushed.
Dr. Mary Butler, MD, the founder of Beauty For Ashes Behavioral Health, PLLC, is a skilled medical doctor. Her top priority is improving the mental health and well-being of her clients. She understands that it can be challenging to seek help when dealing with grief and mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression, PTSD, or others that may leave you feeling isolated, exhausted, misunderstood, and overwhelmed. Dr. Butler strives to offer clients a comfortable and safe environment to discuss their concerns without feeling rushed.
(757) 418-6195 View (757) 418-6195
Photo of Melody Diehl Counseling, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia Beach, VA
Melody Diehl Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, RPT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Virginia Beach, VA 23462
Greetings! It is my desire to provide a safe environment, tailor fit to each client so that they may be empowered to reach their fullest potential. I work with all ages; children, adolescents, teens and adults. Problems occur when a client reaches a "stuck point." My goal is to help children, teens, or adults get "unstuck" from stress, emotional injury, and traumatic life events. I use a person centered "wellness" model to encourage and provide emotional support and guidance to each client on their journey.
Greetings! It is my desire to provide a safe environment, tailor fit to each client so that they may be empowered to reach their fullest potential. I work with all ages; children, adolescents, teens and adults. Problems occur when a client reaches a "stuck point." My goal is to help children, teens, or adults get "unstuck" from stress, emotional injury, and traumatic life events. I use a person centered "wellness" model to encourage and provide emotional support and guidance to each client on their journey.
(757) 520-5053 View (757) 520-5053
Photo of Desaray Garland, Pre-Licensed Professional in Virginia Beach, VA
Desaray Garland
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23451  (Online Only)
Welcome to Mindful Journey Therapeutic Services! I am a Clinical Therapist and a Group Support Leader. I provide a safe space for women to allow them to explore their true thoughts and feelings while developing healthier habits and coping skills. A goal of mine is to help women while they cannot control every aspect of the world around them, they can take control of how they interpret and deal with things in their environment. I am a person-centered therapist that provides a holistic approach focusing on the client's needs. I have experience working with Adults, Couples, Families, and Group Therapy.
Welcome to Mindful Journey Therapeutic Services! I am a Clinical Therapist and a Group Support Leader. I provide a safe space for women to allow them to explore their true thoughts and feelings while developing healthier habits and coping skills. A goal of mine is to help women while they cannot control every aspect of the world around them, they can take control of how they interpret and deal with things in their environment. I am a person-centered therapist that provides a holistic approach focusing on the client's needs. I have experience working with Adults, Couples, Families, and Group Therapy.
(757) 997-6984 View (757) 997-6984
Photo of Karion Walker, Pre-Licensed Professional in Virginia Beach, VA
Karion Walker
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23452
Karion Walker is a Resident in Counseling in the state of Virginia, who has over 5 years of working in the mental health field, providing therapeutic care and psychoeducation to adults, couples, and adolescents seeking help with anxiety, depression, behavioral issues, coping skills, and anger management. Karion completed his Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and his Master’s in Mental Health Counseling at Old Dominion University.
Karion Walker is a Resident in Counseling in the state of Virginia, who has over 5 years of working in the mental health field, providing therapeutic care and psychoeducation to adults, couples, and adolescents seeking help with anxiety, depression, behavioral issues, coping skills, and anger management. Karion completed his Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and his Master’s in Mental Health Counseling at Old Dominion University.
(757) 654-2324 View (757) 654-2324
Photo of Karen L. Mattox, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia Beach, VA
Karen L. Mattox
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA
Verified
1 Endorsed
Virginia Beach, VA 23464
Experiencing a loss in your life? It could be the death of a friend, loved one, or pet, divorce, loss of a job, or any other kind of loss. I can help you. I have extensive experience dealing with grief and loss. Call or email for an appointment and let's see how working together, we can help you heal. I can help you come to terms with your losses. Be sure to ask for Karen when you call.
Experiencing a loss in your life? It could be the death of a friend, loved one, or pet, divorce, loss of a job, or any other kind of loss. I can help you. I have extensive experience dealing with grief and loss. Call or email for an appointment and let's see how working together, we can help you heal. I can help you come to terms with your losses. Be sure to ask for Karen when you call.
(757) 699-5972 View (757) 699-5972
Photo of Betsy Murdock, MS LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia Beach, VA
Betsy Murdock, MS LPC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23451  (Online Only)
Life can be challenging, and sometimes we can get overwhelmed or lose our way. A therapist can be a strong support to help you achieve some balance, to improve mood, find relief from anxiety or depression, and to create healthier relationships (boy/girlfriend, spouse, family, coworkers, etc). We can also explore what it is you want out of life, and help you work to reach your goals. Sometimes we just need to clear negative thoughts and self-defeating beliefs that no longer serve us.
Life can be challenging, and sometimes we can get overwhelmed or lose our way. A therapist can be a strong support to help you achieve some balance, to improve mood, find relief from anxiety or depression, and to create healthier relationships (boy/girlfriend, spouse, family, coworkers, etc). We can also explore what it is you want out of life, and help you work to reach your goals. Sometimes we just need to clear negative thoughts and self-defeating beliefs that no longer serve us.
(757) 210-5472 View (757) 210-5472
Photo of Heather Cosimo, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia Beach, VA
Heather Cosimo
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, LMHC, CCMHC, PMH-C
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23464  (Online Only)
Are you noticing the desire to make changes? You may be struggling with anxious thoughts, self doubt, worries or stress. Transitions such as moving, having a baby, dealing with relationships or the loss/desire of one are all things that happen and can be overwhelming. Are you looking to gain a deeper awareness, develop healthy coping skills, or manage what may feel like is out of control? Maybe it's simply time to process what's going on, find or renew that sense of inner strength and confidence.
Are you noticing the desire to make changes? You may be struggling with anxious thoughts, self doubt, worries or stress. Transitions such as moving, having a baby, dealing with relationships or the loss/desire of one are all things that happen and can be overwhelming. Are you looking to gain a deeper awareness, develop healthy coping skills, or manage what may feel like is out of control? Maybe it's simply time to process what's going on, find or renew that sense of inner strength and confidence.
(757) 909-6070 View (757) 909-6070
Photo of Jerome S Blackman, Licensed Psychoanalyst in Virginia Beach, VA
Jerome S Blackman
Licensed Psychoanalyst, MD, FIPA, Prof
Verified
1 Endorsed
Virginia Beach, VA 23456
Adults try to solve problems themselves. Arguments with spouses or relatives, phobias, infidelity, porn addiction, or even workaholism can often be settled. When they are persistent, people consult me to figure out what's going on. If I can find factors in their functioning of which they are unaware, and bring those to their attention, they may be able to find solutions. One goal of mine and my patients is to solve problems and be done with me and treatment. Confidentiality is critical. You will not see anyone else except my office manager. I treat people and consult with therapists daily.
Adults try to solve problems themselves. Arguments with spouses or relatives, phobias, infidelity, porn addiction, or even workaholism can often be settled. When they are persistent, people consult me to figure out what's going on. If I can find factors in their functioning of which they are unaware, and bring those to their attention, they may be able to find solutions. One goal of mine and my patients is to solve problems and be done with me and treatment. Confidentiality is critical. You will not see anyone else except my office manager. I treat people and consult with therapists daily.
(757) 655-9256 View (757) 655-9256
Photo of Anna Bezemer, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Virginia Beach, VA
Anna Bezemer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23462
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) with a master's in clinical social work, based in Richmond Virginia. I work with adult clients of all backgrounds, while specializing in following areas: LGBTQ+, kink/polyamory/ethically non-monogamous relationships, sex workers, and substance use/misuse recovery and harm reduction. I am passionate about helping people feel comfortable and safe in their own skins and gain tools to manage their day to day lives.
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) with a master's in clinical social work, based in Richmond Virginia. I work with adult clients of all backgrounds, while specializing in following areas: LGBTQ+, kink/polyamory/ethically non-monogamous relationships, sex workers, and substance use/misuse recovery and harm reduction. I am passionate about helping people feel comfortable and safe in their own skins and gain tools to manage their day to day lives.
(757) 979-6902 View (757) 979-6902
Photo of Natasha Robinson, Resident in Counseling in Virginia Beach, VA
Natasha Robinson
Resident in Counseling, MA, LPC-R,
Verified
1 Endorsed
Virginia Beach, VA 23452
Allow me to show you the path to greatness, by giving you the tools to overcome your obstacles in life. It is my honor to help you work through difficult feelings or stressors that may affect your day-to-day life.
Allow me to show you the path to greatness, by giving you the tools to overcome your obstacles in life. It is my honor to help you work through difficult feelings or stressors that may affect your day-to-day life.
(757) 906-3878 View (757) 906-3878
Photo of Nailah Washington, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia Beach, VA
Nailah Washington
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23452  (Online Only)
Nailah earned a master’s degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling. She is a Licensed Professional Counselor in the Commonwealth of Virginia. She specializes in sexual dysfunction, sex education, intimacy issues, paraphilias, LGBTQIA2S+ community, trauma, gender dysphoria, transgender, the entire spectrum of sexuality and gender constructs.
Nailah earned a master’s degree in Clinical Mental Health Counseling. She is a Licensed Professional Counselor in the Commonwealth of Virginia. She specializes in sexual dysfunction, sex education, intimacy issues, paraphilias, LGBTQIA2S+ community, trauma, gender dysphoria, transgender, the entire spectrum of sexuality and gender constructs.
(571) 520-3886 View (571) 520-3886
Photo of Silver Lake Psychology, Psychologist in Virginia Beach, VA
Silver Lake Psychology
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23452
Learn how to feel more connected to yourself, others, and the world around you. Therapy provides all the elements of intimacy: honest communication, vulnerability, and trust. Good therapy is challenging yet warm, providing both structure and empathy for your unique experience.
Learn how to feel more connected to yourself, others, and the world around you. Therapy provides all the elements of intimacy: honest communication, vulnerability, and trust. Good therapy is challenging yet warm, providing both structure and empathy for your unique experience.
(757) 654-1374 View (757) 654-1374
Photo of Alexandra Johnson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Virginia Beach, VA
Alexandra Johnson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23464
Welcome! My name is Alex Johnson (she/her/hers). Working with a new therapist can be stressful - whether you have been in therapy before or not - so give yourself a pat on the back for taking care of your mental health. It takes courage to seek help and practice self-reflection, and I would be grateful to go on this journey with you. I have over four years of professional experience in various settings, including inpatient, outpatient and crisis call centers. I have helped people work through substance use disorders, depression, anxiety, trauma, eating disorders, acute mental illnesses, and crises.
Welcome! My name is Alex Johnson (she/her/hers). Working with a new therapist can be stressful - whether you have been in therapy before or not - so give yourself a pat on the back for taking care of your mental health. It takes courage to seek help and practice self-reflection, and I would be grateful to go on this journey with you. I have over four years of professional experience in various settings, including inpatient, outpatient and crisis call centers. I have helped people work through substance use disorders, depression, anxiety, trauma, eating disorders, acute mental illnesses, and crises.
(757) 835-3572 x1 View (757) 835-3572 x1
Photo of Rosa Avant, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia Beach, VA
Rosa Avant
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, CCTP, CSAC, EMDR, SUP-LPC
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23464
I have a passion for working with individuals, families, and couples addressing issues such as anxiety, depression, PTSD, mood disorders, ADHD, Substance use, anger management, self-esteem, trauma, domestic and sexual violence, and relationship difficulties. I’m passionate about helping identify and break the link to generational trauma. I also provide Premarital counseling. Please visit https://truemissionservices.com/
I have a passion for working with individuals, families, and couples addressing issues such as anxiety, depression, PTSD, mood disorders, ADHD, Substance use, anger management, self-esteem, trauma, domestic and sexual violence, and relationship difficulties. I’m passionate about helping identify and break the link to generational trauma. I also provide Premarital counseling. Please visit https://truemissionservices.com/
(757) 347-8836 View (757) 347-8836
Photo of Kristin Bates, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Virginia Beach, VA
Kristin Bates
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23452  (Online Only)
Whether you’re facing new personal challenges, feeling overwhelmed by life’s stresses, seeking self-growth, or looking for help for your teen or tween, I am grateful to explore the possibility of therapy with you. I am passionate about creating a safe, nonjudgmental environment to process your thoughts and concerns together. I value being present with you and exploring how you can utilize your strengths to overcome life’s challenges. My hope is that through therapy you will feel supported, encouraged, and empowered to reach your personal goals. My therapy style is not only heart warming but tough love and support as well in nature.
Whether you’re facing new personal challenges, feeling overwhelmed by life’s stresses, seeking self-growth, or looking for help for your teen or tween, I am grateful to explore the possibility of therapy with you. I am passionate about creating a safe, nonjudgmental environment to process your thoughts and concerns together. I value being present with you and exploring how you can utilize your strengths to overcome life’s challenges. My hope is that through therapy you will feel supported, encouraged, and empowered to reach your personal goals. My therapy style is not only heart warming but tough love and support as well in nature.
(757) 919-9360 View (757) 919-9360
Photo of Nerissa Jones, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia Beach, VA
Nerissa Jones
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23452
As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I work predominantly with adults who suffer with chronic and persistent mental health issues such as Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and other major mood, psychotic and delusion disorders. I also address anxiety disorders and the daily functional problems that often accompany these long-term debilitating disorders like low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, anhedonia, limited emotional responses, low motivation, negative cognitions, poor social skills, and difficulty with completing simple life tasks.
As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I work predominantly with adults who suffer with chronic and persistent mental health issues such as Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and other major mood, psychotic and delusion disorders. I also address anxiety disorders and the daily functional problems that often accompany these long-term debilitating disorders like low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, anhedonia, limited emotional responses, low motivation, negative cognitions, poor social skills, and difficulty with completing simple life tasks.
(757) 799-1245 View (757) 799-1245
Photo of Holistic Life Services, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia Beach, VA
Holistic Life Services
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23462
Holistic Life practices include an integration of Mind-Body interventions to meet the need of the individuals that are receiving services. Those services include but are not limited to (Health and Wellness Coaching, Functional Nutrition, various forms of Meditation (including Movement Meditation) and Guided Imagery. Due to my extensive background in education, I am very familiar with the school system and higher education. This experience has made me an asset for children and young adults ages 6 to 28. Our counselors are certified trauma specialist and enjoy seeing trauma survivors and people with depression of ALL AGES.
Holistic Life practices include an integration of Mind-Body interventions to meet the need of the individuals that are receiving services. Those services include but are not limited to (Health and Wellness Coaching, Functional Nutrition, various forms of Meditation (including Movement Meditation) and Guided Imagery. Due to my extensive background in education, I am very familiar with the school system and higher education. This experience has made me an asset for children and young adults ages 6 to 28. Our counselors are certified trauma specialist and enjoy seeing trauma survivors and people with depression of ALL AGES.
(757) 347-4325 View (757) 347-4325
Photo of Michelle De Rosa, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia Beach, VA
Michelle De Rosa
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Virginia Beach, VA 23452  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Are you suffering from anxiety, panic, or intrusive thoughts? Have you experienced traumatic events that are negatively affecting your life and relationships? Perhaps you are feeling misunderstood and confused by life events or emotional changes. Chronic illnesses and disabilities - both physical and psychological - can be isolating and difficult to cope with alone. Clients who see me are often struggling with these stressors, searching for relief and control over their lives. Counseling is challenging, but the results - and YOU - are worth it! I am your advocate for healing as we work together to meet your goals. I am your ally.
Are you suffering from anxiety, panic, or intrusive thoughts? Have you experienced traumatic events that are negatively affecting your life and relationships? Perhaps you are feeling misunderstood and confused by life events or emotional changes. Chronic illnesses and disabilities - both physical and psychological - can be isolating and difficult to cope with alone. Clients who see me are often struggling with these stressors, searching for relief and control over their lives. Counseling is challenging, but the results - and YOU - are worth it! I am your advocate for healing as we work together to meet your goals. I am your ally.
(430) 206-1304 View (430) 206-1304
Photo of Katara Ratliff, Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia Beach, VA
Katara Ratliff
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23455
If you're looking for a relaxed, inviting, non-judgmental, safe space where you can be your true self, this is the place for you! I am a Licensed Professional Counselor in the state of Virginia. I have worked in the mental health field as a residential counselor, community-based counselor, and therapist for several years. My education includes a 2005 bachelor's in social work from Norfolk State University and a 2013 M.A. in professional counseling. I do individual therapy with adults and children over the age of thirteen. I specialize in mood disorders, CBT, at-risk youth, and anxiety.
If you're looking for a relaxed, inviting, non-judgmental, safe space where you can be your true self, this is the place for you! I am a Licensed Professional Counselor in the state of Virginia. I have worked in the mental health field as a residential counselor, community-based counselor, and therapist for several years. My education includes a 2005 bachelor's in social work from Norfolk State University and a 2013 M.A. in professional counseling. I do individual therapy with adults and children over the age of thirteen. I specialize in mood disorders, CBT, at-risk youth, and anxiety.
(757) 854-6821 View (757) 854-6821
Photo of Nancy Welsh, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Virginia Beach, VA
Nancy Welsh
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Virginia Beach, VA 23453
Hello, my name is Nancy Welsh, a bilingual (English & Spanish) Licensed Clinical Social Worker. More specifically, I am a strong advocate and educator in mental health growth, insightfulness, development, and healing, while also normalizing the importance of mental health therapy. Apart from incorporating evidence-based treatment models in my work with clients, I integrate empowerment, hope, collaboration, and resiliency. I am of the firm belief that every person has room for growth and the ability for happiness and fulfillment.
Hello, my name is Nancy Welsh, a bilingual (English & Spanish) Licensed Clinical Social Worker. More specifically, I am a strong advocate and educator in mental health growth, insightfulness, development, and healing, while also normalizing the importance of mental health therapy. Apart from incorporating evidence-based treatment models in my work with clients, I integrate empowerment, hope, collaboration, and resiliency. I am of the firm belief that every person has room for growth and the ability for happiness and fulfillment.
(757) 792-8374 View (757) 792-8374

See more therapy options for Virginia Beach

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Virginia Beach, VA

1,000+

Average cost per session

$135

Therapists in Virginia Beach, VA who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
90% Depression
78% Self Esteem
75% Coping Skills
73% Trauma and PTSD
73% Stress
71% Relationship Issues

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

75% BlueCross and BlueShield
74% Aetna
72% Anthem | Elevance

How Therapists in Virginia Beach, VA see their clients

63% In Person and Online
37% Online Only

Gender breakdown

85% Female
14% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Virginia Beach?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.