Therapists in Stafford County, VA

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Photo of Wendy Sittner, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Stafford County, VA
Wendy Sittner
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Stafford, VA 22554  (Online Only)
Wendy Sittner is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who received a Master of Social Work from Virginia Commonwealth University’s School of Social Work and a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and Spanish from the University of Virginia. Wendy prioritizes equity and empowers clients to maximize their strengths and enhance their natural support systems. She offers therapy in English and Spanish, and specializes in trauma-informed treatment of anxiety, depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
Wendy Sittner is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker who received a Master of Social Work from Virginia Commonwealth University’s School of Social Work and a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and Spanish from the University of Virginia. Wendy prioritizes equity and empowers clients to maximize their strengths and enhance their natural support systems. She offers therapy in English and Spanish, and specializes in trauma-informed treatment of anxiety, depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
(540) 235-5463 View (540) 235-5463
Photo of Elena Acosta, Pre-Licensed Professional in Stafford County, VA
Elena Acosta
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW
Verified Verified
Stafford, VA 22554  (Online Only)
Currently accepting new clients! - If you are feeling overwhelmed, anxious, unmotivated, or just need a safe space to process the many obstacles of life, you've come to the right place. I believe as humans, we all ultimately want to be heard, understood, respected, and validated. My areas of specialization include working with individuals with anxiety, depression, stress, and trauma. I have a unique personality which allows me to quickly build rapport with a diverse demographic. As a Latina woman, I am sensitive to and have experience with a range of different cultures.
Currently accepting new clients! - If you are feeling overwhelmed, anxious, unmotivated, or just need a safe space to process the many obstacles of life, you've come to the right place. I believe as humans, we all ultimately want to be heard, understood, respected, and validated. My areas of specialization include working with individuals with anxiety, depression, stress, and trauma. I have a unique personality which allows me to quickly build rapport with a diverse demographic. As a Latina woman, I am sensitive to and have experience with a range of different cultures.
(540) 698-5769 View (540) 698-5769
Photo of Gentle Spirit Therapy & Consulting, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Stafford County, VA
Gentle Spirit Therapy & Consulting
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Stafford, VA 22554
Waitlist for new clients
Gentle Spirit, Bold Faith, Impactful Interactions! I am Ayanna Pulley, a Licensed Clinician, with 25+years of experience providing mental health therapy to children, adolescents & families. I'm honored to be a faith-based, strengths perspective clinician with a heart to stand with those who desire change. I work with individuals who long to take charge of their emotional health and want to be supported in that courageous process. Many clients experience relief from processing trauma, loss and other unwanted changes in a supportive & validating way. My clients value therapy interactions that amplify their voices, interests and needs.
Gentle Spirit, Bold Faith, Impactful Interactions! I am Ayanna Pulley, a Licensed Clinician, with 25+years of experience providing mental health therapy to children, adolescents & families. I'm honored to be a faith-based, strengths perspective clinician with a heart to stand with those who desire change. I work with individuals who long to take charge of their emotional health and want to be supported in that courageous process. Many clients experience relief from processing trauma, loss and other unwanted changes in a supportive & validating way. My clients value therapy interactions that amplify their voices, interests and needs.
(540) 696-5552 View (540) 696-5552
Photo of Kandra Orr, Art Therapist in Stafford County, VA
Kandra Orr
Art Therapist, MS, ATR-BC
Not Verified Not Verified
Stafford, VA 22554
Do you long for more peace of mind and relief from troubling feelings? I am devoted to nurturing the mind and spirit. I use a holistic approach to help you develop insight as well as the power of creativity to help you process and transform difficult thoughts and feelings.
Do you long for more peace of mind and relief from troubling feelings? I am devoted to nurturing the mind and spirit. I use a holistic approach to help you develop insight as well as the power of creativity to help you process and transform difficult thoughts and feelings.
(540) 307-4909 View (540) 307-4909
Photo of Diera Parham-Carruthers, Licensed Professional Counselor in Stafford County, VA
Diera Parham-Carruthers
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC, CSOTP, CAGCS, CCTAP
Verified Verified
Stafford, VA 22554  (Online Only)
I have a straightforward and to the point approach to therapy. I encompass evidence-based therapeutic techniques in my sessions and utilizes an integrative therapeutic approach when working with clients. I feel like people should have the most supportive resources to heal appropriate and become better people. I encourage people to find a therapist that they can be open with and address their therapeutic concerns. I realize that the therapist and client must work openly together to reach the client's therapeutic goals so I feel people should find a therapist that they feel comfortable with.
I have a straightforward and to the point approach to therapy. I encompass evidence-based therapeutic techniques in my sessions and utilizes an integrative therapeutic approach when working with clients. I feel like people should have the most supportive resources to heal appropriate and become better people. I encourage people to find a therapist that they can be open with and address their therapeutic concerns. I realize that the therapist and client must work openly together to reach the client's therapeutic goals so I feel people should find a therapist that they feel comfortable with.
(540) 696-5395 View (540) 696-5395
Photo of Bright Horizons Counseling Services, Licensed Professional Counselor in Stafford County, VA
Bright Horizons Counseling Services
Licensed Professional Counselor
Verified Verified
Stafford, VA 22554
At Bright Horizons, we know all people face obstacles they don’t know how to overcome on their own which are stopping them from living their best life. When people don’t have the tools to overcome the obstacles they face, their lives often become hopeless and they give up. Bright Horizons provides a supportive space where people learn to overcome these obstacles, so they’re empowered to live their best life now.
At Bright Horizons, we know all people face obstacles they don’t know how to overcome on their own which are stopping them from living their best life. When people don’t have the tools to overcome the obstacles they face, their lives often become hopeless and they give up. Bright Horizons provides a supportive space where people learn to overcome these obstacles, so they’re empowered to live their best life now.
(540) 889-0813 View (540) 889-0813
Photo of Aleksandra Startek, Licensed Professional Counselor in Stafford County, VA
Aleksandra Startek
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MSEd, NCC, CCTP-II, LSC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Everyone has a story, they just need a safe place to share it. I am honored for you to consider me to assist you in navigating this journey. I believe that asking for help is a sign of strength and that successful therapy begins with finding the right therapist for yourself. I am here to accompany you on this path. I provide an empathic, non-judgmental, and client-centered environment where you can explore your unique feelings and experiences, set achievable goals, and process difficulties. In our sessions, we will go beyond just the "talk therapy,” and will include your emotional, mental, physical, and spiritual well-being.
Everyone has a story, they just need a safe place to share it. I am honored for you to consider me to assist you in navigating this journey. I believe that asking for help is a sign of strength and that successful therapy begins with finding the right therapist for yourself. I am here to accompany you on this path. I provide an empathic, non-judgmental, and client-centered environment where you can explore your unique feelings and experiences, set achievable goals, and process difficulties. In our sessions, we will go beyond just the "talk therapy,” and will include your emotional, mental, physical, and spiritual well-being.
(540) 210-1358 View (540) 210-1358
Photo of Sherice Greene, Pre-Licensed Professional in Stafford County, VA
Sherice Greene
Pre-Licensed Professional, MS, RIC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Are you having a hard time enjoying life or find it overwhelming to take steps towards the life you want? Did you experience difficult events now or in the past? Whether yourself of a loved one has been struggling with something for some time, I am here to help.
Are you having a hard time enjoying life or find it overwhelming to take steps towards the life you want? Did you experience difficult events now or in the past? Whether yourself of a loved one has been struggling with something for some time, I am here to help.
(540) 516-5909 View (540) 516-5909
Photo of Kendra M Griffin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Stafford County, VA
Kendra M Griffin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Stafford, VA 22554  (Online Only)
I have a particular passion for helping individuals who feel trapped or consumed by their past experiences. I often work with people with fear based belief systems. Fear based belief systems often arise from past experiences, or personal insecurities leading you to perceive the world through a lens of apprehension or anxiety. Clients come to me for help with feelings of inadequacy, failure, rejection or lack of control. We work together to identify and shift these beliefs as a part of personal development and growth.
I have a particular passion for helping individuals who feel trapped or consumed by their past experiences. I often work with people with fear based belief systems. Fear based belief systems often arise from past experiences, or personal insecurities leading you to perceive the world through a lens of apprehension or anxiety. Clients come to me for help with feelings of inadequacy, failure, rejection or lack of control. We work together to identify and shift these beliefs as a part of personal development and growth.
(540) 516-5022 View (540) 516-5022
Photo of Diana Leigh Jones, Licensed Professional Counselor in Stafford County, VA
Diana Leigh Jones
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Stafford, VA 22554  (Online Only)
I work with individuals, families, and couples. I have worked with clients with a wide range of issues, including (but not limited to): depression, anxiety, gender dysphoria, interpersonal relationships, and other mental health and developmental concerns. I utilize a Person-Centered theoretical base, allowing the client to be the expert as I accompany him/her on the therapeutic journey. Employing techniques including Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Wellness, my goal with every client is to take a holistic approach to aid in improving overall quality of life.
I work with individuals, families, and couples. I have worked with clients with a wide range of issues, including (but not limited to): depression, anxiety, gender dysphoria, interpersonal relationships, and other mental health and developmental concerns. I utilize a Person-Centered theoretical base, allowing the client to be the expert as I accompany him/her on the therapeutic journey. Employing techniques including Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Wellness, my goal with every client is to take a holistic approach to aid in improving overall quality of life.
(571) 497-5438 x101 View (571) 497-5438 x101
Photo of Bradd Buckingham, Licensed Professional Counselor in Stafford County, VA
Bradd Buckingham
Licensed Professional Counselor, MACMH, LPC, CTP, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Not accepting new clients
I see counseling as a collaborative process where my goal is to guide you in leveraging your strengths to initiate and sustain meaningful changes in your life. I address various issues in counseling, including but not limited to depression, stress management, anxiety, grief and loss, family changes, complex trauma, aging, communication problems, and behavioral issues. My approach integrates multiple theoretical perspectives, such as existential, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral techniques, tailored to meet your specific needs. Together, we will delve into the factors contributing to your experiences, aiming to help you derive
I see counseling as a collaborative process where my goal is to guide you in leveraging your strengths to initiate and sustain meaningful changes in your life. I address various issues in counseling, including but not limited to depression, stress management, anxiety, grief and loss, family changes, complex trauma, aging, communication problems, and behavioral issues. My approach integrates multiple theoretical perspectives, such as existential, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral techniques, tailored to meet your specific needs. Together, we will delve into the factors contributing to your experiences, aiming to help you derive
(540) 534-5426 View (540) 534-5426
Photo of Tamara Carter, Licensed Professional Counselor in Stafford County, VA
Tamara Carter
Licensed Professional Counselor, LSATP, CCTP-II, CGP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Stafford, VA 22554  (Online Only)
My role as a therapist is to provide an environment that is inviting and beneficial to you.  That means that, at all times, I will accept you as you are and be respectful of your rights, your time, and your position as architect and navigator of your own journey.  I will continually work to build and establish trust with you, being transparent and genuine during our interactions, so that you feel safe and comfortable enough to do the very important work ahead of you.
My role as a therapist is to provide an environment that is inviting and beneficial to you.  That means that, at all times, I will accept you as you are and be respectful of your rights, your time, and your position as architect and navigator of your own journey.  I will continually work to build and establish trust with you, being transparent and genuine during our interactions, so that you feel safe and comfortable enough to do the very important work ahead of you.
(571) 600-6940 View (571) 600-6940
Photo of Therapeutic and Behavior Concepts, PLLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Stafford County, VA
Therapeutic and Behavior Concepts, PLLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Fredericksburg, VA 22405  (Online Only)
Gabrelle believes it isn't about being our perfect selves, but more about gaining knowledge and control of our real selves.
Gabrelle believes it isn't about being our perfect selves, but more about gaining knowledge and control of our real selves.
(540) 386-1900 View (540) 386-1900
Photo of Healthy Emotions for Life's Problems (HELP), LLC, Licensed Professional Counselor in Stafford County, VA
Healthy Emotions for Life's Problems (HELP), LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, PsyD
Verified Verified
Stafford, VA 22556  (Online Only)
I have experience working with various populations, but in particular working with families going through difficult transitions such as marital concerns, custody disputes, separations and/or divorce. These transitions can entail needing conflict resolutions, trauma specialist and/or anger management while not only working on oneself but working on better relationships with one's partner, spouse and/or children. I have experience working with all ages as well as working in forensic populations and in a group practice with individuals, couples and families with various severe mental health diagnosis.
I have experience working with various populations, but in particular working with families going through difficult transitions such as marital concerns, custody disputes, separations and/or divorce. These transitions can entail needing conflict resolutions, trauma specialist and/or anger management while not only working on oneself but working on better relationships with one's partner, spouse and/or children. I have experience working with all ages as well as working in forensic populations and in a group practice with individuals, couples and families with various severe mental health diagnosis.
(540) 502-4784 View (540) 502-4784
Photo of Inspired Life Psychological Services, Pre-Licensed Professional in Stafford County, VA
Inspired Life Psychological Services
Pre-Licensed Professional, PsyD
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Fredericksburg, VA 22406  (Online Only)
Welcome! Reaching out for help is not always easy. Like you, many people have experienced anxiety, depression, life stress, relationship issues, and trauma. Some have tried to heal on their own and struggled. Others have tried talk therapy and felt disheartened by it. Many clients show up here when they have lost hope in their healing journey. To minimize this, a unique and evidence-based approach that allows the brain and body to heal is provided here. Healing your body and brain is crucial to feeling better. Some clients have seen a positive change in their mood, thoughts, and behaviors in 2-3 sessions. Sound interesting? It is.
Welcome! Reaching out for help is not always easy. Like you, many people have experienced anxiety, depression, life stress, relationship issues, and trauma. Some have tried to heal on their own and struggled. Others have tried talk therapy and felt disheartened by it. Many clients show up here when they have lost hope in their healing journey. To minimize this, a unique and evidence-based approach that allows the brain and body to heal is provided here. Healing your body and brain is crucial to feeling better. Some clients have seen a positive change in their mood, thoughts, and behaviors in 2-3 sessions. Sound interesting? It is.
(540) 779-1250 View (540) 779-1250
Photo of Alexis Ryan in Stafford County, VA
Alexis Ryan
NP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Fredericksburg, VA 22407  (Online Only)
Alexis Ryan is a board-certified psychiatric nurse practitioner with her Master’s of Science in Nursing acquired from Vanderbilt University’s No. 1 ranked program in the country. She combines expertise and evidence-based approaches to care with an unflagging commitment to compassion and kindness in order to treat a variety of psychiatric disorders with particular proficiency in mood disorders, trauma-related disorders, substance use disorders, and eating disorders. Alexis utilizes psychotherapy, creates treatment plans, prescribes clinically-supported medications, and provides diagnostic clarity and education.
Alexis Ryan is a board-certified psychiatric nurse practitioner with her Master’s of Science in Nursing acquired from Vanderbilt University’s No. 1 ranked program in the country. She combines expertise and evidence-based approaches to care with an unflagging commitment to compassion and kindness in order to treat a variety of psychiatric disorders with particular proficiency in mood disorders, trauma-related disorders, substance use disorders, and eating disorders. Alexis utilizes psychotherapy, creates treatment plans, prescribes clinically-supported medications, and provides diagnostic clarity and education.
(540) 501-5436 View (540) 501-5436
Photo of Face Forward Addiction Counseling, Licensed Professional Counselor in Stafford County, VA
Face Forward Addiction Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor, LSATP, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Stafford, VA 22554  (Online Only)
Face Forward's addictio rogram works to create a safe and individualized space where people impacted by addiction can continue their journey of self-development and interpersonal learning. With a focus on group therapy, we serve as a guide to help individuals gain a deeper understanding of themselves and how they interact with the world around them. Individual sessions at Face Forward are based in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and along with group therapy assist clients in acquiring valuable skills such as emotional regulation, insight into the importance o self care, and learn effective methods for maintaining their recovery.
Face Forward's addictio rogram works to create a safe and individualized space where people impacted by addiction can continue their journey of self-development and interpersonal learning. With a focus on group therapy, we serve as a guide to help individuals gain a deeper understanding of themselves and how they interact with the world around them. Individual sessions at Face Forward are based in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and along with group therapy assist clients in acquiring valuable skills such as emotional regulation, insight into the importance o self care, and learn effective methods for maintaining their recovery.
(717) 773-4080 View (717) 773-4080
Photo of Tiffany L Daniels, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Stafford County, VA
Tiffany L Daniels
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Life is a journey that we all go through, and it presents us with many obstacles to navigate. Sometimes these obstacles can present us with challenges that can lead us to feel depressed, overwhelmed, stressed, withdrawn, or even isolated. When we learn to create balance in our life, we begin to feel a sense of joy and happiness for the person we are meant to be. I would like to partner with you as you explore life’s challenges and concerns and help you in identifying feelings and thought patterns and assist you in developing effective coping and self-care strategies that will strengthen your everyday life.
Life is a journey that we all go through, and it presents us with many obstacles to navigate. Sometimes these obstacles can present us with challenges that can lead us to feel depressed, overwhelmed, stressed, withdrawn, or even isolated. When we learn to create balance in our life, we begin to feel a sense of joy and happiness for the person we are meant to be. I would like to partner with you as you explore life’s challenges and concerns and help you in identifying feelings and thought patterns and assist you in developing effective coping and self-care strategies that will strengthen your everyday life.
(540) 202-1777 View (540) 202-1777
Photo of Amy Ruesche, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Stafford County, VA
Amy Ruesche
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW, MA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Garrisonville, VA 22463  (Online Only)
Feeling isolated and lonely. Unable to imagine a happy future without your person in it. Being told "it'll get better in time," which only makes your pain feel dismissed and unheard. Sleeplessness, anger, guilt, and disbelief have become central to your daily life. You want to be able to accept the reality of the loss, speak about it, and openly mourn it. Maybe you're feeling the additional loss of friendships because people are uncomfortable around your grief. You want to feel in control of your emotions, find a way through the darkness, and re-engage in a meaningful life while maintaining the love and connection with your person.
Feeling isolated and lonely. Unable to imagine a happy future without your person in it. Being told "it'll get better in time," which only makes your pain feel dismissed and unheard. Sleeplessness, anger, guilt, and disbelief have become central to your daily life. You want to be able to accept the reality of the loss, speak about it, and openly mourn it. Maybe you're feeling the additional loss of friendships because people are uncomfortable around your grief. You want to feel in control of your emotions, find a way through the darkness, and re-engage in a meaningful life while maintaining the love and connection with your person.
(540) 384-5969 View (540) 384-5969
Photo of Flourish, Licensed Professional Counselor in Stafford County, VA
Flourish
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Fredericksburg, VA 22407  (Online Only)
I am a dedicated and compassionate counselor who specializes in working with women. I provide a safe and empowering space for women to explore their unique experiences, challenges, and strengths. With a deep understanding of the complex factors that shape women's lives, I am committed to helping them navigate through various life stages and foster personal growth.
I am a dedicated and compassionate counselor who specializes in working with women. I provide a safe and empowering space for women to explore their unique experiences, challenges, and strengths. With a deep understanding of the complex factors that shape women's lives, I am committed to helping them navigate through various life stages and foster personal growth.
(540) 572-7461 View (540) 572-7461

See more therapy options for Stafford County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Stafford County, VA

300+

Average cost per session

$130

Therapists in Stafford County, VA who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
88% Depression
80% Coping Skills
79% Self Esteem
73% Stress
69% Trauma and PTSD
63% Relationship Issues

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

82% BlueCross and BlueShield
80% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
79% Aetna

How Therapists in Stafford County, VA see their clients

60% In Person and Online
40% Online Only

Gender breakdown

89% Female
10% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Stafford County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.