Therapists in Page County, VA

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Photo of Jeff Lown, Licensed Professional Counselor in Page County, VA
Jeff Lown
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, EdS, LPC
Verified
Luray, VA 22835
Not accepting new clients
There is never a wrong time to start therapy, nor is there a right one. We won’t worry about right or wrong, but instead we’ll accept where you are - as we work together to discover where you want to go and how to get there. I spend a lot of my free time hiking, seeking out new and interesting terrain. The growth you will hopefully experience during our work together may be much like a challenging hike, with some gentle slopes and triumphant summits, but also with trips, stumbles, and strenuous climbs. I cannot climb your mountains for you, but I will climb them with you and help to show you the way forward.
There is never a wrong time to start therapy, nor is there a right one. We won’t worry about right or wrong, but instead we’ll accept where you are - as we work together to discover where you want to go and how to get there. I spend a lot of my free time hiking, seeking out new and interesting terrain. The growth you will hopefully experience during our work together may be much like a challenging hike, with some gentle slopes and triumphant summits, but also with trips, stumbles, and strenuous climbs. I cannot climb your mountains for you, but I will climb them with you and help to show you the way forward.
(540) 534-4438 View (540) 534-4438
Photo of Deveney Elizabeth Quinney, Resident in Counseling in Page County, VA
Deveney Elizabeth Quinney
Resident in Counseling, MA
Verified
Luray, VA 22835
I enjoy working with a wide variety of individuals and believe that the therapeutic relationship can be a catalyst for an array of life affirming changes. Every individual has the right to find peace, joy and satisfaction in life. Often our inner dialogues, messages we've received from others, as well as traumatic and painful life experiences can interfere with our ability to find peace. In our work together, my goal will be to assist you in reaching whatever it is that you define as the best life for you.
I enjoy working with a wide variety of individuals and believe that the therapeutic relationship can be a catalyst for an array of life affirming changes. Every individual has the right to find peace, joy and satisfaction in life. Often our inner dialogues, messages we've received from others, as well as traumatic and painful life experiences can interfere with our ability to find peace. In our work together, my goal will be to assist you in reaching whatever it is that you define as the best life for you.
(540) 534-0313 View (540) 534-0313
Photo of Kadie A King, Licensed Professional Counselor in Page County, VA
Kadie A King
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LMHP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Luray, VA 22835
Not accepting new clients
****Not Accepting New Clients at this time**** Rocktown Counseling LLC, was created in order to meet continued mental health needs in our community after the COVID19 pandemic began. Primarily my work focuses on children, adolescents, parents, and helping families see how the whole family impacts one another. In my 10+ years of experience I have worked with individuals with different abilities, at-risk youth experiencing trauma, and families desiring to develop a deeper attachment. Individual goals range from coping strategies for anxiety/depression, trauma treatment, and attachment parenting.
****Not Accepting New Clients at this time**** Rocktown Counseling LLC, was created in order to meet continued mental health needs in our community after the COVID19 pandemic began. Primarily my work focuses on children, adolescents, parents, and helping families see how the whole family impacts one another. In my 10+ years of experience I have worked with individuals with different abilities, at-risk youth experiencing trauma, and families desiring to develop a deeper attachment. Individual goals range from coping strategies for anxiety/depression, trauma treatment, and attachment parenting.
(540) 426-3855 View (540) 426-3855
Photo of Anna Marguerite Karola in Page County, VA
Anna Marguerite Karola
PhD
Shenandoah, VA 22849
I have extensive experience working with individuals in transition and working with clients who are seeking their own personal growth. Having lived and worked overseas, I am familiar with diversity, multicultural and multi-socioeconomic backgrounds. I travel with you, acting as a Transition Coach/ Guide as you explore your inner worlds clarifying your purpose, and shaping to your life's goals. I am also a spiritual coach providing guidance and support for those who are graduating from this life and who need help with this transition. All life is transition and transition is where we create growth.
I have extensive experience working with individuals in transition and working with clients who are seeking their own personal growth. Having lived and worked overseas, I am familiar with diversity, multicultural and multi-socioeconomic backgrounds. I travel with you, acting as a Transition Coach/ Guide as you explore your inner worlds clarifying your purpose, and shaping to your life's goals. I am also a spiritual coach providing guidance and support for those who are graduating from this life and who need help with this transition. All life is transition and transition is where we create growth.
(540) 307-1175 View (540) 307-1175
Photo of Sarah McClelland, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Page County, VA
Sarah McClelland
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Shenandoah, VA 22849
Have your negative thoughts taken over? Have you been feeling sad or stressed while trying to keep it all together? Struggling with motivation? Are your relationships distant or full of conflict? Have you been feeling disconnected from those around you? Wanting to talk with someone but not knowing with whom, or how? Asking for help can be hard! Seeking therapy requires a great deal of strength and commitment and you have taken a great first step.
Have your negative thoughts taken over? Have you been feeling sad or stressed while trying to keep it all together? Struggling with motivation? Are your relationships distant or full of conflict? Have you been feeling disconnected from those around you? Wanting to talk with someone but not knowing with whom, or how? Asking for help can be hard! Seeking therapy requires a great deal of strength and commitment and you have taken a great first step.
(540) 501-6595 View (540) 501-6595
Photo of EAS Winchester, PLLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Page County, VA
EAS Winchester, PLLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Shenandoah, VA 22849
Children, At-Risk-youth, criminally involved juveniles and adults, children and adults with a history of trauma (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect), depression, anxiety.
Children, At-Risk-youth, criminally involved juveniles and adults, children and adults with a history of trauma (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect), depression, anxiety.
(540) 390-1471 View (540) 390-1471

Online Therapists

Photo of Monique Cowell, Pre-Licensed Professional in Page County, VA
Monique Cowell
Pre-Licensed Professional, PhD
Verified
Gainesville, VA 20155  (Online Only)
“Life can and will have its challenges. The way we cope with these challenges can be our greatest gift if we equip ourselves with the mindset that we have already conquered them.” Seeking support is commendable and shows that you are on your way to making positive changes in your life. I am excited to help you on and through your journey of healing and wholeness.
“Life can and will have its challenges. The way we cope with these challenges can be our greatest gift if we equip ourselves with the mindset that we have already conquered them.” Seeking support is commendable and shows that you are on your way to making positive changes in your life. I am excited to help you on and through your journey of healing and wholeness.
(571) 536-2449 View (571) 536-2449
Photo of Center for Counseling and Growth, PLC, Licensed Professional Counselor in Page County, VA
Center for Counseling and Growth, PLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified
2 Endorsed
Winchester, VA 22601
We enjoy working with clients who are motivated to grow, change, and seek overall emotional health and wellness through the counseling process. We will create a safe and supportive environment so that our clients are able to set and meet their goals without feeling judged or criticized. Our clients "drive" the counseling process, while we gently support them on their road to personal growth.
We enjoy working with clients who are motivated to grow, change, and seek overall emotional health and wellness through the counseling process. We will create a safe and supportive environment so that our clients are able to set and meet their goals without feeling judged or criticized. Our clients "drive" the counseling process, while we gently support them on their road to personal growth.
(540) 246-0369 View (540) 246-0369
Photo of Dorothy Ann Wine, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Page County, VA
Dorothy Ann Wine
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Falls Church, VA 22043
I'm here to listen and to care, there is hope and help. I don't want you to feel this way one more day. Please give me a call, and come for a consultation. My focus since 2004 has been to help people live happier lives. I've successfully helped couples rediscover their loving relationship. Yes. It’s possible. Let’s work to build a satisfying relationship. I also help in identify triggers that lead to anxiety and depression. Let's work together to support your strengths. It would be a privilege to assist you on this journey. If you’re suffering from anxiety or depression, let’s plan strategies to move forward to positive change.
I'm here to listen and to care, there is hope and help. I don't want you to feel this way one more day. Please give me a call, and come for a consultation. My focus since 2004 has been to help people live happier lives. I've successfully helped couples rediscover their loving relationship. Yes. It’s possible. Let’s work to build a satisfying relationship. I also help in identify triggers that lead to anxiety and depression. Let's work together to support your strengths. It would be a privilege to assist you on this journey. If you’re suffering from anxiety or depression, let’s plan strategies to move forward to positive change.
(571) 248-3358 View (571) 248-3358
Photo of Casey Murphy, Licensed Professional Counselor in Page County, VA
Casey Murphy
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
Everyone has a unique story of what makes them who they are - stories filled with different relationships, challenges, accomplishments, excitement, and many other things. And sometimes it can be helpful to have a space to share, question, and navigate the things.
Everyone has a unique story of what makes them who they are - stories filled with different relationships, challenges, accomplishments, excitement, and many other things. And sometimes it can be helpful to have a space to share, question, and navigate the things.
(540) 305-3517 View (540) 305-3517
Photo of Margo Sills, Licensed Professional Counselor in Page County, VA
Margo Sills
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
3 Endorsed
My life took on a whole other meaning growing up as a military dependent and after the death of my Mother. Through it all, I've learned that life is a matter of perspective. I love more passionately, I'm not religious, but my faith has come full circle. There's a quote that speaks volumes and has become the mission behind Lotus of Life Counseling: 'The lotus flower rises through the mud before blooming. It moves past challenges and keeps growing.' I'm here to help you rise and bloom through the murk of life, if you so choose.
My life took on a whole other meaning growing up as a military dependent and after the death of my Mother. Through it all, I've learned that life is a matter of perspective. I love more passionately, I'm not religious, but my faith has come full circle. There's a quote that speaks volumes and has become the mission behind Lotus of Life Counseling: 'The lotus flower rises through the mud before blooming. It moves past challenges and keeps growing.' I'm here to help you rise and bloom through the murk of life, if you so choose.
(540) 905-7883 View (540) 905-7883
Photo of Elke Schlager, Licensed Professional Counselor in Page County, VA
Elke Schlager
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC
Verified
Reston, VA 20190
I am a Harvard trained psychotherapist with over 20 years of clinical experience, the last 10 of which have been focused on the practice and research of Intensive Short Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP). I am a research associate at the Psychotherapy Research Program at Harvard Medical School, and a former faculty member at the Mind/Body Medical Institute at Massachussets General Hospital in Boston, MA. I practice a model of ISTDP that has evolved from over 50 years of psychotherapy research. This model incorporates aspects of psychodynamic psychotherapy, attachment theory, mindfulness and experiential therapy.
I am a Harvard trained psychotherapist with over 20 years of clinical experience, the last 10 of which have been focused on the practice and research of Intensive Short Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP). I am a research associate at the Psychotherapy Research Program at Harvard Medical School, and a former faculty member at the Mind/Body Medical Institute at Massachussets General Hospital in Boston, MA. I practice a model of ISTDP that has evolved from over 50 years of psychotherapy research. This model incorporates aspects of psychodynamic psychotherapy, attachment theory, mindfulness and experiential therapy.
(703) 468-8786 View (703) 468-8786
Photo of Dr. Ashley Dennin, Psychologist in Page County, VA
Dr. Ashley Dennin
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
2 Endorsed
Vienna, VA 22182
I am a licensed clinical psychologist with expertise in providing individual psychotherapy to children, adolescents, adults, and families. In therapy, I draw upon a variety of psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and family systems techniques to help patients identify areas for growth and change and recognize what may be impeding achievement of their goals, while drawing upon their existing strengths. Most importantly, I adjust my style to align with each patient's particular needs, and strive to have my patients feel heard, supported, and less alone. Particular areas of clinical interest include trauma, depression, anxiety, relationship problems, and family conflict. I also have experience conducting psychoeducational assessments.
I am a licensed clinical psychologist with expertise in providing individual psychotherapy to children, adolescents, adults, and families. In therapy, I draw upon a variety of psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and family systems techniques to help patients identify areas for growth and change and recognize what may be impeding achievement of their goals, while drawing upon their existing strengths. Most importantly, I adjust my style to align with each patient's particular needs, and strive to have my patients feel heard, supported, and less alone. Particular areas of clinical interest include trauma, depression, anxiety, relationship problems, and family conflict. I also have experience conducting psychoeducational assessments.
(703) 293-5689 x8 View (703) 293-5689 x8
Photo of Perspective Counseling and Therapeutic Services, Licensed Professional Counselor in Page County, VA
Perspective Counseling and Therapeutic Services
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC
Verified
Richmond, VA 23225  (Online Only)
Hi! My name is Shakira Miller, Licensed Professional Counselor and owner of Perspective Counseling and Therapeutic Services. I help people move past trauma and redefine their thinking in order to help them find their best self and experience the world in a healthier way. I have spent the past 13 years providing mental, developmental, social, and behavioral health services to adolescents and adults struggling with depression, anxiety, OCD, bipolar disorder, and PTSD, alongside many other diagnosis and social and emotional conflicts.
Hi! My name is Shakira Miller, Licensed Professional Counselor and owner of Perspective Counseling and Therapeutic Services. I help people move past trauma and redefine their thinking in order to help them find their best self and experience the world in a healthier way. I have spent the past 13 years providing mental, developmental, social, and behavioral health services to adolescents and adults struggling with depression, anxiety, OCD, bipolar disorder, and PTSD, alongside many other diagnosis and social and emotional conflicts.
(757) 844-6533 View (757) 844-6533
Photo of Claire Von Kahle, Licensed Professional Counselor in Page County, VA
Claire Von Kahle
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Falls Church, VA 22042
I work with adolescents and young adults who are feeling stuck by life's pitfalls and need help moving forward. Whether struggling with trauma, anxiety + depression, emotional issues or relationship struggles, they know something in their life feels "off", but can't quite place what it is or why. I'm here to help you feel more free, and have language and tools to better help you get unstuck.
I work with adolescents and young adults who are feeling stuck by life's pitfalls and need help moving forward. Whether struggling with trauma, anxiety + depression, emotional issues or relationship struggles, they know something in their life feels "off", but can't quite place what it is or why. I'm here to help you feel more free, and have language and tools to better help you get unstuck.
(703) 879-7671 View (703) 879-7671
Photo of Tracey Lee, Licensed Professional Counselor in Page County, VA
Tracey Lee
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, DCC, CAADC
Verified
Reston, VA 20191
In each session, Tracey aims to be empathetic, positive, and supportive. This approach has been very effective while working with a variety of people with diverse needs. She has experience treating anxiety, depression, eating disorders, ADHD and suicidality. Tracey has experience working with families, children, parents, couples, individuals, and groups. She also specializes in therapy for survivors of trauma, abuse, relationship challenges, and assisting individuals in navigating life transitions. Tracey is a skillful addictions counselor, and is certified as an Advanced Alcohol Drug Counselor.
In each session, Tracey aims to be empathetic, positive, and supportive. This approach has been very effective while working with a variety of people with diverse needs. She has experience treating anxiety, depression, eating disorders, ADHD and suicidality. Tracey has experience working with families, children, parents, couples, individuals, and groups. She also specializes in therapy for survivors of trauma, abuse, relationship challenges, and assisting individuals in navigating life transitions. Tracey is a skillful addictions counselor, and is certified as an Advanced Alcohol Drug Counselor.
(571) 520-4335 View (571) 520-4335
Photo of Krystie Wilson, Licensed Professional Counselor in Page County, VA
Krystie Wilson
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Arlington, VA 22201  (Online Only)
I am excited about your therapeutic journey and even more excited that I get the opportunity to join with you in this experience. Everyone has a story that deserves to be heard with a nonjudgemental and empathic ear. Therapy can be scary in the beginning; however, by examining your experience and the use of CBT techniques, the healing process can be very rewarding. Within this safe space, I assist clients with anxiety, depression, grief, trauma, self esteem issues and major life transitions. With my support, my goal is to guide you along a journey of reflection of your thoughts and experiences to create the best version of you.
I am excited about your therapeutic journey and even more excited that I get the opportunity to join with you in this experience. Everyone has a story that deserves to be heard with a nonjudgemental and empathic ear. Therapy can be scary in the beginning; however, by examining your experience and the use of CBT techniques, the healing process can be very rewarding. Within this safe space, I assist clients with anxiety, depression, grief, trauma, self esteem issues and major life transitions. With my support, my goal is to guide you along a journey of reflection of your thoughts and experiences to create the best version of you.
(703) 643-4039 View (703) 643-4039
Photo of Shree Patel, Pre-Licensed Professional in Page County, VA
Shree Patel
Pre-Licensed Professional, MEd
Verified
1 Endorsed
Manassas Park, VA 20111
I am a Resident in Counseling approved by the VA Board of Counseling, working towards becoming a Licensed Professional Counselor. I graduated with my Masters' degree in Clinical Mental Health and Addiction Counseling from The College of William & Mary. I have helped teens, college students, and adults experiencing anxiety, substance abuse, stress, low self-esteem, adjustment issues, academic/college struggles, relationship issues, identity development, and racial identity concerns. I have a passion for working with 1st and 2nd generation immigrants, BIPOC and South Asian population.
I am a Resident in Counseling approved by the VA Board of Counseling, working towards becoming a Licensed Professional Counselor. I graduated with my Masters' degree in Clinical Mental Health and Addiction Counseling from The College of William & Mary. I have helped teens, college students, and adults experiencing anxiety, substance abuse, stress, low self-esteem, adjustment issues, academic/college struggles, relationship issues, identity development, and racial identity concerns. I have a passion for working with 1st and 2nd generation immigrants, BIPOC and South Asian population.
(571) 200-7109 View (571) 200-7109
Photo of Nicole Diercks, Licensed Professional Counselor in Page County, VA
Nicole Diercks
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, CSAC, C-AAIS
Verified
Woodbridge, VA 22192
Have you been feeling "stuck" in life? Do you find yourself repeating the same behaviors over and over again and expecting different outcomes? You probably feel exhausted, and I get it. When people begin to experience trauma or other life stressors, it is not uncommon for their lives to feel as if it is unravelling. Overcoming these feelings might feel impossible. My great passion is bringing healing and empowering to people who have been through stressful events, who have struggled with addiction, or who are looking for alternative ways to think. Together we can work towards a healthier version of who you are.
Have you been feeling "stuck" in life? Do you find yourself repeating the same behaviors over and over again and expecting different outcomes? You probably feel exhausted, and I get it. When people begin to experience trauma or other life stressors, it is not uncommon for their lives to feel as if it is unravelling. Overcoming these feelings might feel impossible. My great passion is bringing healing and empowering to people who have been through stressful events, who have struggled with addiction, or who are looking for alternative ways to think. Together we can work towards a healthier version of who you are.
(512) 887-2862 View (512) 887-2862
Photo of Rolando J. Díaz, Psychologist in Page County, VA
Rolando J. Díaz
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
4 Endorsed
Arlington, VA 22209
My practice serves a wide variety of persons, emphasizing depression and anxiety. I work with children as young as six, but the majority of my practice now centers on work with adolescents and adults. My client and I try to develop a collaborative relationship that incorporates various elements, including expectations for outcome, open communication with my client, and the creation of an environment that fosters trust. I favor a pragmatic, experience-based approach that emphasizes coping skills, resilience, and each person's strengths. I also emphasize an understanding and respect for the role that emotions play in decision-making.
My practice serves a wide variety of persons, emphasizing depression and anxiety. I work with children as young as six, but the majority of my practice now centers on work with adolescents and adults. My client and I try to develop a collaborative relationship that incorporates various elements, including expectations for outcome, open communication with my client, and the creation of an environment that fosters trust. I favor a pragmatic, experience-based approach that emphasizes coping skills, resilience, and each person's strengths. I also emphasize an understanding and respect for the role that emotions play in decision-making.
(703) 596-1324 View (703) 596-1324

See more therapy options for Page County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Page County, VA

< 10

Therapists in Page County, VA who prioritize treating:

83% Relationship Issues
83% Depression
83% Anxiety
83% Self Esteem
67% Parenting
67% Trauma and PTSD
67% Emotional Disturbance

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

75% Medicaid
75% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
75% Anthem | Elevance

How Therapists in Page County, VA see their clients

100% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

80% Female
20% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Page County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.