Therapists in Harrisonburg City County, VA

Photo of Cassandra Kennell, Psychologist in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Cassandra Kennell
Psychologist, PsyD, MAC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
I enjoy working from an integrative approach, meaning I believe there is no one therapeutic modality that suits every client. However, underlying most of my approaches is an attachment perspective. Sadly, far too many of our relationships fall short of giving us a sense of being loved and belonging. We end up living too much of our lives caught in our own or other's perfectionism, passivity, anger, fear, judgment, shame, withdrawal, disinterest, betrayal, abuse, or worse. The harder we try to rid our relationships of these problems, the more unloved and alone we feel.
I enjoy working from an integrative approach, meaning I believe there is no one therapeutic modality that suits every client. However, underlying most of my approaches is an attachment perspective. Sadly, far too many of our relationships fall short of giving us a sense of being loved and belonging. We end up living too much of our lives caught in our own or other's perfectionism, passivity, anger, fear, judgment, shame, withdrawal, disinterest, betrayal, abuse, or worse. The harder we try to rid our relationships of these problems, the more unloved and alone we feel.
(540) 251-7728 View (540) 251-7728
Photo of Carolyn Strack, Psychologist in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Carolyn Strack
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
We all experience the twists and turns of life, and sometimes it can be overwhelming. I recognize that it can be difficult to reach out for help, and honor the vulnerability and courage it takes to do so. I create a safe, collaborative, and non-judgmental environment to work through your difficulties and move toward greater well-being. If you're feeling anxious, depressed, struggling with relationships, experiencing a life transition, or wanting to explore and better understand yourself, therapy can help.
We all experience the twists and turns of life, and sometimes it can be overwhelming. I recognize that it can be difficult to reach out for help, and honor the vulnerability and courage it takes to do so. I create a safe, collaborative, and non-judgmental environment to work through your difficulties and move toward greater well-being. If you're feeling anxious, depressed, struggling with relationships, experiencing a life transition, or wanting to explore and better understand yourself, therapy can help.
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Photo of Alyssa Burkholder, Resident in Counseling in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Alyssa Burkholder
Resident in Counseling, MA
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
As a resident in counseling, my intention is to meet you right where you are when you enter our shared space. Regardless of what you are carrying, I hope to lighten that load by offering a non-judgmental, listening ear and to assist you in processing. We all encounter hardships in life, and we are not meant to deal with those alone. Although you are the expert of your own journey, it can be helpful to walk alongside a trusted other in that journey.
As a resident in counseling, my intention is to meet you right where you are when you enter our shared space. Regardless of what you are carrying, I hope to lighten that load by offering a non-judgmental, listening ear and to assist you in processing. We all encounter hardships in life, and we are not meant to deal with those alone. Although you are the expert of your own journey, it can be helpful to walk alongside a trusted other in that journey.
(540) 684-5526 View (540) 684-5526
Photo of Amy Ghaemmaghami, Licensed Professional Counselor in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Amy Ghaemmaghami
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
Accepting new clients. Imagine feeling less anxious, less sad, less self-critical. My counseling approach is strengths-focused & growth-oriented. I will work collaboratively with you to design a treatment plan based on your goals. My specialties are anxiety, depression & mood disorders, trauma recovery, relationships, LGBTQ+, women's issues, & challenging life transitions. Whether you plan to improve relationships, find or change jobs, head to college, process grief & loss, or courageously open up to your life’s possibilities, I look forward to helping you to move forward in a positive direction.
Accepting new clients. Imagine feeling less anxious, less sad, less self-critical. My counseling approach is strengths-focused & growth-oriented. I will work collaboratively with you to design a treatment plan based on your goals. My specialties are anxiety, depression & mood disorders, trauma recovery, relationships, LGBTQ+, women's issues, & challenging life transitions. Whether you plan to improve relationships, find or change jobs, head to college, process grief & loss, or courageously open up to your life’s possibilities, I look forward to helping you to move forward in a positive direction.
(540) 900-0854 View (540) 900-0854
Photo of LeRoger Parrish II, Licensed Professional Counselor in Harrisonburg City County, VA
LeRoger Parrish II
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
I am passionate about helping adults and adolescents (age 13+) strengthen the resilience in their lives. Are you experiencing trouble finding your joy in life? Having a lack of self compassion and multiple negative thoughts on a daily basis? Imagine having the skills and perspective to dispute those thoughts to help yourself learn to choose joy even in tough circumstances. "Joy is a decision, a really brave one, about how you are going to respond to life." -Wess Stafford
I am passionate about helping adults and adolescents (age 13+) strengthen the resilience in their lives. Are you experiencing trouble finding your joy in life? Having a lack of self compassion and multiple negative thoughts on a daily basis? Imagine having the skills and perspective to dispute those thoughts to help yourself learn to choose joy even in tough circumstances. "Joy is a decision, a really brave one, about how you are going to respond to life." -Wess Stafford
(540) 274-2595 View (540) 274-2595
Photo of Spiral Roots LLC ~ Melissa Deaton Cook , Licensed Professional Counselor in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Spiral Roots LLC ~ Melissa Deaton Cook
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC, ACS
Verified Verified
Harrisonburg, VA 22802
Hi! Hola! I specialize in child and teen therapy. I am bilingual. All are welcome at Spiral Roots LLC. You know that your teen or child is struggling. You can see it in their behaviors, hear it in their voice, feel it in their attitude. You may or may not know the cause of their anger or pain. You just know they need help. The weight of the situation is heavy on you. They will not respond to your advice. You are not sure if they will talk to someone. Maybe in the past they blew off other therapists. Maybe your teen is actively asking for counseling. Wherever you are in this journey, I understand. I can help you and your family.
Hi! Hola! I specialize in child and teen therapy. I am bilingual. All are welcome at Spiral Roots LLC. You know that your teen or child is struggling. You can see it in their behaviors, hear it in their voice, feel it in their attitude. You may or may not know the cause of their anger or pain. You just know they need help. The weight of the situation is heavy on you. They will not respond to your advice. You are not sure if they will talk to someone. Maybe in the past they blew off other therapists. Maybe your teen is actively asking for counseling. Wherever you are in this journey, I understand. I can help you and your family.
(540) 302-2473 View (540) 302-2473
Photo of Kristen Loflin, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Kristen Loflin, LPC
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MA, EdS
Verified Verified
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
Please note current limited availability for new clients: late morning-early afternoon. Welcome and thank you for taking the first steps toward living a more fulfilling life. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia and enjoy working with individuals and groups. I believe that counseling should be holistic, taking into consideration your physical health and wellness as well as your mental and emotional wellness.
Please note current limited availability for new clients: late morning-early afternoon. Welcome and thank you for taking the first steps toward living a more fulfilling life. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor in Virginia and enjoy working with individuals and groups. I believe that counseling should be holistic, taking into consideration your physical health and wellness as well as your mental and emotional wellness.
(540) 318-1604 View (540) 318-1604
Photo of Anna Weaver, Psychologist in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Anna Weaver
Psychologist, EdS
Verified Verified
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
We provide a range of psychological evaluations in Harrisonburg–for children, teens, and adults. Assessments for dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia (learning disabilities in reading, writing, and math). We also provide evaluations for ADHD and autism. And, because many of our clients also struggle with anxiety, depression, or similar, we can help sort out how these impact day-to-day functioning.
We provide a range of psychological evaluations in Harrisonburg–for children, teens, and adults. Assessments for dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia (learning disabilities in reading, writing, and math). We also provide evaluations for ADHD and autism. And, because many of our clients also struggle with anxiety, depression, or similar, we can help sort out how these impact day-to-day functioning.
(540) 384-4408 View (540) 384-4408
Photo of Dena Hollar, Licensed Professional Counselor in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Dena Hollar
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC
Verified Verified
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
Not accepting new clients
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor specializing in adolescents, young adult, and adults. I have been in the mental health profession for 16 years, including 11 of those years as a school counselor. I work with clients with a wide variety of issues, including anxiety, depression, life transitions, and adolescent changes and behaviors.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor specializing in adolescents, young adult, and adults. I have been in the mental health profession for 16 years, including 11 of those years as a school counselor. I work with clients with a wide variety of issues, including anxiety, depression, life transitions, and adolescent changes and behaviors.
(540) 426-3744 View (540) 426-3744
Photo of Stephanie L. Morehead, Licensed Professional Counselor in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Stephanie L. Morehead
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
I work with adults and adolescents who struggle primarily with trauma, anxiety, OCD and other severe mental illnesses. Life can be completely overwhelming and exhausting at times, and I want to be able to arm my clients with the tools they need to work through their challenges and become stronger as a result. I believe that therapy should be engaging, challenging, and fulfilling. Therapy with me will be a safe place for you to discuss and explore your thoughts and feelings. We will work through this together.
I work with adults and adolescents who struggle primarily with trauma, anxiety, OCD and other severe mental illnesses. Life can be completely overwhelming and exhausting at times, and I want to be able to arm my clients with the tools they need to work through their challenges and become stronger as a result. I believe that therapy should be engaging, challenging, and fulfilling. Therapy with me will be a safe place for you to discuss and explore your thoughts and feelings. We will work through this together.
(540) 305-8536 View (540) 305-8536
Photo of Elizabeth Resto, Counselor in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Elizabeth Resto
Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Harrisonburg, VA 22802
Waitlist for new clients
**Accepting clients on a wait list!** Life can be overwhelming and confusing, beyond our external control. Having a safe space to process or begin an intentional healing journey can make life feel more manageable. In my counseling work, I believe our unique life stories, with all their complexities, are important and deserve to be held and heard. It’s powerful to know that while our stories are unique, we are not alone. I believe there are such healing properties in connection with others and community, something that counseling can help strengthen. I strive to empower my client’s as agents of their own change and growth.
**Accepting clients on a wait list!** Life can be overwhelming and confusing, beyond our external control. Having a safe space to process or begin an intentional healing journey can make life feel more manageable. In my counseling work, I believe our unique life stories, with all their complexities, are important and deserve to be held and heard. It’s powerful to know that while our stories are unique, we are not alone. I believe there are such healing properties in connection with others and community, something that counseling can help strengthen. I strive to empower my client’s as agents of their own change and growth.
(540) 425-0769 View (540) 425-0769
Photo of Allen Stewart, Supervisee in Clinical Social Work in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Allen Stewart
Supervisee in Clinical Social Work, MA, MSW
Verified Verified
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
Let me help you release past trauma, draw healthy boundaries, over come narcissistic abuse, move beyond anxiety and depression, and create a life where you go from surviving to thriving. As a counselor, Zen teacher, and guided imagery and music practitioner, I can help you engage your inner self, at a deep and transformative level. Call today to create lasting change in your life.
Let me help you release past trauma, draw healthy boundaries, over come narcissistic abuse, move beyond anxiety and depression, and create a life where you go from surviving to thriving. As a counselor, Zen teacher, and guided imagery and music practitioner, I can help you engage your inner self, at a deep and transformative level. Call today to create lasting change in your life.
(540) 401-5910 View (540) 401-5910
Photo of Cheri Lynn Greenfield, Licensed Professional Counselor in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Cheri Lynn Greenfield
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, EdS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
Not accepting new clients
My favorite part of this work is the relationship that I get to build with my clients. I provide a safe space to strengthen trust in yourself, practice acceptance and self-compassion, and begin to let go of what no longer serves you as you develop a deeper connection with yourself. We will work together to deepen intuition and self-understanding, creating shifts that allow for growth and healing. I have great respect for this work, and I consider it an honor to walk with my clients in this process.
My favorite part of this work is the relationship that I get to build with my clients. I provide a safe space to strengthen trust in yourself, practice acceptance and self-compassion, and begin to let go of what no longer serves you as you develop a deeper connection with yourself. We will work together to deepen intuition and self-understanding, creating shifts that allow for growth and healing. I have great respect for this work, and I consider it an honor to walk with my clients in this process.
(540) 426-3557 View (540) 426-3557
Photo of Carla Turner, Licensed Professional Counselor in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Carla Turner
Licensed Professional Counselor, M Ed, LPC
Verified Verified
Harrisonburg, VA 22802  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
If you are reading this, chances are you have been through difficult and painful experiences, and I want you to know that you are not alone. Are you ready to take the first step towards healing? Are you willing to approach therapy with an open mind and a willingness to try new things? If you have experienced childhood trauma, you may be struggling with a wide range of symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, PTSD, or a general feeling of disconnect from yourself and others. You may also be struggling with issues related to self-worth, trust, sexuality, relationships, substance abuse and boundary setting.
If you are reading this, chances are you have been through difficult and painful experiences, and I want you to know that you are not alone. Are you ready to take the first step towards healing? Are you willing to approach therapy with an open mind and a willingness to try new things? If you have experienced childhood trauma, you may be struggling with a wide range of symptoms, such as anxiety, depression, PTSD, or a general feeling of disconnect from yourself and others. You may also be struggling with issues related to self-worth, trust, sexuality, relationships, substance abuse and boundary setting.
(540) 426-3055 View (540) 426-3055
Photo of Devon Howell, Resident in Counseling in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Devon Howell
Resident in Counseling
Verified Verified
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
Not accepting new clients
I am NOT accepting new clients! There is so much strength and courage in reaching out for help. My goal as a counselor is to provide mental health services to work towards improving your quality of life by making therapy feel more like a conversation than an interrogation and finding things that work best for you on your therapeutic journey. I work with adults with a variety of mental health concerns, such as anxiety, depression, PTSD/trauma, and substance use disorders. I am also an ally to the LGBTQIA+ community.
I am NOT accepting new clients! There is so much strength and courage in reaching out for help. My goal as a counselor is to provide mental health services to work towards improving your quality of life by making therapy feel more like a conversation than an interrogation and finding things that work best for you on your therapeutic journey. I work with adults with a variety of mental health concerns, such as anxiety, depression, PTSD/trauma, and substance use disorders. I am also an ally to the LGBTQIA+ community.
(540) 802-4213 View (540) 802-4213
Photo of Traci Ballou-Broadnax, Psychologist in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Traci Ballou-Broadnax
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Harrisonburg, VA 22801  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Far too often, life does not go as we hope or plan. It is at those times that we can truly benefit from supportive others showing us that we are not alone, and the powerful experience of someone validating, while also empowering us to overcome, our challenges. I believe that therapy is a space that can offer this support, and I value the chance to help individuals navigate life's transitions and obstacles. Through my training and work experiences, I have learned to empathize, and work effectively, with college students and individuals across the lifespan, from diverse backgrounds, and with a wide-range of concerns.
Far too often, life does not go as we hope or plan. It is at those times that we can truly benefit from supportive others showing us that we are not alone, and the powerful experience of someone validating, while also empowering us to overcome, our challenges. I believe that therapy is a space that can offer this support, and I value the chance to help individuals navigate life's transitions and obstacles. Through my training and work experiences, I have learned to empathize, and work effectively, with college students and individuals across the lifespan, from diverse backgrounds, and with a wide-range of concerns.
(540) 306-4381 View (540) 306-4381
Photo of Tamala K Gilardi, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Tamala K Gilardi
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
My goal is to provide a therapy experience that is predicated upon compassion, enthusiasm and creativity. I understand that change can be uncomfortable and my treatment philosophy is to provide a supportive and safe therapeutic environment.
My goal is to provide a therapy experience that is predicated upon compassion, enthusiasm and creativity. I understand that change can be uncomfortable and my treatment philosophy is to provide a supportive and safe therapeutic environment.
(540) 426-3757 x1 View (540) 426-3757 x1
Photo of Sean Slevin, Marriage & Family Therapist in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Sean Slevin
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
~ Counseling tailored to your Personality, from a Christian Perspective, & with a Neurobiological understanding of Lasting Change ~ I understand firsthand the courage required to ask for help. You are taking an important step in pursuing counseling today. ~ I use my understanding of personality types to tailor counseling to your specific needs. We are all unique, and my desire is to help each person become more fully whomever they are meant to be. I use my knowledge of the various strengths and weaknesses of each personality type to help you build on your strengths, and to have compassion for your weaknesses.
~ Counseling tailored to your Personality, from a Christian Perspective, & with a Neurobiological understanding of Lasting Change ~ I understand firsthand the courage required to ask for help. You are taking an important step in pursuing counseling today. ~ I use my understanding of personality types to tailor counseling to your specific needs. We are all unique, and my desire is to help each person become more fully whomever they are meant to be. I use my knowledge of the various strengths and weaknesses of each personality type to help you build on your strengths, and to have compassion for your weaknesses.
Photo of Laura Anne Copley, Licensed Professional Counselor in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Laura Anne Copley
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC, CTS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
Now OPEN: Online Trauma Bonded GROUP… As a trauma survivor you can feel emotionally torn and mentally defeated. It seems like every relationship you find becomes painful and toxic, and every moment you're reminded of your trauma. You just want to feel safe in your body, connected in your relationships, and inspired in your life. Maybe you're cautious about getting help because revisiting painful memories seems scary and vulnerable. As the only PhD Certified Trauma Counselor in the Shenandoah Valley, I will help you identify your emotional and relationship blocks, and develop new ways to overcome and experience Post-Traumatic Growth.
Now OPEN: Online Trauma Bonded GROUP… As a trauma survivor you can feel emotionally torn and mentally defeated. It seems like every relationship you find becomes painful and toxic, and every moment you're reminded of your trauma. You just want to feel safe in your body, connected in your relationships, and inspired in your life. Maybe you're cautious about getting help because revisiting painful memories seems scary and vulnerable. As the only PhD Certified Trauma Counselor in the Shenandoah Valley, I will help you identify your emotional and relationship blocks, and develop new ways to overcome and experience Post-Traumatic Growth.
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Photo of Taylor, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Harrisonburg City County, VA
Taylor Taylor
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Harrisonburg, VA 22801
Greetings! I'm Taylor Taylor, a Licensed Clinical Social Worker, bringing expertise from both outpatient therapy and inpatient hospital settings. I hold a BSW from James Madison University (Go DUKES!) and an MSW from George Mason University, recently obtaining my LCSW in Virginia. My dedication lies in assisting clients grappling with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, PTSD, grief/loss, and life transitions. It's a privilege to journey with clients as they entrust me with their stories.
Greetings! I'm Taylor Taylor, a Licensed Clinical Social Worker, bringing expertise from both outpatient therapy and inpatient hospital settings. I hold a BSW from James Madison University (Go DUKES!) and an MSW from George Mason University, recently obtaining my LCSW in Virginia. My dedication lies in assisting clients grappling with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, PTSD, grief/loss, and life transitions. It's a privilege to journey with clients as they entrust me with their stories.
(540) 441-1450 View (540) 441-1450

See more therapy options for Harrisonburg City County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Harrisonburg City County, VA

100+

Average cost per session

$130

Therapists in Harrisonburg City County, VA who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
90% Depression
82% Relationship Issues
77% Self Esteem
77% Stress
73% Trauma and PTSD
68% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

82% Anthem | Elevance
78% Aetna
74% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in Harrisonburg City County, VA see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

78% Female
21% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Harrisonburg City County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.