Therapists in Bon Air, VA

Photo of Rachel Lim, MSW
Rachel Lim
Supervisee in Clinical Social Work, MSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235
Hello! I'm Lim, a Supervisee in Social Work with a passion for empowering individuals from all walks of life and a particular interest in supporting at-risk youth in navigating challenges around coming of age. My personal experiences have equipped me with a deep understanding of the challenges faced by diverse communities. I am committed to providing a safe, inclusive, and empathetic space for clients to explore their mental health and well-being. I believe in a client-centered approach, where we work together to set and achieve your personal goals toward emotional well-being and personal growth.
Hello! I'm Lim, a Supervisee in Social Work with a passion for empowering individuals from all walks of life and a particular interest in supporting at-risk youth in navigating challenges around coming of age. My personal experiences have equipped me with a deep understanding of the challenges faced by diverse communities. I am committed to providing a safe, inclusive, and empathetic space for clients to explore their mental health and well-being. I believe in a client-centered approach, where we work together to set and achieve your personal goals toward emotional well-being and personal growth.
(804) 581-8412 View (804) 581-8412
Photo of Tamera Peterson, MSW, LCSW-S, Pre-Licensed Professional
Tamera Peterson
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW, LCSW-S
Verified Verified
Bon Air, VA 23235
Hello, my name is Tamera Peterson, and I am a Licensed Mental Health Professional Supervisee (LMHP-S). I have over 10 years of experience working with individuals and families in community-based settings as a counselor and working with individuals living with intellectual and developmental disabilities. I also have experience working with adults, teens, and adolescents who've experienced trauma, relationship issues, anxiety, depression, ADHD, and dual diagnosis. I believe wholeheartedly in the mind, body, and soul connection.
Hello, my name is Tamera Peterson, and I am a Licensed Mental Health Professional Supervisee (LMHP-S). I have over 10 years of experience working with individuals and families in community-based settings as a counselor and working with individuals living with intellectual and developmental disabilities. I also have experience working with adults, teens, and adolescents who've experienced trauma, relationship issues, anxiety, depression, ADHD, and dual diagnosis. I believe wholeheartedly in the mind, body, and soul connection.
(804) 979-2212 View (804) 979-2212
Photo of Lee Archard, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lee Archard
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Bon Air, VA 23235
I've practiced for over 25 years in Richmond and the Northern Neck, working with adults and teens (12+). I help clients with grief, anxiety, stress, depression, difficult life changes, parenting, relationships, aging, and work/life balance.
I've practiced for over 25 years in Richmond and the Northern Neck, working with adults and teens (12+). I help clients with grief, anxiety, stress, depression, difficult life changes, parenting, relationships, aging, and work/life balance.
(804) 635-3641 View (804) 635-3641
Photo of Cinnamon Langley, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Cinnamon Langley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235
Are you struggling with feeling overwhelmed at work, in your relationship, or with life in general? Are you searching to understand why you just don't feel like yourself recently? I specialize in working with individuals that have experienced traumatic events throughout their lives and works from an understanding that everyone is an expert of their own experiences. I will work in collaboration with you to take the next steps toward healing.
Are you struggling with feeling overwhelmed at work, in your relationship, or with life in general? Are you searching to understand why you just don't feel like yourself recently? I specialize in working with individuals that have experienced traumatic events throughout their lives and works from an understanding that everyone is an expert of their own experiences. I will work in collaboration with you to take the next steps toward healing.
(804) 252-4525 View (804) 252-4525
Photo of Jonathan M Ugalde, MSEd, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jonathan M Ugalde
Licensed Professional Counselor, MSEd
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235
Are you feeling like you can't handle life's stressors? Is it hard for you to achieve goals and get your needs met? Are you affected by anxiety, depression, substance use, communication issues, intellectual or learning disabilities, mood swings, lack of social skills, or another mental health concern? Do you need an identity? Or a parent working to develop parenting skills? You can start making changes today by working to identify your needs, desires, and how you have been impacted by your biology, psychology, environment, and spiritual experiences while developing your identity and mastering coping skills in session today.
Are you feeling like you can't handle life's stressors? Is it hard for you to achieve goals and get your needs met? Are you affected by anxiety, depression, substance use, communication issues, intellectual or learning disabilities, mood swings, lack of social skills, or another mental health concern? Do you need an identity? Or a parent working to develop parenting skills? You can start making changes today by working to identify your needs, desires, and how you have been impacted by your biology, psychology, environment, and spiritual experiences while developing your identity and mastering coping skills in session today.
(804) 207-8592 View (804) 207-8592
Photo of Joanna Smith, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Joanna Smith
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235  (Online Only)
Hi, my name is Joanna. I am available to meet with you via TeleHealth. I have a friendly and welcoming laid-back approach. I am nonjudgmental, compassionate and supportive. If you feel disconnected from your authentic self, I can help you find your way home. We will work together to find freedom from unhelpful thoughts and unsupportive behavior patterns. I am trauma-informed and trained. I also have specialized training in recovering from unhealthy and emotionally immature relationships. I can teach you more about your mind, body and emotions but you are the expert and I would be honored to be a fellow traveler on this life journey.
Hi, my name is Joanna. I am available to meet with you via TeleHealth. I have a friendly and welcoming laid-back approach. I am nonjudgmental, compassionate and supportive. If you feel disconnected from your authentic self, I can help you find your way home. We will work together to find freedom from unhelpful thoughts and unsupportive behavior patterns. I am trauma-informed and trained. I also have specialized training in recovering from unhealthy and emotionally immature relationships. I can teach you more about your mind, body and emotions but you are the expert and I would be honored to be a fellow traveler on this life journey.
(804) 336-2646 View (804) 336-2646
Photo of Rachel Jones, MEd, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Rachel Jones
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235
My belief is that everyone could use extra support, a place to define purpose and values, and tools to use to tackle life’s everyday challenges. As humans, we often struggle with anxiety, depression, stress, and difficulties in relationships. I aim to walk with you through life’s most difficult moments while also celebrating life's successes. ​
My belief is that everyone could use extra support, a place to define purpose and values, and tools to use to tackle life’s everyday challenges. As humans, we often struggle with anxiety, depression, stress, and difficulties in relationships. I aim to walk with you through life’s most difficult moments while also celebrating life's successes. ​
(804) 581-8014 View (804) 581-8014
Photo of Briana L. Grier, MS, LPC-R
Briana L. Grier
Resident in Counseling, MS, LPC-R
Verified Verified
Bon Air, VA 23235  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Sometimes, we struggle to name our thoughts. Sometimes, we struggle to understand our emotions. Sometimes, our mind commands us to believe things that are not true. I'm here to tell you that you have more power and understanding than you believe you do. You just need someone who will help you get there! These feelings of loneliness, sadness, frustration, grief, anger and confusion don't have to linger longer than they are invited. You are not alone and you have more strength than you believe!
Sometimes, we struggle to name our thoughts. Sometimes, we struggle to understand our emotions. Sometimes, our mind commands us to believe things that are not true. I'm here to tell you that you have more power and understanding than you believe you do. You just need someone who will help you get there! These feelings of loneliness, sadness, frustration, grief, anger and confusion don't have to linger longer than they are invited. You are not alone and you have more strength than you believe!
(757) 367-8171 View (757) 367-8171
Photo of Jordan Dimmick, LPC-RES
Jordan Dimmick
Resident in Counseling, LPC-RES
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235
Feeling lost, stuck, isolated or alone? Feel like you are struggling to find a safe space to explore the different experiences in your life? Are you having difficulties related to your sense of identity or your relations with friends and family? I enjoy helping clients build a support system and develop coping skills to help them better handle various life stressors/experiences. I find it important that the counselor is a good fit for a client's needs and I would love to schedule a free consultation with you.
Feeling lost, stuck, isolated or alone? Feel like you are struggling to find a safe space to explore the different experiences in your life? Are you having difficulties related to your sense of identity or your relations with friends and family? I enjoy helping clients build a support system and develop coping skills to help them better handle various life stressors/experiences. I find it important that the counselor is a good fit for a client's needs and I would love to schedule a free consultation with you.
(804) 885-2540 View (804) 885-2540
Photo of Jenny Prewtt, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jenny Prewtt
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Bon Air, VA 23235  (Online Only)
It is my belief that many people not only experience stress and anxiety by unfortunate adversities, but also by how they construct their views of reality through the stories they tell themselves regarding the stressful incident. While systematically pulling from different counseling techniques from a wide range of theories, she tends to work most heavily from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness techniques and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. These types of therapies help overcome irrational, dysfunctional, and unhealthy thought process that tend to add to and prolong emotional strain, trauma, and tension.
It is my belief that many people not only experience stress and anxiety by unfortunate adversities, but also by how they construct their views of reality through the stories they tell themselves regarding the stressful incident. While systematically pulling from different counseling techniques from a wide range of theories, she tends to work most heavily from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness techniques and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. These types of therapies help overcome irrational, dysfunctional, and unhealthy thought process that tend to add to and prolong emotional strain, trauma, and tension.
(804) 792-3426 View (804) 792-3426
Photo of Jacqui B Becker, PhD, LCP, Psychologist
Jacqui B Becker
Psychologist, PhD, LCP
Verified Verified
Bon Air, VA 23235  (Online Only)
Searching this website is a courageous step toward finding support to address whatever is troubling you! Since increasing your self-awareness through therapy can help you live a more satisfying life, I will help you safely examine whatever is difficult or painful to see within yourself and in your life. I will help you understand, accept, enhance, and love who you are so that you can take more risks in expressing yourself within your relationships.
Searching this website is a courageous step toward finding support to address whatever is troubling you! Since increasing your self-awareness through therapy can help you live a more satisfying life, I will help you safely examine whatever is difficult or painful to see within yourself and in your life. I will help you understand, accept, enhance, and love who you are so that you can take more risks in expressing yourself within your relationships.
(917) 887-4593 View (917) 887-4593
Photo of Cortney Zeigler Ugalde, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Cortney Zeigler Ugalde
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235  (Online Only)
In our lives we can struggle as individuals and within our family systems, regardless of whether we are children, teens, or adults. I believe therapy is a way to take time to focus and challenge beliefs around the different stressors in each individual’s life.  Stress is a part of everyday life, there is no way to avoid it. I believe that with empathy and therapeutic support individuals can face these stressors head on and work to improve their quality of life, inner strength, and happiness. Therapy should be a safe space to explore and challenge uncomfortable thoughts and feelings through compassion and empathy.
In our lives we can struggle as individuals and within our family systems, regardless of whether we are children, teens, or adults. I believe therapy is a way to take time to focus and challenge beliefs around the different stressors in each individual’s life.  Stress is a part of everyday life, there is no way to avoid it. I believe that with empathy and therapeutic support individuals can face these stressors head on and work to improve their quality of life, inner strength, and happiness. Therapy should be a safe space to explore and challenge uncomfortable thoughts and feelings through compassion and empathy.
(804) 409-3520 View (804) 409-3520
Photo of Ronnell Lewis, LCSW , Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Ronnell Lewis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Bon Air, VA 23235
I'm a Licensed Clinical Social Worker dedicated to guiding you towards a brighter path. Assisting others is both my personal passion and professional calling. Creating a safe environment where individuals can freely express themselves is paramount to me. Through my clinical practice, I've gained profound insights into human behavior, equipping me to empower individuals to transform their lives.
I'm a Licensed Clinical Social Worker dedicated to guiding you towards a brighter path. Assisting others is both my personal passion and professional calling. Creating a safe environment where individuals can freely express themselves is paramount to me. Through my clinical practice, I've gained profound insights into human behavior, equipping me to empower individuals to transform their lives.
(434) 201-7962 View (434) 201-7962
Photo of Theresa Rittmann, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Theresa Rittmann
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235
Are you feeling overwhelmed and/or anxious? Experiencing irritability or anxiety with your kids, partner, job, school? Or are your adolescents experiencing/exhibiting anxiety and irritability? Reach out and let’s see if I can help you find ways to cope. I have over fifteen years of experience utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with pre-teen's through adults. My clients will benefit from my affirmative therapy, mindfulness strategies, and utilizing a strengths based, solution focused, and problem solving approach.
Are you feeling overwhelmed and/or anxious? Experiencing irritability or anxiety with your kids, partner, job, school? Or are your adolescents experiencing/exhibiting anxiety and irritability? Reach out and let’s see if I can help you find ways to cope. I have over fifteen years of experience utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy with pre-teen's through adults. My clients will benefit from my affirmative therapy, mindfulness strategies, and utilizing a strengths based, solution focused, and problem solving approach.
(571) 568-8840 View (571) 568-8840
Photo of Becky Jacobson, LPC, ATR, LMT, Licensed Professional Counselor
Becky Jacobson
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, ATR, LMT
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235
Waitlist for new clients
If facing a life transition, grief and loss, stress, anxiety, interpersonal dilemmas, postpartum/parenthood challenges, or pursuing overarching growth & healing- here you will have a safe place to share your story, connect to resiliency, and let go of what no longer serves you. Exploring significant feelings and experiences throughout each session you will be able to use a combination of somatic work, body awareness, creative self expression, art making, mindfulness, meditative practices, and talk therapy to heal, grow, and transform - Bringing you closer to your true authentic self, inner peace, and fulfilling day-to-day living.
If facing a life transition, grief and loss, stress, anxiety, interpersonal dilemmas, postpartum/parenthood challenges, or pursuing overarching growth & healing- here you will have a safe place to share your story, connect to resiliency, and let go of what no longer serves you. Exploring significant feelings and experiences throughout each session you will be able to use a combination of somatic work, body awareness, creative self expression, art making, mindfulness, meditative practices, and talk therapy to heal, grow, and transform - Bringing you closer to your true authentic self, inner peace, and fulfilling day-to-day living.
(804) 286-1777 View (804) 286-1777
Photo of undefined - Calming Wind Counseling Services, LLC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Calming Wind Counseling Services, LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235
Does your life seem to be spiraling out of your control? Are you affected by anxiety, depression, substance use, communication issues, intellectual or learning disabilities, mood swings, lack of social skills, or another mental health concern? Do you need to develop an identity as a parent? or redefine yourself in some way? You can start making changes today by working to identify your needs, desires, and how you have been impacted by your biology, psychology, environment, and spiritual experiences while developing your identity and mastering coping skills in session today.
Does your life seem to be spiraling out of your control? Are you affected by anxiety, depression, substance use, communication issues, intellectual or learning disabilities, mood swings, lack of social skills, or another mental health concern? Do you need to develop an identity as a parent? or redefine yourself in some way? You can start making changes today by working to identify your needs, desires, and how you have been impacted by your biology, psychology, environment, and spiritual experiences while developing your identity and mastering coping skills in session today.
(804) 505-4725 View (804) 505-4725
Photo of Muriel Azria-Evans, PhD, CRC, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Muriel Azria-Evans
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, CRC, LPC
Verified Verified
Bon Air, VA 23235
If even a small part of you believes things could be better for yourself or in your relationship, reach out and contact me so we can work side-by-side to meet your personal goals. Counseling benefits arise when clients and counselors share their unique insights towards a common goal. You offer your expert knowledge on yourself, while I offer my knowledge on trauma, anxiety, depression, and relationships.
If even a small part of you believes things could be better for yourself or in your relationship, reach out and contact me so we can work side-by-side to meet your personal goals. Counseling benefits arise when clients and counselors share their unique insights towards a common goal. You offer your expert knowledge on yourself, while I offer my knowledge on trauma, anxiety, depression, and relationships.
(804) 463-6341 View (804) 463-6341
Photo of Jessica Summers, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jessica Summers
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Bon Air, VA 23235
I am a licensed clinical social worker who has been providing clinical services since 2004. My experience includes working with adolescents, adults, families, groups, and couples in health care, community agencies and private clinic settings. In my current practice, I enjoy helping adults navigate life's challenges. I use a variety of therapeutic approaches (e.g., psychodynamic, strengths-based, solution-focused, family systems, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness) to help you make the changes you seek to make in your life. I strive to create a safe and nonjudgmental atmosphere by approaching each new person with warmth, humor, curiosity, and empathy.
I am a licensed clinical social worker who has been providing clinical services since 2004. My experience includes working with adolescents, adults, families, groups, and couples in health care, community agencies and private clinic settings. In my current practice, I enjoy helping adults navigate life's challenges. I use a variety of therapeutic approaches (e.g., psychodynamic, strengths-based, solution-focused, family systems, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness) to help you make the changes you seek to make in your life. I strive to create a safe and nonjudgmental atmosphere by approaching each new person with warmth, humor, curiosity, and empathy.
(804) 587-8956 View (804) 587-8956
Photo of Stephen Strunk, PhD, LPC, CSOTP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Stephen Strunk
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC, CSOTP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, I will be seeing clients via video sessions as well as in-person sessions with COVID-19 precautions in place. These tele-therapy sessions are HIPPA compliant and totally secure. Dealing with anxiety and depression is difficult but you can have a happier life with better coping skills to handle life problems. I work with adults, children, parents, and I also specialize in couples work. If you/your partner are struggling, therapy may help you to learn how to resovle issues in a productive way. I am also a member of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI).
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, I will be seeing clients via video sessions as well as in-person sessions with COVID-19 precautions in place. These tele-therapy sessions are HIPPA compliant and totally secure. Dealing with anxiety and depression is difficult but you can have a happier life with better coping skills to handle life problems. I work with adults, children, parents, and I also specialize in couples work. If you/your partner are struggling, therapy may help you to learn how to resovle issues in a productive way. I am also a member of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI).
(804) 409-8997 View (804) 409-8997
Photo of Melissa James, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Melissa James
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Bon Air, VA 23235
Issues of life and living can be overwhelming and painful. Navigating relationships, chronic stress, anxiety, traumatic experiences, attachment wounds, complicated family dynamics, and even health conditions may leave you feeling stuck and unable to make change in your life. I want you to know there is hope. Therapy is a path for experiencing relief/healing and restoring deep connection with our self and others. I am passionate about healing that incorporates a deepening of the spirit and the spiritual development that can come through nurturing a resilient nervous system.
Issues of life and living can be overwhelming and painful. Navigating relationships, chronic stress, anxiety, traumatic experiences, attachment wounds, complicated family dynamics, and even health conditions may leave you feeling stuck and unable to make change in your life. I want you to know there is hope. Therapy is a path for experiencing relief/healing and restoring deep connection with our self and others. I am passionate about healing that incorporates a deepening of the spirit and the spiritual development that can come through nurturing a resilient nervous system.
(804) 313-9906 View (804) 313-9906

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Bon Air, VA

40+

Average cost per session

$132

Therapists in Bon Air, VA who prioritize treating:

98% Anxiety
96% Depression
87% Coping Skills
87% Self Esteem
85% Trauma and PTSD
83% Stress
78% Relationship Issues

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

85% Anthem | Elevance
73% BlueCross and BlueShield
73% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Bon Air, VA see their clients

81% In Person and Online
19% Online Only

Gender breakdown

70% Female
26% Male
4% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Bon Air?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.