Therapists in Arlington, VA

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Photo of Andrea L. Kirshner, MSW, LCSW, CSAC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Andrea L. Kirshner
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, CSAC
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22205  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I understand many clients come to therapy for the first time full of anxiety as they are wary of talking to a stranger about personal issues. I am often told by clients that I make them feel comfortable and relaxed, and by the end of the first visit they often feel a sense of relief and hope. I work with clients who suffer from depression, anxiety, anger, substance abuse, and other issues that deter them from living life to the fullest. I can help you understand what's happening and offer assistance to cope with these feelings while working on ways to feel better.
I understand many clients come to therapy for the first time full of anxiety as they are wary of talking to a stranger about personal issues. I am often told by clients that I make them feel comfortable and relaxed, and by the end of the first visit they often feel a sense of relief and hope. I work with clients who suffer from depression, anxiety, anger, substance abuse, and other issues that deter them from living life to the fullest. I can help you understand what's happening and offer assistance to cope with these feelings while working on ways to feel better.
(703) 991-0643 View (703) 991-0643
Photo of Melissa Futreal, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Melissa Futreal
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22207
I began helping others in 1990 as a Peer Counselor (Drug Exemption NCO) while on active duty in the Marine Corps. After earning degrees in Psychology and Social Work at UNCW/ECU, I obtained licensure to practice independently with the Virginia Board of Health Professionals in 2004. I am originally from the Hampton Roads area but have worked internationally with people from many different backgrounds. I have continued to support the military, as well as the community at large, for over 3 decades with evidence-based treatments for trauma (PTSD).
I began helping others in 1990 as a Peer Counselor (Drug Exemption NCO) while on active duty in the Marine Corps. After earning degrees in Psychology and Social Work at UNCW/ECU, I obtained licensure to practice independently with the Virginia Board of Health Professionals in 2004. I am originally from the Hampton Roads area but have worked internationally with people from many different backgrounds. I have continued to support the military, as well as the community at large, for over 3 decades with evidence-based treatments for trauma (PTSD).
(571) 506-7969 View (571) 506-7969
Photo of Amy Taylor Scully, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Amy Taylor Scully
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22203
I believe that behind every problem lies the powerful desire for something better. In addition to specializing couples counseling and adults, my expertise is in therapy with adolescents (14+) and families. I use research-based therapies that offer practical methods and skills that build emotional flexibility, self-awareness and resilience. Many of my clients are working to become free of self-defeating patterns resulting from emotional neglect in early or adolescent development. My typical client is intelligent and responsible as well as anxious and stressed, lonely, depressed or angry.
I believe that behind every problem lies the powerful desire for something better. In addition to specializing couples counseling and adults, my expertise is in therapy with adolescents (14+) and families. I use research-based therapies that offer practical methods and skills that build emotional flexibility, self-awareness and resilience. Many of my clients are working to become free of self-defeating patterns resulting from emotional neglect in early or adolescent development. My typical client is intelligent and responsible as well as anxious and stressed, lonely, depressed or angry.
(571) 570-8363 View (571) 570-8363
Photo of David C. Rothman, LCSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
David C. Rothman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Arlington, VA 22209
Do you struggle with anxiety, depression, or trauma? Are you looking for more effective ways to manage stress from work and relationships? With a depth of experience as a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Board-Approved Clinical Supervisor, I bring a unique blend of practicality, authenticity, warmth, and humor to my therapeutic approach. I'll work with you develop more insight into your thoughts/feelings/behavior, and help transform that insight into effective action in your everyday life. I'll help you learn a variety of practical, easy-to-use tools to use when you're struggling with your thoughts and/or emotions.
Do you struggle with anxiety, depression, or trauma? Are you looking for more effective ways to manage stress from work and relationships? With a depth of experience as a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and Board-Approved Clinical Supervisor, I bring a unique blend of practicality, authenticity, warmth, and humor to my therapeutic approach. I'll work with you develop more insight into your thoughts/feelings/behavior, and help transform that insight into effective action in your everyday life. I'll help you learn a variety of practical, easy-to-use tools to use when you're struggling with your thoughts and/or emotions.
(703) 226-2566 View (703) 226-2566
Photo of Ashley Conzel, LPC, NCC, Counselor
Ashley Conzel
Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Arlington, VA 22216  (Online Only)
I see adults who have historically experienced unstable relationships and find themselves in uncomfortable relationship dynamics. I work with clients to provide information about trauma responses and replace self-sabotaging behaviors with adaptive coping strategies. My skillset is in working with people who have symptoms of personality disorders and those who have had difficulty safely expressing their emotions in the past. When people gain insight into their emotions and behaviors, positive changes occur.
I see adults who have historically experienced unstable relationships and find themselves in uncomfortable relationship dynamics. I work with clients to provide information about trauma responses and replace self-sabotaging behaviors with adaptive coping strategies. My skillset is in working with people who have symptoms of personality disorders and those who have had difficulty safely expressing their emotions in the past. When people gain insight into their emotions and behaviors, positive changes occur.
(703) 420-5412 View (703) 420-5412
Photo of Amanda Coyle, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Amanda Coyle
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Arlington, VA 22201
Our careers and our sense of self are usually tightly linked, yet we don't always recognize this tie. This connection can have a big impact on how we relate to others in our lives. I would be honored to be your therapist as you navigate your personal or career challenges. Giving ourselves the space to explore and process our thoughts, feelings and needs is one of the best gifts we can give ourselves. Knowing we are not alone in this journey can be quite powerful.
Our careers and our sense of self are usually tightly linked, yet we don't always recognize this tie. This connection can have a big impact on how we relate to others in our lives. I would be honored to be your therapist as you navigate your personal or career challenges. Giving ourselves the space to explore and process our thoughts, feelings and needs is one of the best gifts we can give ourselves. Knowing we are not alone in this journey can be quite powerful.
(571) 620-6541 View (571) 620-6541
Photo of Elevate Wellness, MA, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Elevate Wellness
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Arlington, VA 22201  (Online Only)
We all experience problems in life. Therapy can help address your issues to create a happier, meaningful and fulfilling life. People seek therapy for many reasons including mental health issues, overwhelming emotions, trauma, medical trauma, difficult life transitions, feeling stuck, relationship, and family/parenting issues to name a few. We can work to resolve issues, reduce stress, and move on. No issue is too small or too big. Therapy offers the opportunity to learn about oneself, access your inner strength and lead a fulfilling life that you want. We can work to meet your needs in a warm, supportive and caring environment.
We all experience problems in life. Therapy can help address your issues to create a happier, meaningful and fulfilling life. People seek therapy for many reasons including mental health issues, overwhelming emotions, trauma, medical trauma, difficult life transitions, feeling stuck, relationship, and family/parenting issues to name a few. We can work to resolve issues, reduce stress, and move on. No issue is too small or too big. Therapy offers the opportunity to learn about oneself, access your inner strength and lead a fulfilling life that you want. We can work to meet your needs in a warm, supportive and caring environment.
(571) 520-8261 View (571) 520-8261
Photo of Tara R. Edwards, MA, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Tara R. Edwards
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
19 Endorsed
Arlington, VA 22209
Have the events of your life or the world around you got you feeling overwhelmed, anxious, depressed, or stressed? Is your inner critic getting louder? Are you finding yourself numbing out with food, alcohol, shopping or streaming? Are you longing for meaningful connection? You are not alone. Perhaps I can help. I am a BIPOC, LGBTQI+, and Disability affirming therapist. I offer brief, standard, and extended session lengths. I welcome an opportunity to collaborate with you as you bravely or not so bravely make your way in this world of ours. Questions? Please call or email. It's okay to reach out and ask for help.
Have the events of your life or the world around you got you feeling overwhelmed, anxious, depressed, or stressed? Is your inner critic getting louder? Are you finding yourself numbing out with food, alcohol, shopping or streaming? Are you longing for meaningful connection? You are not alone. Perhaps I can help. I am a BIPOC, LGBTQI+, and Disability affirming therapist. I offer brief, standard, and extended session lengths. I welcome an opportunity to collaborate with you as you bravely or not so bravely make your way in this world of ours. Questions? Please call or email. It's okay to reach out and ask for help.
(703) 420-7173 View (703) 420-7173
Photo of Jane Lowery, LGPC-DC
Jane Lowery
Resident in Counseling, LGPC-DC
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22209
Hello and welcome to my profile! My name is Jane and I am a resident in counseling specializing in helping individuals navigate through grief, people-pleasing tendencies, and anxiety. Through a combination of empathy, compassion, and evidence-based therapy techniques, I help my clients find healing and peace in the midst of their struggles. Most importantly, working together to understand the root of their feelings and behaviors is a vital part of our work. Above all, I want to help my clients find ways to be kinder to themselves and find tools that work for them and their lifestyle.
Hello and welcome to my profile! My name is Jane and I am a resident in counseling specializing in helping individuals navigate through grief, people-pleasing tendencies, and anxiety. Through a combination of empathy, compassion, and evidence-based therapy techniques, I help my clients find healing and peace in the midst of their struggles. Most importantly, working together to understand the root of their feelings and behaviors is a vital part of our work. Above all, I want to help my clients find ways to be kinder to themselves and find tools that work for them and their lifestyle.
(571) 470-5940 View (571) 470-5940
Photo of Jillian Pelzer, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jillian Pelzer
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22207
Hi! My name is Jillian Pelzer. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor for the state of VA. I take a person-centered approach to therapy, meaning you are the expert of your own life. I am simply here to help you organize your thoughts and judgment so that you can make positive decisions for your life. I have expertise in counseling clients with depression, parenting problems, suicidal ideation, adjustment disorders, substance use problems, and more. I am super laid back! This will be a no-stress, no-pressure situation. The time is yours to use how you'd like. I am always flexible with my clients.
Hi! My name is Jillian Pelzer. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor for the state of VA. I take a person-centered approach to therapy, meaning you are the expert of your own life. I am simply here to help you organize your thoughts and judgment so that you can make positive decisions for your life. I have expertise in counseling clients with depression, parenting problems, suicidal ideation, adjustment disorders, substance use problems, and more. I am super laid back! This will be a no-stress, no-pressure situation. The time is yours to use how you'd like. I am always flexible with my clients.
(757) 378-0997 View (757) 378-0997
Photo of David Glass, PhD, Psychologist
David Glass
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22209
Looking for help is never easy. Especially in these stressful times and if you may well be meeting a new therapist on line rather than in person. Still, life problems can reach a crisis point when one knows they need to reach out for help. Whether or not you have been in therapy before, with the right help you can make real, positive changes in your feelings, your behavior and your relationships, bringing more satisfaction and joy into your life.
Looking for help is never easy. Especially in these stressful times and if you may well be meeting a new therapist on line rather than in person. Still, life problems can reach a crisis point when one knows they need to reach out for help. Whether or not you have been in therapy before, with the right help you can make real, positive changes in your feelings, your behavior and your relationships, bringing more satisfaction and joy into your life.
(703) 957-7303 View (703) 957-7303
Photo of Candi Meyer, PhD, Psychologist
Candi Meyer
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Arlington, VA 22201
Most individuals come to me either when stressful life events have overwhelmed their usual coping strategies or they feel stuck in unproductive patterns of behavior. They feel anxious, depressed, or like they are functioning below their potential. Sometimes these feelings make important relationships very difficult. You may have challenges that hinder your ability to enjoy your family, job, studies, or relationships. As your therapist, I will work with you to identify what is holding you back from reaching your goals.
Most individuals come to me either when stressful life events have overwhelmed their usual coping strategies or they feel stuck in unproductive patterns of behavior. They feel anxious, depressed, or like they are functioning below their potential. Sometimes these feelings make important relationships very difficult. You may have challenges that hinder your ability to enjoy your family, job, studies, or relationships. As your therapist, I will work with you to identify what is holding you back from reaching your goals.
(571) 200-0854 View (571) 200-0854
Photo of Angela Reed, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Angela Reed
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22201
My name is Angela Reed, MAMFT, LMFT. I believe the best approach to therapy leading to permanent change is a holistic and integrated lens to include biological psychological, physiological, and spiritual needs. I work with teens and adults specializing in anxiety, depression, grief counseling, marital counseling, and trauma. I am a clinical member of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Angela works with adults struggling with anxiety, depression, marital problems, and trauma.
My name is Angela Reed, MAMFT, LMFT. I believe the best approach to therapy leading to permanent change is a holistic and integrated lens to include biological psychological, physiological, and spiritual needs. I work with teens and adults specializing in anxiety, depression, grief counseling, marital counseling, and trauma. I am a clinical member of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Angela works with adults struggling with anxiety, depression, marital problems, and trauma.
(757) 780-1794 View (757) 780-1794
Photo of Marion Scotchmer, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Marion Scotchmer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22207
Marion “Mimi” Scotchmer is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW, LICSW) with over 16 years of experience working in behavioral health. Mimi supports clients who are experiencing a wide range of concerns including mental distress, anxiety, depression, grief, major life transitions, and relationship challenges.
Marion “Mimi” Scotchmer is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW, LICSW) with over 16 years of experience working in behavioral health. Mimi supports clients who are experiencing a wide range of concerns including mental distress, anxiety, depression, grief, major life transitions, and relationship challenges.
(571) 487-8017 View (571) 487-8017
Photo of Adam G Thomas, PsyD, Psychologist
Adam G Thomas
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22209
How would it feel if we could turn the volume down on the emotional pain you’re struggling with right now? I see therapy as a way to help you better understand the nature of what you’re currently experiencing in a safe environment and to collaboratively find the solutions to create the life you want to live. Yet, change isn’t easy. My role as a therapist is to help effectively facilitate positive changes while reducing the emotional toll on you. Together, I’m confident that we can improve your quality of life and set you on a viable path to achieving your life goals.
How would it feel if we could turn the volume down on the emotional pain you’re struggling with right now? I see therapy as a way to help you better understand the nature of what you’re currently experiencing in a safe environment and to collaboratively find the solutions to create the life you want to live. Yet, change isn’t easy. My role as a therapist is to help effectively facilitate positive changes while reducing the emotional toll on you. Together, I’m confident that we can improve your quality of life and set you on a viable path to achieving your life goals.
(703) 775-1537 View (703) 775-1537
Photo of Leslie Weber, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Leslie Weber
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22207  (Online Only)
Leslie Weber is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) who has 20 years of experience in the mental health field. Leslie has always been a therapist, but she hasn’t always been a counselor. Her career began as an Occupational Therapist working in many settings with young and old clients: in schools, hospitals, geriatric care centers, and lastly in a forensic mental health facility. Leslie learned so much from all her clients and mental health was involved in every interaction. It was at the core of every successful outcome. Once Leslie realized this, she transitioned her career from a therapist to a counselor.
Leslie Weber is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) who has 20 years of experience in the mental health field. Leslie has always been a therapist, but she hasn’t always been a counselor. Her career began as an Occupational Therapist working in many settings with young and old clients: in schools, hospitals, geriatric care centers, and lastly in a forensic mental health facility. Leslie learned so much from all her clients and mental health was involved in every interaction. It was at the core of every successful outcome. Once Leslie realized this, she transitioned her career from a therapist to a counselor.
(571) 556-9125 View (571) 556-9125
Photo of Anthony LoPresti, MS, PsyD, Psychologist
Anthony LoPresti
Psychologist, MS, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Arlington, VA 22209
It can be difficult to find the "right" therapist. Many clients are nervous about what therapy entails and wonder if counseling will really help them. Although this is completely normal, it shouldn't get in the way of finding the support you deserve. I have found success helping clients navigate relational and professional difficulties. Sometimes these problems come from an identifiable stressor (such as trauma), and other times are more nebulous. I am committed to helping you better understand yourself and create long-lasting change.
It can be difficult to find the "right" therapist. Many clients are nervous about what therapy entails and wonder if counseling will really help them. Although this is completely normal, it shouldn't get in the way of finding the support you deserve. I have found success helping clients navigate relational and professional difficulties. Sometimes these problems come from an identifiable stressor (such as trauma), and other times are more nebulous. I am committed to helping you better understand yourself and create long-lasting change.
(571) 200-5286 View (571) 200-5286
Photo of Naomi Yohannes, MS
Naomi Yohannes
Resident in Counseling, MS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Arlington, VA 22206
I specialize in working with teens and young adults struggling with anxiety, depression, family relationships, difficulty with school, and understanding identity. If you (or your child) are having a hard time with friends, experiencing stress around school, or having difficulty managing the complications of life as a high school or college student, I can help. For parents, I will work with your child to identify their feelings, work through priorities, and communicate with you in a healthier and more productive way.
I specialize in working with teens and young adults struggling with anxiety, depression, family relationships, difficulty with school, and understanding identity. If you (or your child) are having a hard time with friends, experiencing stress around school, or having difficulty managing the complications of life as a high school or college student, I can help. For parents, I will work with your child to identify their feelings, work through priorities, and communicate with you in a healthier and more productive way.
(571) 462-2928 View (571) 462-2928
Photo of undefined - Silver Lake Psychology--Virginia, PsyD, Psychologist
Silver Lake Psychology--Virginia
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22201
Learn how to feel more connected to yourself, others and the world around you. Therapy provides all the elements of intimacy: honest communication, vulnerability and trust. Good therapy is challenging yet warm, providing both structure and empathy for your unique experience. We are a collective of therapists with a wide range of specialties. Our intake professionals will help connect you with the right therapist for your needs. We make appointments easy, offering evenings and weekends and flexibility for creative professionals who can't make the same time each week.
Learn how to feel more connected to yourself, others and the world around you. Therapy provides all the elements of intimacy: honest communication, vulnerability and trust. Good therapy is challenging yet warm, providing both structure and empathy for your unique experience. We are a collective of therapists with a wide range of specialties. Our intake professionals will help connect you with the right therapist for your needs. We make appointments easy, offering evenings and weekends and flexibility for creative professionals who can't make the same time each week.
(703) 952-3095 View (703) 952-3095
Photo of Melinda Mecham Jensen, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Melinda Mecham Jensen
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Arlington, VA 22209
www.mindymjensen.com Most People explore therapy when they are aware they want more out of life. Therapy is a process of examining wants and behaviors, and establishing a course to achieve those goals more effectively. I work with people in individual and group psychotherapy. I also work with couples with a co-therapist, allowing each client to feel like they have an advocate in the room. This helps the couple identify, negotiate and achieve their goals whether individually or collectively.
www.mindymjensen.com Most People explore therapy when they are aware they want more out of life. Therapy is a process of examining wants and behaviors, and establishing a course to achieve those goals more effectively. I work with people in individual and group psychotherapy. I also work with couples with a co-therapist, allowing each client to feel like they have an advocate in the room. This helps the couple identify, negotiate and achieve their goals whether individually or collectively.
(540) 212-2081 View (540) 212-2081

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Arlington, VA

1,000+

Average cost per session

$175

Therapists in Arlington, VA who prioritize treating:

95% Anxiety
91% Depression
78% Relationship Issues
78% Self Esteem
69% Coping Skills
68% Trauma and PTSD
68% Stress

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

70% BlueCross and BlueShield
59% Aetna
58% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Arlington, VA see their clients

55% In Person and Online
45% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
18% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Arlington?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.