Therapists in Tooele County, UT

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Photo of Adessa Judd, LPC Intern
Adessa Judd
LPC Intern
Verified Verified
Grantsville, UT 84029
I work with individuals navigating the often turbulent waters of childhood, adolescence, teenage years, or young adulthood. They may be struggling with a variety of issues such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, behavioral problems, academic pressures, social challenges, or family dynamics. These issues can manifest in different ways, from withdrawal and sadness to anger and acting out, affecting their overall well-being and daily functioning.
I work with individuals navigating the often turbulent waters of childhood, adolescence, teenage years, or young adulthood. They may be struggling with a variety of issues such as anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, behavioral problems, academic pressures, social challenges, or family dynamics. These issues can manifest in different ways, from withdrawal and sadness to anger and acting out, affecting their overall well-being and daily functioning.
(435) 412-8309 View (435) 412-8309
Photo of David W Scott, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
David W Scott
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Grantsville, UT 84029
Not accepting new clients
***Not accepting new clients at this time*** Trauma is timeless. Even though it happened a long time ago, it can feel as though it is happening now. Trauma can negatively impact every part of your life. Even a simple trip to the grocery store can feel overwhelming. Work can feel impossible and few people understand. I feel a special connection to anyone with trauma because I have experienced trauma of my own. You are going to feel cared for and validated.
***Not accepting new clients at this time*** Trauma is timeless. Even though it happened a long time ago, it can feel as though it is happening now. Trauma can negatively impact every part of your life. Even a simple trip to the grocery store can feel overwhelming. Work can feel impossible and few people understand. I feel a special connection to anyone with trauma because I have experienced trauma of my own. You are going to feel cared for and validated.
(435) 535-0716 View (435) 535-0716
Photo of Olivia Pacheco, CMHC, Counselor
Olivia Pacheco
Counselor, CMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Tooele, UT 84074
Finding balance while juggling life's responsibilities can be overwhelming. We all need help sorting through our feelings. I have genuine empathy for people and the human experience. This quality underlines my passion to guide my clients to a purpose filled life. Whether you're faced with a temporary crisis or you're looking to learn skills necessary to have a balanced life - I offer a safe space, full of support with the goal to promote understanding and self-awareness. I understand that with work, finances, family conflict, relationship discord, parenting difficulties that life feels daunting.
Finding balance while juggling life's responsibilities can be overwhelming. We all need help sorting through our feelings. I have genuine empathy for people and the human experience. This quality underlines my passion to guide my clients to a purpose filled life. Whether you're faced with a temporary crisis or you're looking to learn skills necessary to have a balanced life - I offer a safe space, full of support with the goal to promote understanding and self-awareness. I understand that with work, finances, family conflict, relationship discord, parenting difficulties that life feels daunting.
(435) 292-3095 View (435) 292-3095
Photo of undefined - Deseret Peak Counseling, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Deseret Peak Counseling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Tooele, UT 84074
I have been a practicing therapist for over 35 years and still love what I do. I specialize in depression, anxiety and marital problems for adults and teens. I have a had a lot of success with cognitive-behavioral therapy but borrow from many different therapies. I really believe in mindfulness meditation and I practice it and teach it to my clients. After practicing for so many years I have a lot of confidence in what I do. I am willing to take on the most difficult cases. Give me a try and I will not let you down.
I have been a practicing therapist for over 35 years and still love what I do. I specialize in depression, anxiety and marital problems for adults and teens. I have a had a lot of success with cognitive-behavioral therapy but borrow from many different therapies. I really believe in mindfulness meditation and I practice it and teach it to my clients. After practicing for so many years I have a lot of confidence in what I do. I am willing to take on the most difficult cases. Give me a try and I will not let you down.
(435) 625-0862 View (435) 625-0862
Photo of undefined - Lorene Noack, LCSW, LCSW, MSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lorene Noack, LCSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW
Verified Verified
Stansbury Park, UT 84074  (Online Only)
Whether you are seeking counseling services for yourself, your child or your family, please know that there is hope. Choosing this step in your life takes courage and strength. I will support and guide you to reach your goals. I am semi-retired, so I can only accept a few clients at a time. I offer telehealth exclusively through ZOOM, which allows us to work together in the comfort of your home or office. I am licensed in both Utah and California.
Whether you are seeking counseling services for yourself, your child or your family, please know that there is hope. Choosing this step in your life takes courage and strength. I will support and guide you to reach your goals. I am semi-retired, so I can only accept a few clients at a time. I offer telehealth exclusively through ZOOM, which allows us to work together in the comfort of your home or office. I am licensed in both Utah and California.
(530) 419-6103 View (530) 419-6103
Photo of Regina Tippets, LCMHC, Counselor
Regina Tippets
Counselor, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Tooele, UT 84074
Dissatisfaction with work or life, feeling unhappy, anxiety, the loss of a loved one and feeling stuck are all reasons people come to therapy. Life has ups and downs and it can feel overwhelming and sometimes painful. I help people live their best lives by resolving the things that get in the way. I bring innate compassion with advanced training and extensive experience to help my clients find fulfillment, confidence, and clarity. My clients say they feel happier, lighter and able to be their authentic selves. I use approaches that are gentle and promote increased insight and clarity while resolving what got in the way.
Dissatisfaction with work or life, feeling unhappy, anxiety, the loss of a loved one and feeling stuck are all reasons people come to therapy. Life has ups and downs and it can feel overwhelming and sometimes painful. I help people live their best lives by resolving the things that get in the way. I bring innate compassion with advanced training and extensive experience to help my clients find fulfillment, confidence, and clarity. My clients say they feel happier, lighter and able to be their authentic selves. I use approaches that are gentle and promote increased insight and clarity while resolving what got in the way.
(385) 442-9062 View (385) 442-9062
Photo of Chelsie Shortt - Kiwi Counseling, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Chelsie Shortt - Kiwi Counseling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Tooele, UT 84074
***ACCEPTING NEW CLIENTS*** What if therapy could be enjoyable? Suppose you could talk about your struggles without feeling judged. Imagine feeling heard and understood by your therapist. Can you visualize your relationships improving or actually overcoming your addiction? Yes, even a sexual addiction!! How would if feel to process and move through your shame?
***ACCEPTING NEW CLIENTS*** What if therapy could be enjoyable? Suppose you could talk about your struggles without feeling judged. Imagine feeling heard and understood by your therapist. Can you visualize your relationships improving or actually overcoming your addiction? Yes, even a sexual addiction!! How would if feel to process and move through your shame?
(435) 246-7610 View (435) 246-7610
Photo of Ashley Carrubba, ACMHC, Pre-Licensed Professional
Ashley Carrubba
Pre-Licensed Professional, ACMHC
Verified Verified
Grantsville, UT 84029
I believe every individual, no matter what they are faced with, can and deserves to live their very best life. If you are here, you may be finding it difficult to feel your best. Perhaps you’ve lost joy in the things you once loved and it’s hard to function in daily life. Whether you are experiencing anxious thoughts, depressed mood, or have experienced overwhelming events in your life, I am here for you. Sometimes, life gets messy and I would be honored to be apart of your journey as you uncover the strength inside you.
I believe every individual, no matter what they are faced with, can and deserves to live their very best life. If you are here, you may be finding it difficult to feel your best. Perhaps you’ve lost joy in the things you once loved and it’s hard to function in daily life. Whether you are experiencing anxious thoughts, depressed mood, or have experienced overwhelming events in your life, I am here for you. Sometimes, life gets messy and I would be honored to be apart of your journey as you uncover the strength inside you.
(435) 466-7354 View (435) 466-7354
Photo of Guy Exon, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Guy Exon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Tooele, UT 84074  (Online Only)
Your Story Matters! Life can sometimes feel stressful, chaotic, scary, hopeless, and unmanageable. You don't have to face these challenges alone. My Name is Guy Exon, and I have worked in residential treatment (for adults and teens), community mental health, hospitals, teletherapy, and in clients' homes. I work with individuals/couples/families suffering from depression, anxiety, trauma, obsessive thoughts, relationship struggles, anger management, parenting, addiction, personality disorders, and more. If this sounds familiar, there is hope, and I would love to be a part of your journey.
Your Story Matters! Life can sometimes feel stressful, chaotic, scary, hopeless, and unmanageable. You don't have to face these challenges alone. My Name is Guy Exon, and I have worked in residential treatment (for adults and teens), community mental health, hospitals, teletherapy, and in clients' homes. I work with individuals/couples/families suffering from depression, anxiety, trauma, obsessive thoughts, relationship struggles, anger management, parenting, addiction, personality disorders, and more. If this sounds familiar, there is hope, and I would love to be a part of your journey.
(435) 466-2876 View (435) 466-2876
Photo of undefined - Pebble Creek Counseling Center, CMHC, Counselor
Pebble Creek Counseling Center
Counselor, CMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Tooele, UT 84074
Hi folks- my name is Michelle Main. I have worked in the human service field for over 20 years with the last several as a CMHC. I have 10 years experience with DCFS which gave me a strong background in working with children and trauma. I have several years experience with addiction and relapse prevention as well as domestic violence, grief, depression and anxiety. I use a integrative approach to counseling. I enjoy working with adults, children, adolescents couples and individuals. I am a strong believer in having hope as a strong base for any therapeutic relationship.
Hi folks- my name is Michelle Main. I have worked in the human service field for over 20 years with the last several as a CMHC. I have 10 years experience with DCFS which gave me a strong background in working with children and trauma. I have several years experience with addiction and relapse prevention as well as domestic violence, grief, depression and anxiety. I use a integrative approach to counseling. I enjoy working with adults, children, adolescents couples and individuals. I am a strong believer in having hope as a strong base for any therapeutic relationship.
(435) 238-4781 View (435) 238-4781
Photo of undefined - WholeKids Emotional Wellness, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
WholeKids Emotional Wellness
Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Verified Verified
Tooele, UT 84074
At our clinic we specialize in working with kids, tweens, teens and young adults who experience depression, anxiety, self worth issues, motivational challenges, impulsivity, anger, communication issues, family conflict, trauma, bullying, peer and media pressure, school challenges, friendship issues, social isolation, technology compulsions and much more.
At our clinic we specialize in working with kids, tweens, teens and young adults who experience depression, anxiety, self worth issues, motivational challenges, impulsivity, anger, communication issues, family conflict, trauma, bullying, peer and media pressure, school challenges, friendship issues, social isolation, technology compulsions and much more.
(435) 412-9579 View (435) 412-9579
Photo of Raini W. Heap, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Raini W. Heap
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Tooele, UT 84074
Waitlist for new clients
Do you struggle with anxiety or depression? Are you challenged by a faith transition or a marriage/family relationship issue, or facing loss and grief? Perhaps you have experienced a traumatic event and find it difficult to move forward? If you have ever felt discouraged or hopeless, I can help guide you along your journey in finding resolution, peace, and healing as we work through your personal struggles and unique challenges. Guiding you towards reaching the goal of health, hope, and healing in your life, I will offer you tools to help you learn the skills that can improve your life and overall sense of well-being.
Do you struggle with anxiety or depression? Are you challenged by a faith transition or a marriage/family relationship issue, or facing loss and grief? Perhaps you have experienced a traumatic event and find it difficult to move forward? If you have ever felt discouraged or hopeless, I can help guide you along your journey in finding resolution, peace, and healing as we work through your personal struggles and unique challenges. Guiding you towards reaching the goal of health, hope, and healing in your life, I will offer you tools to help you learn the skills that can improve your life and overall sense of well-being.
(435) 363-3281 View (435) 363-3281
Photo of undefined - Healing Heart Center for Meaningful Change, LLC, CMHC
Healing Heart Center for Meaningful Change, LLC
Clinical Mental Health Counselor, CMHC
Verified Verified
Tooele, UT 84074  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Hi, my name is Shawna Gillen. I work to create a safe compassionate and therapeutic environment in which a client can feel seen, heard and valued as an individual. I use a variety of techniques to empower clients to work toward understanding and changing maladaptive patterns and cycles, learn coping skills for mood management and begin to heal from trauma, loss and other painful life experiences. I am currently offering Telehealth sessions only.
Hi, my name is Shawna Gillen. I work to create a safe compassionate and therapeutic environment in which a client can feel seen, heard and valued as an individual. I use a variety of techniques to empower clients to work toward understanding and changing maladaptive patterns and cycles, learn coping skills for mood management and begin to heal from trauma, loss and other painful life experiences. I am currently offering Telehealth sessions only.
(435) 704-9372 View (435) 704-9372
Photo of undefined - The Mindful Lemon Marriage and Family Therapy INC, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
The Mindful Lemon Marriage and Family Therapy INC
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Tooele, UT 84074  (Online Only)
Our mission is to provide quality online mental health and substance abuse services while breaking down the barriers of traditional, office-based therapy. Traditional mental health and substance abuse treatment tends to focus on what makes you sick, and what you are lacking but at The Mindful Lemon, our clinicians let you sit in the driver’s seat, focusing on your strengths and assets to help you become the best version of you! This can be via traditional talk therapy, medication management, mindfulness techniques, an emphasis on health, wellness, and fitness, or any combination of the above.
Our mission is to provide quality online mental health and substance abuse services while breaking down the barriers of traditional, office-based therapy. Traditional mental health and substance abuse treatment tends to focus on what makes you sick, and what you are lacking but at The Mindful Lemon, our clinicians let you sit in the driver’s seat, focusing on your strengths and assets to help you become the best version of you! This can be via traditional talk therapy, medication management, mindfulness techniques, an emphasis on health, wellness, and fitness, or any combination of the above.
(435) 246-1363 View (435) 246-1363
Photo of Jessica R Garcia, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Jessica R Garcia
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Tooele, UT 84074
I have a strong background in working with teens with behavioral issues as well as anxiety and ADHD. I also work closely with families in finding and employing supportive measures in working with those diagnoses.
I have a strong background in working with teens with behavioral issues as well as anxiety and ADHD. I also work closely with families in finding and employing supportive measures in working with those diagnoses.
(435) 494-4307 View (435) 494-4307
Photo of Heather Morrow, ACMHC, Counselor
Heather Morrow
Counselor, ACMHC
Verified Verified
Tooele, UT 84074
Life brings many challenges that we don't need to navigate alone. As a compassionate and open-minded therapist, I can assist you along your personal growth and well-being journey. By providing a safe and accepting atmosphere where you can explore your feelings, become more self-aware, and gain clarity through a healthy and collaborative therapeutic relationship in becoming your best self. My approach is empowering clients to have confidence in their life decisions through caring and confidential support in becoming their best selves.
Life brings many challenges that we don't need to navigate alone. As a compassionate and open-minded therapist, I can assist you along your personal growth and well-being journey. By providing a safe and accepting atmosphere where you can explore your feelings, become more self-aware, and gain clarity through a healthy and collaborative therapeutic relationship in becoming your best self. My approach is empowering clients to have confidence in their life decisions through caring and confidential support in becoming their best selves.
(435) 310-9214 View (435) 310-9214
Photo of Natalie Day, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Natalie Day
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Tooele, UT 84074
Waitlist for new clients
As a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with nearly a decade of experience in the mental health field and as a person in recovery, I am passionate about helping others. I understand the pain, confusion, and fear involved with beginning to make the changes necessary to live a fulfilling and authentic life. My approach to therapy is eclectic, I believe in tailoring treatment to the individual I am working with. The connection between trauma, substance abuse, and other destructive means of coping can keep us stuck and lonely. Recovery means learning to discover and nurture the path to a healthy and connected life.
As a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with nearly a decade of experience in the mental health field and as a person in recovery, I am passionate about helping others. I understand the pain, confusion, and fear involved with beginning to make the changes necessary to live a fulfilling and authentic life. My approach to therapy is eclectic, I believe in tailoring treatment to the individual I am working with. The connection between trauma, substance abuse, and other destructive means of coping can keep us stuck and lonely. Recovery means learning to discover and nurture the path to a healthy and connected life.
(801) 316-8521 View (801) 316-8521
Photo of Miriam E Buell, MS, LCMHC, Counselor
Miriam E Buell
Counselor, MS, LCMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Tooele, UT 84074
Are you struggling with feeling overwhelmed? Do you struggle with being able to focus or concentrate? Are you have difficulty sleeping? You may be struggling with depression or anxiety. Some of the strongest individuals I know are those who asked for help. Engaging in the therapeutic process can be intimidating, so I work with my clients to be their companion knowing that every journey is different. My goal while working with client's is to develop a mutual understanding of their presenting problem and develop a plan of approach that addresses the whole individual.
Are you struggling with feeling overwhelmed? Do you struggle with being able to focus or concentrate? Are you have difficulty sleeping? You may be struggling with depression or anxiety. Some of the strongest individuals I know are those who asked for help. Engaging in the therapeutic process can be intimidating, so I work with my clients to be their companion knowing that every journey is different. My goal while working with client's is to develop a mutual understanding of their presenting problem and develop a plan of approach that addresses the whole individual.
(435) 710-4269 View (435) 710-4269
Photo of Evan Kenison, LCSW, MSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Evan Kenison
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Tooele, UT 84074
Is your trauma, grief, or loss taking everything from you? Does your health condition seem like it is more than you can bear? Are you lost in a cloud of deep depression and can’t see a way out? Are you scared that you have come to a point in your marriage that you are considering divorce and would do anything to just heal things, be happy again, and make it all better? Or, is your child really struggling and you want to know how to help them? If you are experiencing any of these or other extremely hard feelings, you need to know you can get through this. Things can get better.
Is your trauma, grief, or loss taking everything from you? Does your health condition seem like it is more than you can bear? Are you lost in a cloud of deep depression and can’t see a way out? Are you scared that you have come to a point in your marriage that you are considering divorce and would do anything to just heal things, be happy again, and make it all better? Or, is your child really struggling and you want to know how to help them? If you are experiencing any of these or other extremely hard feelings, you need to know you can get through this. Things can get better.
(435) 850-2547 View (435) 850-2547
Photo of Hayley Baldwin, LCSW, MSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Hayley Baldwin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW
Verified Verified
Tooele, UT 84074
Are you overwhelmed with not knowing how to help your child? Is your child anxious, angry, or withdrawn? Or maybe your child is struggling emotionally or socially at home or in the school setting? If you are worried your youth is experiencing similar trials, we can work together as a team to help navigate your child's specific needs. With support from parents or guardians, I can offer resources to help your child learn healthy coping skills to manage everyday stresses and manage big emotions. Or are you, finding yourself in a place of change or uncertainty? Wondering how to cope with the pressures and stresses of life?
Are you overwhelmed with not knowing how to help your child? Is your child anxious, angry, or withdrawn? Or maybe your child is struggling emotionally or socially at home or in the school setting? If you are worried your youth is experiencing similar trials, we can work together as a team to help navigate your child's specific needs. With support from parents or guardians, I can offer resources to help your child learn healthy coping skills to manage everyday stresses and manage big emotions. Or are you, finding yourself in a place of change or uncertainty? Wondering how to cope with the pressures and stresses of life?
(435) 253-6279 View (435) 253-6279

See more therapy options for Tooele County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Tooele County, UT

40+

Average cost per session

$135

Therapists in Tooele County, UT who prioritize treating:

87% Depression
84% Anxiety
80% Trauma and PTSD
69% Grief
56% Relationship Issues
56% Self Esteem
51% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

78% BlueCross and BlueShield
76% SelectHealth
73% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Tooele County, UT see their clients

80% In Person and Online
20% Online Only

Gender breakdown

73% Female
27% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Tooele County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.