Therapists in Southlake, TX

Photo of Ellie Mental Health Southlake, Licensed Professional Counselor in Southlake, TX
Ellie Mental Health Southlake
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092
Ellie Mental Health in Southlake, Texas isn’t your average therapy clinic. We’ve created a comfy, judgment-free zone where you can be authentic, get real about where you’re at in your mental health, and receive the compassionate care you deserve. We strive to break down treatment barriers and provide you with customized counseling services that meet your therapy needs.
Ellie Mental Health in Southlake, Texas isn’t your average therapy clinic. We’ve created a comfy, judgment-free zone where you can be authentic, get real about where you’re at in your mental health, and receive the compassionate care you deserve. We strive to break down treatment barriers and provide you with customized counseling services that meet your therapy needs.
(817) 518-7114 View (817) 518-7114
Photo of Melinda S Schuster, Licensed Professional Counselor in Southlake, TX
Melinda S Schuster
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC-S, PMH-C
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092  (Online Only)
I’m guessing, those crap moments of life are getting the best of you. They bring chaos that can suck the life out of us and literally ruin some or all areas we have worked so hard to be successful in, relationships, career growth, raising amazing kids, or even the small things like keeping the kitchen clean, not being late to work, brushing our teeth like we have been told our entire lives. Being consistently overwhelmed can create anxiety or depression, which often turns into isolation and irritation, and we become our worst critics. As you try to do all the things to manage life, there is still no relief.
I’m guessing, those crap moments of life are getting the best of you. They bring chaos that can suck the life out of us and literally ruin some or all areas we have worked so hard to be successful in, relationships, career growth, raising amazing kids, or even the small things like keeping the kitchen clean, not being late to work, brushing our teeth like we have been told our entire lives. Being consistently overwhelmed can create anxiety or depression, which often turns into isolation and irritation, and we become our worst critics. As you try to do all the things to manage life, there is still no relief.
(817) 985-3809 View (817) 985-3809
Photo of Melaney Flaniken, LPC Associate in Southlake, TX
Melaney Flaniken
LPC Associate, BS, LMT, LPC-I
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092
Are you a parent of a teenager who is struggling with anxiety, panic attacks, depression, OCD, or self-harm? I am a therapist specializing in adolescent mental health, with expertise in treating adolescents who are suffering from these issues. I offer a deep understanding of teenagers' unique pressures and stressors in today's world. I am committed to offering a safe and supportive environment where your child can feel heard, understood, and empowered to overcome their challenges while involving parents in the process. Let's work together towards your teen's well-being. Reach out for support today.
Are you a parent of a teenager who is struggling with anxiety, panic attacks, depression, OCD, or self-harm? I am a therapist specializing in adolescent mental health, with expertise in treating adolescents who are suffering from these issues. I offer a deep understanding of teenagers' unique pressures and stressors in today's world. I am committed to offering a safe and supportive environment where your child can feel heard, understood, and empowered to overcome their challenges while involving parents in the process. Let's work together towards your teen's well-being. Reach out for support today.
(817) 631-8265 View (817) 631-8265
Photo of Erik Swayne, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Southlake, TX
Erik Swayne
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Southlake, TX 76092
The clients I focus on have difficulty with many stressors in life. School, divorce, relationship and family issues. Each of these are influenced by many factors that can quickly overwhelm someone. Although each person is different, everyone shares a common trait. They have an innate ability to handle the situation but are just needing the correct tools. All of us need someone in our corner at different points in our lives. None of us are alone.
The clients I focus on have difficulty with many stressors in life. School, divorce, relationship and family issues. Each of these are influenced by many factors that can quickly overwhelm someone. Although each person is different, everyone shares a common trait. They have an innate ability to handle the situation but are just needing the correct tools. All of us need someone in our corner at different points in our lives. None of us are alone.
(817) 242-6305 View (817) 242-6305
Photo of Kristen Diou, Licensed Professional Counselor in Southlake, TX
Kristen Diou
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, RPT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092
I love helping kids and teens find confidence within themselves to navigate the anxiety and pressure of school. Often times, my clients struggle with expressing themselves in healthy ways. Counseling is a great outlet for discovering new coping skills and healthy communication.
I love helping kids and teens find confidence within themselves to navigate the anxiety and pressure of school. Often times, my clients struggle with expressing themselves in healthy ways. Counseling is a great outlet for discovering new coping skills and healthy communication.
(940) 242-3184 View (940) 242-3184
Photo of Tricia Kane, Counselor in Southlake, TX
Tricia Kane
Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Not Verified Not Verified
Southlake, TX 76092
Does the life you want to live feel out of your reach? Are you stuck in relationship issues, parent pain, anxiety or depression? Doing real life in a broken world can be overwhelming. No matter where you are in life, I would love the opportunity to help you to find hope, healing and freedom. I am devoted to being a relational therapist by walking in an authentic, empathetic, safe and accepting environment. If you are sick and tired of being stuck and are ready to start a journey of hope, please consider giving me a call today.
Does the life you want to live feel out of your reach? Are you stuck in relationship issues, parent pain, anxiety or depression? Doing real life in a broken world can be overwhelming. No matter where you are in life, I would love the opportunity to help you to find hope, healing and freedom. I am devoted to being a relational therapist by walking in an authentic, empathetic, safe and accepting environment. If you are sick and tired of being stuck and are ready to start a journey of hope, please consider giving me a call today.
(940) 468-4732 x1 View (940) 468-4732 x1
Photo of Halle Crutch, Pre-Licensed Professional in Southlake, TX
Halle Crutch
Pre-Licensed Professional, MFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092
Young women face a lot in today's world. Between anxiety, comparison, life transitions, and managing relationships, it can feel like there is a heavy weight on our shoulders. My passion is to help in that space. Through a compassionate and collaborative approach, I provide a safe space for you to share your concerns. I tailor strategies from CBT, DBT, and narrative therapy, helping you understand triggers, manage symptoms, and rewrite your narratives. Witnessing your growth and resilience as you overcome anxiety is immensely rewarding. Let's explore what you need to find balance amid busyness.
Young women face a lot in today's world. Between anxiety, comparison, life transitions, and managing relationships, it can feel like there is a heavy weight on our shoulders. My passion is to help in that space. Through a compassionate and collaborative approach, I provide a safe space for you to share your concerns. I tailor strategies from CBT, DBT, and narrative therapy, helping you understand triggers, manage symptoms, and rewrite your narratives. Witnessing your growth and resilience as you overcome anxiety is immensely rewarding. Let's explore what you need to find balance amid busyness.
(940) 310-5685 View (940) 310-5685
Photo of Amy Scott, Licensed Professional Counselor in Southlake, TX
Amy Scott
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC-A
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092
It is an honor to work with clients in their most vulnerable times, especially those struggling with eating disorders and women struggling with chronic illness, grief, life changes, divorce, and trauma (especially abuse and domestic violence). I can help you discover healing, strength and hope in whatever difficult circumstances you're in and have been through. So often, we are worried about taking care of others and feel guilty for taking care of ourselves... But you are worthy of this investment in yourself!
It is an honor to work with clients in their most vulnerable times, especially those struggling with eating disorders and women struggling with chronic illness, grief, life changes, divorce, and trauma (especially abuse and domestic violence). I can help you discover healing, strength and hope in whatever difficult circumstances you're in and have been through. So often, we are worried about taking care of others and feel guilty for taking care of ourselves... But you are worthy of this investment in yourself!
(817) 646-7197 View (817) 646-7197
Photo of Dr. Mary Keyhan, Licensed Professional Counselor in Southlake, TX
Dr. Mary Keyhan
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092  (Online Only)
If you are experiencing depression, anxiety, or both, you know depression is more than just feeling sad and anxiety is more than just feeling worried. Depression can cause overwhelming sadness, take away your joy and motivation, and leave you feeling hopeless and alone. Anxiety may feel like a heavy weight on your chest. It can make it hard to breath or may even cause panic attacks. What you are feeling is your mind and body's way of telling you that they can't take the pain anymore. They are begging you to get help. Are you ready to listen? Are you ready to free yourself from the pain? Are you ready to feel joy and peace again?
If you are experiencing depression, anxiety, or both, you know depression is more than just feeling sad and anxiety is more than just feeling worried. Depression can cause overwhelming sadness, take away your joy and motivation, and leave you feeling hopeless and alone. Anxiety may feel like a heavy weight on your chest. It can make it hard to breath or may even cause panic attacks. What you are feeling is your mind and body's way of telling you that they can't take the pain anymore. They are begging you to get help. Are you ready to listen? Are you ready to free yourself from the pain? Are you ready to feel joy and peace again?
(972) 665-8733 View (972) 665-8733
Photo of Kate Casey, Licensed Professional Counselor in Southlake, TX
Kate Casey
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, JD
Verified Verified
Southlake, TX 76092
My warm personality and active listening style contribute to the calm, supportive, and respectful environment I create for my clients. I join with each client to explore, find meaning, and facilitate lasting change in the face of life's challenges and opportunities. I work collaboratively with my clients to develop an individualized and holistic approach to wellness. The aim of this approach is to help clients experience a sense of relief and develop strategies for lasting change and enduring success. I believe that education and encouragement empower clients to cope with life's challenges, and move forward with confidence.
My warm personality and active listening style contribute to the calm, supportive, and respectful environment I create for my clients. I join with each client to explore, find meaning, and facilitate lasting change in the face of life's challenges and opportunities. I work collaboratively with my clients to develop an individualized and holistic approach to wellness. The aim of this approach is to help clients experience a sense of relief and develop strategies for lasting change and enduring success. I believe that education and encouragement empower clients to cope with life's challenges, and move forward with confidence.
(817) 385-9041 View (817) 385-9041
Photo of Jennifer Loeravasquez, Licensed Professional Counselor in Southlake, TX
Jennifer Loeravasquez
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Southlake, TX 76092
Jennifer offers a warm, relaxed, and comfortable approach to counseling that is genuine, compassionate and solution focused. She has extensive education, training, and experience in the field of mental health and wellness, and has been working with individuals experiencing a wide range of concerns for over 10 years. Jen enjoys treating depression, anxiety, grief, relationship issues, parenting problems, family issues, career challenges, cultural concerns and spiritual problems. She is flexible, person-centered and strengths based, allowing her to address your unique needs.
Jennifer offers a warm, relaxed, and comfortable approach to counseling that is genuine, compassionate and solution focused. She has extensive education, training, and experience in the field of mental health and wellness, and has been working with individuals experiencing a wide range of concerns for over 10 years. Jen enjoys treating depression, anxiety, grief, relationship issues, parenting problems, family issues, career challenges, cultural concerns and spiritual problems. She is flexible, person-centered and strengths based, allowing her to address your unique needs.
(469) 833-2387 View (469) 833-2387
Photo of Amanpreet Randazzo, Psychologist in Southlake, TX
Amanpreet Randazzo
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092  (Online Only)
Achieving health and wellness requires the alignment of mind and body. My practice focuses on building a healthy outlook through introspection, understanding how our thoughts drive feelings and actions, and learning how to harness thoughts to feel better and act with more purpose. Therapy will empower individuals, couples, and families to embrace challenges as opportunities and build strong connections with self and the world around you. Together, we will set goals for your personal & emotional development to achieve the balance that you seek
Achieving health and wellness requires the alignment of mind and body. My practice focuses on building a healthy outlook through introspection, understanding how our thoughts drive feelings and actions, and learning how to harness thoughts to feel better and act with more purpose. Therapy will empower individuals, couples, and families to embrace challenges as opportunities and build strong connections with self and the world around you. Together, we will set goals for your personal & emotional development to achieve the balance that you seek
(817) 904-9282 View (817) 904-9282
Photo of Sheresa Dagley, LPC Associate in Southlake, TX
Sheresa Dagley
LPC Associate, MS, LPC-A
Verified Verified
Southlake, TX 76092
“Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom.” Viktor Frankl. I am passionate about helping individuals realize that they have the power to choose growth and freedom. I enjoy helping individuals find their identity, self confidence and the greatness within themselves. I have experience helping individuals work through depression, anxiety, life transitions, spiritual issues, grief and trauma. I work with preteens, teens, and adults.
“Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom.” Viktor Frankl. I am passionate about helping individuals realize that they have the power to choose growth and freedom. I enjoy helping individuals find their identity, self confidence and the greatness within themselves. I have experience helping individuals work through depression, anxiety, life transitions, spiritual issues, grief and trauma. I work with preteens, teens, and adults.
(817) 631-1453 View (817) 631-1453
Photo of Jeff Napier, Psychologist in Southlake, TX
Jeff Napier
Psychologist, PsyD, APIT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092
I am a licensed psychologist with over 20 years of experience providing consultation with individual clients and other mental health professionals. My professional experience includes service in the United States Navy as a Staff Psychologist and private practice in the Dallas area since 2004. My specialty areas include individual psychotherapy with adults and psychological evaluations utilizing a variety of personality assessment instruments. I also specialize in psychotherapy with adults to support recovery from sexual addiction.
I am a licensed psychologist with over 20 years of experience providing consultation with individual clients and other mental health professionals. My professional experience includes service in the United States Navy as a Staff Psychologist and private practice in the Dallas area since 2004. My specialty areas include individual psychotherapy with adults and psychological evaluations utilizing a variety of personality assessment instruments. I also specialize in psychotherapy with adults to support recovery from sexual addiction.
(214) 390-9558 View (214) 390-9558
Photo of Katie McCoy, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Southlake, TX
Katie McCoy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, she/her
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092
Do you feel frustrated that your current life isn’t what you thought it’d be? Do you yearn for a sense of peace but not sure how to obtain that? I want to help you reclaim that sense of inner calmness and regain control in your life. You have the ability to be happy and peaceful, even in the midst of anxiety, chaos and uncertainty. And I would be honored if I can come along side you and help you in that process like I have with so many others. Book at: katiemccoy.clientsecure.me
Do you feel frustrated that your current life isn’t what you thought it’d be? Do you yearn for a sense of peace but not sure how to obtain that? I want to help you reclaim that sense of inner calmness and regain control in your life. You have the ability to be happy and peaceful, even in the midst of anxiety, chaos and uncertainty. And I would be honored if I can come along side you and help you in that process like I have with so many others. Book at: katiemccoy.clientsecure.me
(817) 618-1989 View (817) 618-1989
Photo of Amber K. Bezney, Licensed Professional Counselor in Southlake, TX
Amber K. Bezney
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Southlake, TX 76092
Are you struggling in a relationship? Tired of fighting about the same things? Do you feel like you can’t get your point across or do you just give up and tune out? And is what you fight about really the issue? Probably not. What is getting in the way of having that relationship you want? I can tell you that as a counselor who practices Emotionally Focused Therapy, you are not to blame, nor is your partner! You are caught in a repeated pattern of behavior, sort of like a negative cycle, which over time erodes the connection in the relationship, leaving us feeling tired and alone.
Are you struggling in a relationship? Tired of fighting about the same things? Do you feel like you can’t get your point across or do you just give up and tune out? And is what you fight about really the issue? Probably not. What is getting in the way of having that relationship you want? I can tell you that as a counselor who practices Emotionally Focused Therapy, you are not to blame, nor is your partner! You are caught in a repeated pattern of behavior, sort of like a negative cycle, which over time erodes the connection in the relationship, leaving us feeling tired and alone.
(972) 433-9982 View (972) 433-9982
Photo of Jennifer Shonkwiler in Southlake, TX
Jennifer Shonkwiler
MS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092
Waitlist for new clients
Out of suffering have emerged the strongest souls; the most massive characters are seared with scars.`` - Khalil Gibran My ideal clients are willing to look at the somatic elements of who they are, become more mindful of their internal sensations and return to the present moment. They'll begin to understand that change can happen, that they can become unstuck, and find healing and growth. "The greatest thing then, in all education, is to make our nervous system our ally as opposed to our enemy." - William James
Out of suffering have emerged the strongest souls; the most massive characters are seared with scars.`` - Khalil Gibran My ideal clients are willing to look at the somatic elements of who they are, become more mindful of their internal sensations and return to the present moment. They'll begin to understand that change can happen, that they can become unstuck, and find healing and growth. "The greatest thing then, in all education, is to make our nervous system our ally as opposed to our enemy." - William James
(254) 249-6519 View (254) 249-6519
Photo of Charla Janecka, Licensed Professional Counselor in Southlake, TX
Charla Janecka
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA MFT, LPC, EMDRt
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092
I work with clients to help heal by re-processing past pain & trauma by fusing the clinical, practical and spiritual to heal the mind, body, soul & spirit. Every person is unique, so we find the modality that works best for you. I am Trauma trained in EMDR, practice SRI and somatic experience. I see minors, married, partners, and adults in crisis. I help clients discover and develop in identity, restore their voice and renew purpose as they heal. I believe that when we do by intention what we have been doing by intuition, acceleration occurs. I am faith based, but work with secular clients as well.
I work with clients to help heal by re-processing past pain & trauma by fusing the clinical, practical and spiritual to heal the mind, body, soul & spirit. Every person is unique, so we find the modality that works best for you. I am Trauma trained in EMDR, practice SRI and somatic experience. I see minors, married, partners, and adults in crisis. I help clients discover and develop in identity, restore their voice and renew purpose as they heal. I believe that when we do by intention what we have been doing by intuition, acceleration occurs. I am faith based, but work with secular clients as well.
(817) 904-3073 View (817) 904-3073
Photo of Bailey N Pittman, Licensed Professional Counselor in Southlake, TX
Bailey N Pittman
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Southlake, TX 76092
Accepting NEW clients with daytime and evening availability! I am passionate about counseling because I love seeing a client find hope, relief, & realize their own strength and resiliency. My desire is to create an accepting, warm environment where clients can feel safe to be themselves and work on their personal struggles without feelings of shame or guilt. I enjoy working with adults, adolescents, & couples who are struggling with trauma, addiction, body image, communication, grief, and everyday struggles.
Accepting NEW clients with daytime and evening availability! I am passionate about counseling because I love seeing a client find hope, relief, & realize their own strength and resiliency. My desire is to create an accepting, warm environment where clients can feel safe to be themselves and work on their personal struggles without feelings of shame or guilt. I enjoy working with adults, adolescents, & couples who are struggling with trauma, addiction, body image, communication, grief, and everyday struggles.
(469) 747-1635 View (469) 747-1635
Photo of The Cultivate Community in Southlake, TX
The Cultivate Community
MA, MT-BC
Verified Verified
Southlake, TX 76092
At The Cultivate Community, we are dedicated to nurturing the growth and well-being of children ages 0-18 through a holistic approach that offers music therapy, clinical therapy, and child life services. Our mission is to provide a haven where children can flourish, families can unite, and individuals with diverse needs can access a range of specialized services all under one roof.
At The Cultivate Community, we are dedicated to nurturing the growth and well-being of children ages 0-18 through a holistic approach that offers music therapy, clinical therapy, and child life services. Our mission is to provide a haven where children can flourish, families can unite, and individuals with diverse needs can access a range of specialized services all under one roof.
(817) 934-7439 View (817) 934-7439

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Southlake, TX

400+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Southlake, TX who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
89% Depression
82% Relationship Issues
76% Self Esteem
73% Trauma and PTSD
72% Coping Skills
69% Grief

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

78% Aetna
72% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
69% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in Southlake, TX see their clients

79% In Person and Online
21% Online Only

Gender breakdown

83% Female
16% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Southlake?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.