Therapists in Knoxville, TN

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Photo of Amber Christine Bird, MEd, NCC, LPC, MHSP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Amber Christine Bird
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, NCC, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37922
"There is not a person on earth you would not love if you only knew their story" -M. Hinkley. I look forward to getting to know all of my clients. It is a pleasure to learn your strengths and personal goals. I believe in the therapeutic process and look forward to watching each of my clients gain self-awareness and call on their own skills and strengths to achieve the changes they want to see in their lives.
"There is not a person on earth you would not love if you only knew their story" -M. Hinkley. I look forward to getting to know all of my clients. It is a pleasure to learn your strengths and personal goals. I believe in the therapeutic process and look forward to watching each of my clients gain self-awareness and call on their own skills and strengths to achieve the changes they want to see in their lives.
(865) 383-8658 View (865) 383-8658
Photo of Daniel Shirley, LPC, MHSP, MS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Daniel Shirley
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP, MS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37922
Life is often confusing and sometimes very difficult. I believe my clients can improve their lives, even in difficult situations. I take a holistic approach that considers the wellness and level of functioning of each client across their many roles and responsibilities. It is my hope that each of my clients gains greater feelings of hope and autonomy as a result of our work together.
Life is often confusing and sometimes very difficult. I believe my clients can improve their lives, even in difficult situations. I take a holistic approach that considers the wellness and level of functioning of each client across their many roles and responsibilities. It is my hope that each of my clients gains greater feelings of hope and autonomy as a result of our work together.
(865) 419-7462 View (865) 419-7462
Photo of Lynn Milora Smith, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lynn Milora Smith
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Knoxville, TN 37922  (Online Only)
Life can be stressful, and even oftentimes overwhelming. Stressors and trauma can impact our lives in many ways, negatively contributing to our physical and emotional health. I believe the mind has the innate capacity to heal. Therapy can provide the key to unlocking our own power to make positive changes, improving how we respond to life's challenges. The process of change and emotional growth is one that starts with the initial step of reaching out. Therapy can provide a safe, confidential, judgement free environment to explore how to manage stress and live life fully.
Life can be stressful, and even oftentimes overwhelming. Stressors and trauma can impact our lives in many ways, negatively contributing to our physical and emotional health. I believe the mind has the innate capacity to heal. Therapy can provide the key to unlocking our own power to make positive changes, improving how we respond to life's challenges. The process of change and emotional growth is one that starts with the initial step of reaching out. Therapy can provide a safe, confidential, judgement free environment to explore how to manage stress and live life fully.
(865) 745-0782 View (865) 745-0782
Photo of undefined - Affinity Counseling - Stacy M Hernandez AAIT Cert., LPC, MHSP, AAIT-, Licensed Professional Counselor
Affinity Counseling - Stacy M Hernandez AAIT Cert.
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP, AAIT-
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37922
Hello! Welcome to my page! I have been in the counseling field for 21 years and I am passionate about working with female adults and adolescents struggling with depression and anxiety. To achieve relieve from anxiety and depression, I utilize a therapeutic approach called Acceptance and Integration Therapy. Being a certified AAIT (Acceptance and Integration) therapist has allowed me to help clients heal, identify goals and quickly relieve psychological suffering. Let's get together and start helping you live a better authentic life!
Hello! Welcome to my page! I have been in the counseling field for 21 years and I am passionate about working with female adults and adolescents struggling with depression and anxiety. To achieve relieve from anxiety and depression, I utilize a therapeutic approach called Acceptance and Integration Therapy. Being a certified AAIT (Acceptance and Integration) therapist has allowed me to help clients heal, identify goals and quickly relieve psychological suffering. Let's get together and start helping you live a better authentic life!
(865) 407-2290 View (865) 407-2290
Photo of Lauren Thomas, LCSW, RYT, TCTSY-F, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lauren Thomas
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, RYT, TCTSY-F
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37919
Finding a space to feel safe, heard, and valued can be difficult. It's even harder to find this space, when we're feeling overwhelmed by life. I have learned that this essential piece- developing trust and safety with my clients- is the basis for healing and wholeness. I strive to put clients and their needs first. If you're struggling with mental health challenges as a result of trauma or significant life stress, please reach out so we can talk more about working together on your journey towards more peace and healing.
Finding a space to feel safe, heard, and valued can be difficult. It's even harder to find this space, when we're feeling overwhelmed by life. I have learned that this essential piece- developing trust and safety with my clients- is the basis for healing and wholeness. I strive to put clients and their needs first. If you're struggling with mental health challenges as a result of trauma or significant life stress, please reach out so we can talk more about working together on your journey towards more peace and healing.
(865) 328-9005 View (865) 328-9005
Photo of Mark H. Barnes, PhD, Psychologist
Mark H. Barnes
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Knoxville, TN 37919
I welcome people with a wide range of life issues, including depression, anxiety, relationship difficulties and general stress, as well as children and adolescents with behavioral, emotional and attentional problems. My approach is tailored to your needs and goals, but usually includes a focus on understanding how you got where you are. This kind of insight can be vitally important in figuring out a practical way to get to a better place in life. When working with kids and teens, I always involve their parents to some extent, so they can better understand and help their children.
I welcome people with a wide range of life issues, including depression, anxiety, relationship difficulties and general stress, as well as children and adolescents with behavioral, emotional and attentional problems. My approach is tailored to your needs and goals, but usually includes a focus on understanding how you got where you are. This kind of insight can be vitally important in figuring out a practical way to get to a better place in life. When working with kids and teens, I always involve their parents to some extent, so they can better understand and help their children.
(865) 275-5913 View (865) 275-5913
Photo of Angelyn Nicholson, LCSW, RMT, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Angelyn Nicholson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, RMT
Verified Verified
Knoxville, TN 37918
I am a seasoned therapist who highly values customizing your experience for the most effective path to success. I specialize in treating adults recovering from relationships with personality disordered people (Borderline PD and Narcissistic PD), complex trauma recovery, adults with ADHD and those who seek transformation. I'm a metaphysical teacher and healer, and use my intuitive ability to help assist in energy work as well as therapeutic work.
I am a seasoned therapist who highly values customizing your experience for the most effective path to success. I specialize in treating adults recovering from relationships with personality disordered people (Borderline PD and Narcissistic PD), complex trauma recovery, adults with ADHD and those who seek transformation. I'm a metaphysical teacher and healer, and use my intuitive ability to help assist in energy work as well as therapeutic work.
(865) 268-4450 View (865) 268-4450
Photo of Wesley J Gosselin, LCSW, MSSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Wesley J Gosselin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSSW
Verified Verified
Knoxville, TN 37919
Life is incredibly difficult. Add onto that that we, as humans, are complex beings living in a all-the-more complex social, economic, and environmental world and it’s no secret why we often feel off-track and unfulfilled. Being a psychoanalytic psychotherapist, I aim to co-explore the depths of each person I meet, to harness them with the personal awareness, tools and responsibility needed to feel more capable, alive and authentic in their lives.
Life is incredibly difficult. Add onto that that we, as humans, are complex beings living in a all-the-more complex social, economic, and environmental world and it’s no secret why we often feel off-track and unfulfilled. Being a psychoanalytic psychotherapist, I aim to co-explore the depths of each person I meet, to harness them with the personal awareness, tools and responsibility needed to feel more capable, alive and authentic in their lives.
(865) 509-9803 View (865) 509-9803
Photo of undefined - Sarah R. Hamblen, LCSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sarah R. Hamblen, LCSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Knoxville, TN 37922
My name is Sarah R. Hamblen. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and have been providing clinical services for over 17 years. I have worked with a variety of individuals of all ages, couples, and families on many different issues and concerns. The heart of my practice is finding the strengths within each individual and family. I strive to empower them to reach their goals both independently and as a family group. I use a variety of therapeutic techniques to help individuals gain insight, understanding, and implement effective change.
My name is Sarah R. Hamblen. I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and have been providing clinical services for over 17 years. I have worked with a variety of individuals of all ages, couples, and families on many different issues and concerns. The heart of my practice is finding the strengths within each individual and family. I strive to empower them to reach their goals both independently and as a family group. I use a variety of therapeutic techniques to help individuals gain insight, understanding, and implement effective change.
(865) 248-6816 View (865) 248-6816
Photo of Kristy Manresa, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kristy Manresa
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37922
Accepting new clients! I am a licensed Master's Social Worker currently providing individual, couples and family therapy at 4C Therapeutics, LLC.
Accepting new clients! I am a licensed Master's Social Worker currently providing individual, couples and family therapy at 4C Therapeutics, LLC.
(865) 507-2473 View (865) 507-2473
Photo of Candis Cochran, MA, LPC, MHSP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Candis Cochran
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37919  (Online Only)
Welcome! I applaud you for taking the steps to help yourself grow. I have over 10 years of experience helping people discover how to be the best version of themself. If you feel anxious, overwhelmed or depressed or feel that you are missing out, struggling to find joy or are becoming overly cynical I would love to talk with you and help you figure out what is missing. If you struggle with people pleasing, enabling, or over functioning this can also make life feel overwhelming but I would love to help. If you are struggling to connect with your partner or have a lot of miscommunications I can help you create a thriving marriage.
Welcome! I applaud you for taking the steps to help yourself grow. I have over 10 years of experience helping people discover how to be the best version of themself. If you feel anxious, overwhelmed or depressed or feel that you are missing out, struggling to find joy or are becoming overly cynical I would love to talk with you and help you figure out what is missing. If you struggle with people pleasing, enabling, or over functioning this can also make life feel overwhelming but I would love to help. If you are struggling to connect with your partner or have a lot of miscommunications I can help you create a thriving marriage.
(865) 518-8415 View (865) 518-8415
Photo of Julianna Saah, MSW, Pre-Licensed Professional
Julianna Saah
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37923
Whether you are going through a major life event that you would like to process, need someone to talk to about the everyday stressors of life, or anything in between, I am here for you. I have been working in the mental health and social work field for several years, where I most recently worked with children and teens in the crisis intervention setting. Through this experience, I found a passion for working with teens and young adults to process life’s challenges, relationships, transitional periods, and more.
Whether you are going through a major life event that you would like to process, need someone to talk to about the everyday stressors of life, or anything in between, I am here for you. I have been working in the mental health and social work field for several years, where I most recently worked with children and teens in the crisis intervention setting. Through this experience, I found a passion for working with teens and young adults to process life’s challenges, relationships, transitional periods, and more.
(865) 390-3973 View (865) 390-3973
Photo of Brad Watts, LPC, MHSP, CSOTP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Brad Watts
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP, CSOTP
Verified Verified
Knoxville, TN 37922
Whether you're struggling with work, school, relationships, family, or behavioral concerns...I am here to work with you. I know starting therapy can be scary and intimidating and I am here to walk alongside and empower you to live your fullest life and be your highest, healthiest self. I am trained in a variety of evidence-based therapeutic techniques that I utilize to meet the individual needs of my clients and look forward to working with you!
Whether you're struggling with work, school, relationships, family, or behavioral concerns...I am here to work with you. I know starting therapy can be scary and intimidating and I am here to walk alongside and empower you to live your fullest life and be your highest, healthiest self. I am trained in a variety of evidence-based therapeutic techniques that I utilize to meet the individual needs of my clients and look forward to working with you!
(865) 212-6600 View (865) 212-6600
Photo of Lauren W Hulse, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lauren W Hulse
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Knoxville, TN 37919
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker specializing in the treatment of trauma and traumatic sequelae in adolescents and adults. My approach is informed by somatic, relational, and attachment-centered approaches rooted in a value of the depth of human relationships. I tailor the therapeutic process to meet the specific needs and goals of the unique human in front of me. Often that means we spend some time together understanding what's at the root of the "problem" that brought you to therapy, what you want instead, and how to get there. I like to say, "We'll do whatever's needed."
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker specializing in the treatment of trauma and traumatic sequelae in adolescents and adults. My approach is informed by somatic, relational, and attachment-centered approaches rooted in a value of the depth of human relationships. I tailor the therapeutic process to meet the specific needs and goals of the unique human in front of me. Often that means we spend some time together understanding what's at the root of the "problem" that brought you to therapy, what you want instead, and how to get there. I like to say, "We'll do whatever's needed."
(865) 344-2129 View (865) 344-2129
Photo of Angela Masini, PhD, Psychologist
Angela Masini
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Knoxville, TN 37919
Do you find yourself in internal arguments with your inner critic or feel so pressured by should’s that being stressed has become the norm? Do you miss your former, more alive self or notice that feelings you had hoped were resolved continue to generate painful memories? Are you struggling with unwanted behaviors - irritable outbursts, addictions, or indecisiveness? Or missing intimacy and positive communication with your spouse or partner? Though there is no "typical client", resolving these concerns or decreasing symptoms of anxiety, depression, or PTSD, are frequent reasons reported by my clients when they come to therapy.
Do you find yourself in internal arguments with your inner critic or feel so pressured by should’s that being stressed has become the norm? Do you miss your former, more alive self or notice that feelings you had hoped were resolved continue to generate painful memories? Are you struggling with unwanted behaviors - irritable outbursts, addictions, or indecisiveness? Or missing intimacy and positive communication with your spouse or partner? Though there is no "typical client", resolving these concerns or decreasing symptoms of anxiety, depression, or PTSD, are frequent reasons reported by my clients when they come to therapy.
(865) 217-0514 View (865) 217-0514
Photo of Celeste Ballard, LCPC, LPC, MHSP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Celeste Ballard
Licensed Professional Counselor, LCPC, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Knoxville, TN 37918
Celeste specializes in working with clients who are seeking to unseat, and unlock long held patterns in their lives. Individuals who wish to get to the root of their problems, and face issues that may be preventing meaningful change and peace in their lives. Oftentimes these clients are those who have had traditional therapy methods or have been doing their own self-help work and are at a “stuck” point and are looking for answers that can be accessed through somatic or meditation based work. She also works with therapists looking to deepen their own personal process to increase their efficacy and joy in their work as a therapist.
Celeste specializes in working with clients who are seeking to unseat, and unlock long held patterns in their lives. Individuals who wish to get to the root of their problems, and face issues that may be preventing meaningful change and peace in their lives. Oftentimes these clients are those who have had traditional therapy methods or have been doing their own self-help work and are at a “stuck” point and are looking for answers that can be accessed through somatic or meditation based work. She also works with therapists looking to deepen their own personal process to increase their efficacy and joy in their work as a therapist.
(865) 401-6870 View (865) 401-6870
Photo of Ryan K Peters, LPC, MHSP, NCC, ACS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Ryan K Peters
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP, NCC, ACS
Verified Verified
8 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37923
I have over 20 years of experience specializing in the complex needs of both children and adults in a variety of settings. I have a passion for helping people learn to help themselves. My training and experience brings a level of confidence and skill that ensures clients will have a safe, secure, non judgmental and caring environment to create opportunities for growth and change. If it's time for you to consider professional support allow me to assist you on your journey and help you "Start Your Tomorrow Today"
I have over 20 years of experience specializing in the complex needs of both children and adults in a variety of settings. I have a passion for helping people learn to help themselves. My training and experience brings a level of confidence and skill that ensures clients will have a safe, secure, non judgmental and caring environment to create opportunities for growth and change. If it's time for you to consider professional support allow me to assist you on your journey and help you "Start Your Tomorrow Today"
(865) 234-9117 View (865) 234-9117
Photo of Pamela Gray, LCSW, NCAC II, CAADC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Pamela Gray
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, NCAC II, CAADC
Verified Verified
Knoxville, TN 37934  (Online Only)
I have over 17 years of experience in the mental health field. Prior to obtaining my LCSW, I worked as a Certified Alcohol and Drug Addiction Specialist in Chattanooga, TN. This experience gave me valuable insight into the lives of my clients who are striving for recovery. I realize that healing can be a difficult road, and I value the opportunity to work alongside my clients who are seeking a more fulfilling life. My background has equipped me to meet the needs of my clients with a high degree of compassion and empathy. If you're ready to take the first step, I'm here.
I have over 17 years of experience in the mental health field. Prior to obtaining my LCSW, I worked as a Certified Alcohol and Drug Addiction Specialist in Chattanooga, TN. This experience gave me valuable insight into the lives of my clients who are striving for recovery. I realize that healing can be a difficult road, and I value the opportunity to work alongside my clients who are seeking a more fulfilling life. My background has equipped me to meet the needs of my clients with a high degree of compassion and empathy. If you're ready to take the first step, I'm here.
(865) 424-2652 View (865) 424-2652
Photo of Matthew Gumb, MS, LPC, MHSP, LCMHC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Matthew Gumb
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, MHSP, LCMHC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37919
Waitlist for new clients
Matthew Gumb brings years of experience in his counseling work with adults, children, and adolescents. Working to help individuals and families that suffer with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, anxiety, anger management, inattentive/impulsive behavior, as well as other issues. His primary theoretical approaches are Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), as well as Existentialism and Person-Centered. Matthew also has trained in Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) and Inference Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (I-CBT) for assisting individuals with OCD.
Matthew Gumb brings years of experience in his counseling work with adults, children, and adolescents. Working to help individuals and families that suffer with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, anxiety, anger management, inattentive/impulsive behavior, as well as other issues. His primary theoretical approaches are Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), as well as Existentialism and Person-Centered. Matthew also has trained in Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) and Inference Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (I-CBT) for assisting individuals with OCD.
(865) 674-4914 x813 View (865) 674-4914 x813
Photo of Matalyn Olvera, LCSW, LISW-S, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Matalyn Olvera
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LISW-S
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37919  (Online Only)
I work with individuals who are on a journey toward self-compassion and living more fully as their authentic selves. Many individuals I work with have experienced early life trauma, religious trauma, social anxiety, overwhelm, or are in the middle of a life transition. We can work together to find helpful ways to gain more balance in your life. I offer sessions between 9am-2pm on weekdays EST.
I work with individuals who are on a journey toward self-compassion and living more fully as their authentic selves. Many individuals I work with have experienced early life trauma, religious trauma, social anxiety, overwhelm, or are in the middle of a life transition. We can work together to find helpful ways to gain more balance in your life. I offer sessions between 9am-2pm on weekdays EST.
(865) 234-4318 View (865) 234-4318

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Knoxville, TN

700+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in Knoxville, TN who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
87% Depression
73% Relationship Issues
73% Trauma and PTSD
72% Self Esteem
66% Stress
65% Grief

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

69% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
68% Cigna and Evernorth
67% Aetna

How Therapists in Knoxville, TN see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

77% Female
22% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Knoxville?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.