Therapists in Jefferson County, TN

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Photo of Tommy E Clapp, Marriage & Family Therapist in Jefferson County, TN
Tommy E Clapp
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
I am here for you. My number one goal is to provide top quality care that is affordable, efficient and helpful. As a Client you can expect to see great customer service, care, quality and confidentiality. I know how to help you and growing up in East Tennessee I know the area in which we live and the hardships and joys that come with that. Give me a call or email and lets work together to find that better you!
I am here for you. My number one goal is to provide top quality care that is affordable, efficient and helpful. As a Client you can expect to see great customer service, care, quality and confidentiality. I know how to help you and growing up in East Tennessee I know the area in which we live and the hardships and joys that come with that. Give me a call or email and lets work together to find that better you!
(865) 375-8411 View (865) 375-8411
Photo of Lakeside of the Smokies Counseling, PLLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jefferson County, TN
Lakeside of the Smokies Counseling, PLLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, BSW, MSSW, LCSW, C-DBT, CGP
Verified Verified
Dandridge, TN 37725  (Online Only)
Have you been feeling stressed, down, worried or anxious? Do you feel like no one understands what you're going through or cares? Have you lost a loved one? Do you have a chronic illness or are a caregiver? All of these are great reasons to reach out to Noel for therapy if you said yes. As a LCSW, Noel is trained in evidence based interventions proven to treat and improve mental health. Noel mainly use the following interventions: Solution Focused Brief (SFBT), Brief Dynamic, Behavior Modification, Mindfulness-Based (MBCT), Dialectical Behavioral (DBT) and RO-DBT, Strength-Based, Play therapy, Motivational Interviewing, and CBT.
Have you been feeling stressed, down, worried or anxious? Do you feel like no one understands what you're going through or cares? Have you lost a loved one? Do you have a chronic illness or are a caregiver? All of these are great reasons to reach out to Noel for therapy if you said yes. As a LCSW, Noel is trained in evidence based interventions proven to treat and improve mental health. Noel mainly use the following interventions: Solution Focused Brief (SFBT), Brief Dynamic, Behavior Modification, Mindfulness-Based (MBCT), Dialectical Behavioral (DBT) and RO-DBT, Strength-Based, Play therapy, Motivational Interviewing, and CBT.
(865) 328-4984 View (865) 328-4984
Photo of Ricky Varney, Licensed Professional Counselor in Jefferson County, TN
Ricky Varney
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Waitlist for new clients
We all have things going on, and it can be hard to know the way forward for every situation we are faced with, especially if we feel alone. I believe that no matter who you are or where you are in life, a way forward often begins with stopping to reflect. Having someone present can help that happen.
We all have things going on, and it can be hard to know the way forward for every situation we are faced with, especially if we feel alone. I believe that no matter who you are or where you are in life, a way forward often begins with stopping to reflect. Having someone present can help that happen.
(865) 375-8524 View (865) 375-8524
Photo of Morgan Frazier Bowlin, Licensed Professional Counselor in Jefferson County, TN
Morgan Frazier Bowlin
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, NCC, LPCMHSP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
I have experience working with infants/toddlers, children, adolescents, young adults, and adults. I am trained in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and Child-Parent Psychotherapy. I offer a compassionate, encouraging, patient, and supportive nature when working with clients. I am able to sit with clients in their struggles and explore their goals of how they want life to be improved as we work through their issues together.
I have experience working with infants/toddlers, children, adolescents, young adults, and adults. I am trained in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and Child-Parent Psychotherapy. I offer a compassionate, encouraging, patient, and supportive nature when working with clients. I am able to sit with clients in their struggles and explore their goals of how they want life to be improved as we work through their issues together.
(865) 276-8178 View (865) 276-8178
Photo of Stacey Guthrie, Licensed Professional Counselor in Jefferson County, TN
Stacey Guthrie
Licensed Professional Counselor, EdD, LPC, MHSP, NCC, ACS
Verified Verified
Dandridge, TN 37725
My practice is for people who want to make a lifestyle change and will commit to personal healing and growth while facing life’s challenges. Life can be hard for Children, Adolescents, and Adults, and sometimes very difficult to handle. It helps having someone listen offering unconditional positive regard. Clients learn and practice communication and problem solving skills, conflict resolution, boundaries, and healthy life style choices. Counseling involves change and helps let go of self-defeating patterns. Goals may be set based upon the client’s needs. A variety of approaches may be used to best suit the individual.
My practice is for people who want to make a lifestyle change and will commit to personal healing and growth while facing life’s challenges. Life can be hard for Children, Adolescents, and Adults, and sometimes very difficult to handle. It helps having someone listen offering unconditional positive regard. Clients learn and practice communication and problem solving skills, conflict resolution, boundaries, and healthy life style choices. Counseling involves change and helps let go of self-defeating patterns. Goals may be set based upon the client’s needs. A variety of approaches may be used to best suit the individual.
(865) 344-2363 View (865) 344-2363
Photo of David G Pittman, Marriage & Family Therapist in Jefferson County, TN
David G Pittman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MSc, LMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
We all need a little help at various points in life..... Everyone has times in life when it is difficult to work through things on your own. Marital/Couple Problems, Separation/Divorce, Blended families, Adolescence Problems, Intimacy Issues, Mood Disorders, Anxiety, Depression, Alcohol-Drug Abuse, Parenting Issues, Grief or Bereavement Issues, Stress, Conflict Resolution, Addiction, and many more. Many times, we need someone to help us sort through these changes in our lives. Change is difficult. But by having someone to walk with us through the process of change and challenge us to approach our problems differently, we can grow, succeed and be happy.
We all need a little help at various points in life..... Everyone has times in life when it is difficult to work through things on your own. Marital/Couple Problems, Separation/Divorce, Blended families, Adolescence Problems, Intimacy Issues, Mood Disorders, Anxiety, Depression, Alcohol-Drug Abuse, Parenting Issues, Grief or Bereavement Issues, Stress, Conflict Resolution, Addiction, and many more. Many times, we need someone to help us sort through these changes in our lives. Change is difficult. But by having someone to walk with us through the process of change and challenge us to approach our problems differently, we can grow, succeed and be happy.
(865) 240-2201 View (865) 240-2201
Photo of Alisha L Cobb, Licensed Professional Counselor in Jefferson County, TN
Alisha L Cobb
Licensed Professional Counselor, MSc, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Special interest in helping people work through difficulties they are facing in order to get to a better place in life. Everyone faces various types of struggles throughout life and it is nice to find someone who can help you navigate through those times. It's very important to me to develop strong, trusting relationships with my clients. This creates a safe environment for issues to be discussed and goals to be set. A solid working relationship helps people feel comfortable in discussing difficult things and situations they are going through which helps to get to the root of a problem & find a true solution.
Special interest in helping people work through difficulties they are facing in order to get to a better place in life. Everyone faces various types of struggles throughout life and it is nice to find someone who can help you navigate through those times. It's very important to me to develop strong, trusting relationships with my clients. This creates a safe environment for issues to be discussed and goals to be set. A solid working relationship helps people feel comfortable in discussing difficult things and situations they are going through which helps to get to the root of a problem & find a true solution.
(865) 737-2133 View (865) 737-2133
Photo of Morgan Daniels, Licensed Professional Counselor in Jefferson County, TN
Morgan Daniels
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, NCC, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
I am driven to support individuals in their personal growth and development, as well as help them make positive changes in their lives. I enjoy working with those who have a strong desire to understand themselves better, identify their core values and beliefs, and develop a greater sense of self-awareness and self-acceptance. I appreciate individuals who are open to exploring their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, and who are willing to challenge themselves to try new things and take risks. I understand that it can be difficult to step out of one’s comfort zone, but I am here to support and encourage individuals.
I am driven to support individuals in their personal growth and development, as well as help them make positive changes in their lives. I enjoy working with those who have a strong desire to understand themselves better, identify their core values and beliefs, and develop a greater sense of self-awareness and self-acceptance. I appreciate individuals who are open to exploring their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, and who are willing to challenge themselves to try new things and take risks. I understand that it can be difficult to step out of one’s comfort zone, but I am here to support and encourage individuals.
(865) 375-9257 View (865) 375-9257
Photo of Jacob Ramsey, Licensed Professional Counselor in Jefferson County, TN
Jacob Ramsey
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Waitlist for new clients
Do you feel alone in a struggle? Are you or a loved one dealing with anxiety or depression? Is there an area of need in your relationship with your loved one? Healing in our lives can begin when we share our joys and pains, and if you have found yourself stuck, alone or just unsure about where to start, I would like to offer to be a part of that healing process.
Do you feel alone in a struggle? Are you or a loved one dealing with anxiety or depression? Is there an area of need in your relationship with your loved one? Healing in our lives can begin when we share our joys and pains, and if you have found yourself stuck, alone or just unsure about where to start, I would like to offer to be a part of that healing process.
(865) 375-8129 View (865) 375-8129
Photo of Rebecca Henry, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jefferson County, TN
Rebecca Henry
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Dandridge, TN 37725
Although we often come to therapy with a problem, we also come to be heard and understood, to feel like we matter, and to learn self-compassion. Do you feel overly nervous at times and held back from things you want to do or goals you would like to accomplish? Find yourself over-estimating the odds of something "wrong" possibly happening or assuming worst-case scenario outcomes? There are methods that can be learned to decrease intensity, frequency, and duration of anxiety episodes. I look forward to helping you develop calming skills and replace unhelpful thought patterns with less anxiety producing ones.
Although we often come to therapy with a problem, we also come to be heard and understood, to feel like we matter, and to learn self-compassion. Do you feel overly nervous at times and held back from things you want to do or goals you would like to accomplish? Find yourself over-estimating the odds of something "wrong" possibly happening or assuming worst-case scenario outcomes? There are methods that can be learned to decrease intensity, frequency, and duration of anxiety episodes. I look forward to helping you develop calming skills and replace unhelpful thought patterns with less anxiety producing ones.
(865) 413-5585 View (865) 413-5585
Photo of Jada N. Smith, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate in Jefferson County, TN
Jada N. Smith
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, MFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
“We are born in relationship. We grow in relationship. We are wounded in relationship. And we are healed in relationship." - Harville Hendrix. I am here for you. Rooted in a deep and lifelong passion for therapy, I specialize in working with children, families, and couples. I also have extensive experience specifically in crisis, intensive treatment, and treating child and adolescent psychological disorders.
“We are born in relationship. We grow in relationship. We are wounded in relationship. And we are healed in relationship." - Harville Hendrix. I am here for you. Rooted in a deep and lifelong passion for therapy, I specialize in working with children, families, and couples. I also have extensive experience specifically in crisis, intensive treatment, and treating child and adolescent psychological disorders.
(865) 205-6292 View (865) 205-6292
Photo of Jennifer W. Catlett, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jefferson County, TN
Jennifer W. Catlett
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Dandridge, TN 37725
Hi! My name is Jennifer W. Catlett, and I have been a licensed clinical social worker for over 25 years. If you’re feeling stressed, overwhelmed, anxious, depressed, or experiencing relationship issues, I want you to know I’m here for you.
Hi! My name is Jennifer W. Catlett, and I have been a licensed clinical social worker for over 25 years. If you’re feeling stressed, overwhelmed, anxious, depressed, or experiencing relationship issues, I want you to know I’m here for you.
(865) 401-9704 View (865) 401-9704
Photo of Debra Picarello, Pastoral Counselor in Jefferson County, TN
Debra Picarello
Pastoral Counselor
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Strawberry Plains, TN 37871  (Online Only)
At New Mercies Counseling, I use a non-secular model called Temperament Therapy, which allows you to better understand your uniqueness. You will receive an expert clinical scientifically based temperament assessment, using the Arno Profile system to help direct Spirit led Biblical guidance. I bring over a decade of lay ministry alongside my training through National Christian Counselor's Association. It would be a joy and honor to help you explore healthy biblical solutions to the struggles you face on this journey called life.
At New Mercies Counseling, I use a non-secular model called Temperament Therapy, which allows you to better understand your uniqueness. You will receive an expert clinical scientifically based temperament assessment, using the Arno Profile system to help direct Spirit led Biblical guidance. I bring over a decade of lay ministry alongside my training through National Christian Counselor's Association. It would be a joy and honor to help you explore healthy biblical solutions to the struggles you face on this journey called life.
(865) 401-6433 View (865) 401-6433
Photo of Edna (Kathleen) Clark, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jefferson County, TN
Edna (Kathleen) Clark
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW-S, LCSW
Verified Verified
Over the past 16 years, I have successfully guided clients in the achievement of emotional well-being and personal growth in the areas of A.D.H.D., Anxiety, and Trauma.
Over the past 16 years, I have successfully guided clients in the achievement of emotional well-being and personal growth in the areas of A.D.H.D., Anxiety, and Trauma.
(865) 737-1962 View (865) 737-1962
Photo of Alexis Castle, Licensed Professional Counselor in Jefferson County, TN
Alexis Castle
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Waitlist for new clients
Hello! I'm Alexis, a creative therapist with a direct approach. I enjoy working side by side with my clients to help them reach their goals. Starting therapy is a difficult step for many and I aim to present a welcoming and safe environment for each of my clients. My clinical focus is working with individuals who have experienced trauma, have complex PTSD, or are working through dissociative disorders. In addition, I work with women who have ADHD— especially those that have been diagnosed in adulthood. I am trained in EMDR and in DBR levels 1-3 as well as adjunctive DBR trainings.
Hello! I'm Alexis, a creative therapist with a direct approach. I enjoy working side by side with my clients to help them reach their goals. Starting therapy is a difficult step for many and I aim to present a welcoming and safe environment for each of my clients. My clinical focus is working with individuals who have experienced trauma, have complex PTSD, or are working through dissociative disorders. In addition, I work with women who have ADHD— especially those that have been diagnosed in adulthood. I am trained in EMDR and in DBR levels 1-3 as well as adjunctive DBR trainings.
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Photo of KCF Counseling LLC, Marriage & Family Therapist in Jefferson County, TN
KCF Counseling LLC
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified Verified
Dandridge, TN 37725
Greetings! My name is Kay C Free, and I am here to help you on your journey to wellness. Life on life's terms can be challenging at best. Experiencing life's hardships, whether current or past, grief, anxiety, depression, relationships, trauma or drug/alcohol struggles, can only add to those challenges. I believe, however, that everyone has the capacity to move beyond those challenges and experience strong, healthy lives and relationships! Taking the first step toward seeking help is often the hardest part of the journey but seeking in itself shows inner strength and the capacity for resilience.
Greetings! My name is Kay C Free, and I am here to help you on your journey to wellness. Life on life's terms can be challenging at best. Experiencing life's hardships, whether current or past, grief, anxiety, depression, relationships, trauma or drug/alcohol struggles, can only add to those challenges. I believe, however, that everyone has the capacity to move beyond those challenges and experience strong, healthy lives and relationships! Taking the first step toward seeking help is often the hardest part of the journey but seeking in itself shows inner strength and the capacity for resilience.
(865) 344-1191 View (865) 344-1191
Photo of Charlene Mullins Heck, Marriage & Family Therapist Intern in Jefferson County, TN
Charlene Mullins Heck
Marriage & Family Therapist Intern, MFT-I, ABS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
I once read a social media post that said," If you can't see the light at the end of the tunnel, I will sit with you in the dark." Life happens and not always in a positive way. Even good days can be stressful. I do not promise to "fix you," but I do promise to help you heal and get back to life as it was meant to be. Some days, you don't feel like talking, that is okay, we can sit and do whatever you need. Everyone heals differently. What is important is that you heal your way and know you are not alone. It is important to love yourself so that others can also love you.
I once read a social media post that said," If you can't see the light at the end of the tunnel, I will sit with you in the dark." Life happens and not always in a positive way. Even good days can be stressful. I do not promise to "fix you," but I do promise to help you heal and get back to life as it was meant to be. Some days, you don't feel like talking, that is okay, we can sit and do whatever you need. Everyone heals differently. What is important is that you heal your way and know you are not alone. It is important to love yourself so that others can also love you.
(423) 205-5862 View (423) 205-5862
Photo of Jean Ellen Jones, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Jefferson County, TN
Jean Ellen Jones
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Jefferson City, TN 37760  (Online Only)
I understand that making the decision to enter therapy is not always easy. Some therapists take on the role of identifying what is "wrong" with a client or how the client needs to be "fixed." I view my role as your therapist as helping you identify and utilize the healthy coping skills you already have to resolve issues. The answers are there, and I appreciate that you are more familiar with the issues than anyone else. I will work with you to reveal the path and help you get the obstacles out of the way, including the many ways we can be our own worst enemy.
I understand that making the decision to enter therapy is not always easy. Some therapists take on the role of identifying what is "wrong" with a client or how the client needs to be "fixed." I view my role as your therapist as helping you identify and utilize the healthy coping skills you already have to resolve issues. The answers are there, and I appreciate that you are more familiar with the issues than anyone else. I will work with you to reveal the path and help you get the obstacles out of the way, including the many ways we can be our own worst enemy.
(423) 800-5969 View (423) 800-5969
Photo of Kay Francis, Marriage & Family Therapist in Jefferson County, TN
Kay Francis
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA
Verified Verified
I work with clients struggling with depression, anxiety, relationship or work re-lated issues. I enjoy clients whom are eager to learn and have a desire to make positive change. My approach is solution orientated and offers my clients the porper enviornment and feedback for gaining greater awareness, understanding and sensitivity of themself and others. Togehter we will address what may be blocking you from making necessary change or what is getting in the way of you developing the types of skills required for creating change. With willingness and commitment my clients can expect to improve and experience more positive outcomes.
I work with clients struggling with depression, anxiety, relationship or work re-lated issues. I enjoy clients whom are eager to learn and have a desire to make positive change. My approach is solution orientated and offers my clients the porper enviornment and feedback for gaining greater awareness, understanding and sensitivity of themself and others. Togehter we will address what may be blocking you from making necessary change or what is getting in the way of you developing the types of skills required for creating change. With willingness and commitment my clients can expect to improve and experience more positive outcomes.
(865) 630-0974 View (865) 630-0974
Photo of Julie Daniel, Licensed Professional Counselor in Jefferson County, TN
Julie Daniel
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Jefferson City, TN 37760  (Online Only)
I am Licensed Professional Counselor in the state of Tennessee. My areas of focus include counseling for adolescents and adults experiencing trauma-related behaviors and symptoms, substance abuse disorders, anxiety, depression, parenting, and relationship issues. I utilize Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Trauma Focused Therapy, Solution Focused Therapy, Insight Gaining and Communication Couples Therapy, and the disease concept of addiction in my work.
I am Licensed Professional Counselor in the state of Tennessee. My areas of focus include counseling for adolescents and adults experiencing trauma-related behaviors and symptoms, substance abuse disorders, anxiety, depression, parenting, and relationship issues. I utilize Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Trauma Focused Therapy, Solution Focused Therapy, Insight Gaining and Communication Couples Therapy, and the disease concept of addiction in my work.
(865) 234-9747 View (865) 234-9747

See more therapy options for Jefferson County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Jefferson County, TN

20+

Average cost per session

$122

Therapists in Jefferson County, TN who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
96% Depression
92% Relationship Issues
88% Coping Skills
80% Self Esteem
76% Family Conflict
72% Grief

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

90% BlueCross and BlueShield
90% Cigna and Evernorth
80% Aetna

How Therapists in Jefferson County, TN see their clients

84% In Person and Online
16% Online Only

Gender breakdown

84% Female
16% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Jefferson County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.