Therapists in Franklin, TN

Photo of Lara Branscomb Jackson, Licensed Professional Counselor in Franklin, TN
Lara Branscomb Jackson
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPCMHSP
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37067
I believe that understanding our attachment style is one avenue to self-discovery. I use an integrative approach to help clients improve their connection with others and create a life of hope and purpose. My goal is to help clients improve their quality of life, increase self compassion, develop coping skills boundaries, decrease suffering, and improve body image. I work with adolescents, adults, couples, and families who struggle with relationships, chronic illness, stress, eating disorders/disordered eating, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, marital or family problems, grief and/or co-occurring disorders
I believe that understanding our attachment style is one avenue to self-discovery. I use an integrative approach to help clients improve their connection with others and create a life of hope and purpose. My goal is to help clients improve their quality of life, increase self compassion, develop coping skills boundaries, decrease suffering, and improve body image. I work with adolescents, adults, couples, and families who struggle with relationships, chronic illness, stress, eating disorders/disordered eating, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, marital or family problems, grief and/or co-occurring disorders
(615) 861-2526 View (615) 861-2526
Photo of Jen Adams Biddle, Licensed Professional Counselor in Franklin, TN
Jen Adams Biddle
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC, MHSP, ACS
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Franklin, TN 37067
Are you tired of repeating the same old patterns? Feel like you've tried everything you know? Don't give up. I'm willing to go all in. My style is relational, straightforward, and genuine. I will work hard to help you figure out how to make life better! For work with couples, the goal is always to increase connection and satisfaction. If you've been to couples counseling before and are afraid it won't work, don't give up hope. There are specific tools I can teach you and guide you to use that are based on 40 years of research by John and Julie Gottman.
Are you tired of repeating the same old patterns? Feel like you've tried everything you know? Don't give up. I'm willing to go all in. My style is relational, straightforward, and genuine. I will work hard to help you figure out how to make life better! For work with couples, the goal is always to increase connection and satisfaction. If you've been to couples counseling before and are afraid it won't work, don't give up hope. There are specific tools I can teach you and guide you to use that are based on 40 years of research by John and Julie Gottman.
(615) 640-1397 View (615) 640-1397
Photo of Scarlett Bacon, Pre-Licensed Professional in Franklin, TN
Scarlett Bacon
Pre-Licensed Professional, ATR-P
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37064
My ideal client is a child or LGBTQ individual seeking mental health and well-being support. They may be struggling with issues such as anxiety, trauma, behavioral challenges, or the unique challenges faced by the LGBTQ community. They need a compassionate therapist who can understand their experiences and provide a safe and affirming space for exploration. Their goals may include gaining insight into their emotions, expressing themselves creatively, building resilience, and living authentically. They want to be understood, supported, and empowered to overcome their challenges and achieve a greater sense of well-being and
My ideal client is a child or LGBTQ individual seeking mental health and well-being support. They may be struggling with issues such as anxiety, trauma, behavioral challenges, or the unique challenges faced by the LGBTQ community. They need a compassionate therapist who can understand their experiences and provide a safe and affirming space for exploration. Their goals may include gaining insight into their emotions, expressing themselves creatively, building resilience, and living authentically. They want to be understood, supported, and empowered to overcome their challenges and achieve a greater sense of well-being and
(615) 656-0232 View (615) 656-0232
Photo of Melissa A Burton, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Franklin, TN
Melissa A Burton
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Franklin, TN 37064
Are you struggling to balance your responsibilities and connect in your relationships? Do you feel your life is on an unsustainable path and you are headed for burnout? I work daily to help people sort through the chaos of life and find a place of peace and balance. Whether you are an individual feeling lost or a couple struggling to connect; I can help you sort through the clutter of life and find the inward calm. With curiosity and intention, I can help you discover a new way to understand yourself and communicate with those who love and support you.
Are you struggling to balance your responsibilities and connect in your relationships? Do you feel your life is on an unsustainable path and you are headed for burnout? I work daily to help people sort through the chaos of life and find a place of peace and balance. Whether you are an individual feeling lost or a couple struggling to connect; I can help you sort through the clutter of life and find the inward calm. With curiosity and intention, I can help you discover a new way to understand yourself and communicate with those who love and support you.
(615) 265-1363 View (615) 265-1363
Photo of Jack Justin Dreher, Licensed Professional Counselor in Franklin, TN
Jack Justin Dreher
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCMHSP
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Franklin, TN 37064  (Online Only)
I recognize that the journey that brought you to therapy may not have been an easy one. I work to assist you in your self-exploration, learning, and growth by creating a safe, nurturing, respectful, yet challenging environment. I prioritize your autonomy and personal responsibility throughout the healing process.
I recognize that the journey that brought you to therapy may not have been an easy one. I work to assist you in your self-exploration, learning, and growth by creating a safe, nurturing, respectful, yet challenging environment. I prioritize your autonomy and personal responsibility throughout the healing process.
(615) 488-7683 View (615) 488-7683
Photo of The Therapuetic Studio, LLC, Licensed Professional Counselor in Franklin, TN
The Therapuetic Studio, LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Franklin, TN 37064
Life is hard and we are all trying to heal from someone or something. The therapeutic process is the greatest gift you could give yourself or your child. We have one life, we are all learning daily and we are in this together. We have a deep passion for children, adolescents and families who have come from hard places and spaces.
Life is hard and we are all trying to heal from someone or something. The therapeutic process is the greatest gift you could give yourself or your child. We have one life, we are all learning daily and we are in this together. We have a deep passion for children, adolescents and families who have come from hard places and spaces.
(615) 488-8860 View (615) 488-8860
Photo of LeNair Marie Sparks, Pre-Licensed Professional in Franklin, TN
LeNair Marie Sparks
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37064
Living on our nerves has become a way of life for a lot of us. Trauma can cause us to walk around in a state of anxiousness, weariness, or hyperactivity. Fear and anxiety can be debilitating, exhausting, and short-circuit our ability to problem solve. When that happens, we can become frustrated that our old coping skills are no longer helping us. Let's sit down together if you need a safe place to work out some old issues – or deal with new ones. I use CBT, DBT, EMDR, and family systems therapy. I can help clients who are dealing with depression, anxiety, grief, and conflicted marital relationships. Give me a call.
Living on our nerves has become a way of life for a lot of us. Trauma can cause us to walk around in a state of anxiousness, weariness, or hyperactivity. Fear and anxiety can be debilitating, exhausting, and short-circuit our ability to problem solve. When that happens, we can become frustrated that our old coping skills are no longer helping us. Let's sit down together if you need a safe place to work out some old issues – or deal with new ones. I use CBT, DBT, EMDR, and family systems therapy. I can help clients who are dealing with depression, anxiety, grief, and conflicted marital relationships. Give me a call.
(615) 398-8214 View (615) 398-8214
Karen Costello
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37067
I am trained in EMDR trauma therapy, and have the ability to sit with my clients in their pain and point them toward healing.Having been married for 42 years, I have a heart to encourage marriages, and to listen to my clients' stories. For years, I have helped women and couples through grief, aging, and other life transitions.
I am trained in EMDR trauma therapy, and have the ability to sit with my clients in their pain and point them toward healing.Having been married for 42 years, I have a heart to encourage marriages, and to listen to my clients' stories. For years, I have helped women and couples through grief, aging, and other life transitions.
(615) 486-2342 View (615) 486-2342
Photo of Tanahia Newman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Franklin, TN
Tanahia Newman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LSSW
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37067
Not accepting new clients
Starting the journey into counseling can be scary and overwhelming. As a therapist, I want to come alongside my client and help them become the expert in their progress.  My experience has prepared me to work with children/adolescents, adults and families struggling with feeling stuck in unhealthy patterns of thinking. My counseling style is eclectic but is centered on warmth and acceptance with gentle nudging as we navigate through uncomfortable feelings. I am especially passionate about working with individuals who suffer with anxiety presentations.
Starting the journey into counseling can be scary and overwhelming. As a therapist, I want to come alongside my client and help them become the expert in their progress.  My experience has prepared me to work with children/adolescents, adults and families struggling with feeling stuck in unhealthy patterns of thinking. My counseling style is eclectic but is centered on warmth and acceptance with gentle nudging as we navigate through uncomfortable feelings. I am especially passionate about working with individuals who suffer with anxiety presentations.
(615) 985-6842 View (615) 985-6842
Photo of Christian Journey Counseling in Franklin, TN
Christian Journey Counseling
LMFT
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37067
Shame, anger, loneliness, grief are painful emotions. Maybe your close relationships are not as healthy as you would like, feeling unseen, misunderstood and maybe resentful. People-pleasing, a lack of boundaries, leave us feeling disconnected in a relationship fearing rejection yet longing for a healthy, intimate relationship . Change starts with talking about your concerns and being validated in our experiences while identifying challenges that have you feeling stuck. Let's talk about those problematic issues or emotional wounds together to journey through to a healthier place of confident in communication, values, and boundaries.
Shame, anger, loneliness, grief are painful emotions. Maybe your close relationships are not as healthy as you would like, feeling unseen, misunderstood and maybe resentful. People-pleasing, a lack of boundaries, leave us feeling disconnected in a relationship fearing rejection yet longing for a healthy, intimate relationship . Change starts with talking about your concerns and being validated in our experiences while identifying challenges that have you feeling stuck. Let's talk about those problematic issues or emotional wounds together to journey through to a healthier place of confident in communication, values, and boundaries.
(615) 560-7294 View (615) 560-7294
Photo of Kyle M. Rigsby, Licensed Professional Counselor in Franklin, TN
Kyle M. Rigsby
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37067
I would love the chance to work with you on the areas of your life where you feel stuck. Anxiety, depression, trauma, PTSD (I use EMDR Therapy to treat this), performance issues (both athletically, and professionally), relational issues with family, spirituality issues, grief and loss are all areas in which I have experience. My primary job is to walk with you through the areas you are struggling in and support you all along the way. My greatest desire as a therapist is to see my clients healthy in every sense of the word. I am ready now to help you.
I would love the chance to work with you on the areas of your life where you feel stuck. Anxiety, depression, trauma, PTSD (I use EMDR Therapy to treat this), performance issues (both athletically, and professionally), relational issues with family, spirituality issues, grief and loss are all areas in which I have experience. My primary job is to walk with you through the areas you are struggling in and support you all along the way. My greatest desire as a therapist is to see my clients healthy in every sense of the word. I am ready now to help you.
(615) 671-4847 View (615) 671-4847
Photo of Holly Beth Barruso, Licensed Professional Counselor in Franklin, TN
Holly Beth Barruso
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37064
I have a license in Tennessee in Professional Counseling, as well as a license in the state of California as a Marriage and Family Therapist. I have a Master's degree in Marriage and Family Therapy with over 25 years of experience in the mental health field. My graduate education was rooted in a family systems approach with a later focus on Christian Counseling. I have experience working with children ages 2 - 18, as well as adults of all ages, in a wide range of settings. As a result I am well prepared to work with the entire family system to help clients find long lasting healing.
I have a license in Tennessee in Professional Counseling, as well as a license in the state of California as a Marriage and Family Therapist. I have a Master's degree in Marriage and Family Therapy with over 25 years of experience in the mental health field. My graduate education was rooted in a family systems approach with a later focus on Christian Counseling. I have experience working with children ages 2 - 18, as well as adults of all ages, in a wide range of settings. As a result I am well prepared to work with the entire family system to help clients find long lasting healing.
(615) 205-9289 View (615) 205-9289
Photo of Mind + Body Wellness, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Franklin, TN
Mind + Body Wellness
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37067
If you are looking for a home for all of your mental health and wellness needs, you've found it. Brittany is an IOP mental health therapist at Mind Body Wellness, which is an innovative outpatient concept located in Franklin, TN that offers clinical modalities alongside holistic interventions to turn traditional addiction and mental health treatment into a whole-body healing experience. To support this, we offer our patients a relaxing and interactive environment, with modern spaces and enriching activities.
If you are looking for a home for all of your mental health and wellness needs, you've found it. Brittany is an IOP mental health therapist at Mind Body Wellness, which is an innovative outpatient concept located in Franklin, TN that offers clinical modalities alongside holistic interventions to turn traditional addiction and mental health treatment into a whole-body healing experience. To support this, we offer our patients a relaxing and interactive environment, with modern spaces and enriching activities.
(615) 987-0972 View (615) 987-0972
Photo of Carrie Michael, Marriage & Family Therapist in Franklin, TN
Carrie Michael
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37067
Do you want to feel empowered and motivated? Do you want to feel in control of your inner peace? Do you want to feel truly connected and in sync with your partner? Do you want to feel connected and able to easily resolve conflict and collaborate with others? I specialize in helping individuals and couples move past stuck places and experience freedom and authenticity in all areas of life, as well as in relationships. If you want to feel free and empowered and able to take on life, I can help you!
Do you want to feel empowered and motivated? Do you want to feel in control of your inner peace? Do you want to feel truly connected and in sync with your partner? Do you want to feel connected and able to easily resolve conflict and collaborate with others? I specialize in helping individuals and couples move past stuck places and experience freedom and authenticity in all areas of life, as well as in relationships. If you want to feel free and empowered and able to take on life, I can help you!
(615) 488-3512 View (615) 488-3512
Photo of Susan Sheidy, Marriage & Family Therapist in Franklin, TN
Susan Sheidy
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Franklin, TN 37067
Susan Sheidy, LMFT, is the Grace Counseling Services Clinical Director and a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. She earned her Bachelor of Science in Psychology and Christian Counseling from Liberty University and also received her Master of Arts graduate degree in Marriage and Family Therapy from Liberty. She is licensed in Pennsylvania & Tennessee. The late poet Maya Angelou quoted, “There is no greater agony than bearing an untold story inside of you”. This quote holds a powerful message to those interested in a therapeutic relationship.
Susan Sheidy, LMFT, is the Grace Counseling Services Clinical Director and a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. She earned her Bachelor of Science in Psychology and Christian Counseling from Liberty University and also received her Master of Arts graduate degree in Marriage and Family Therapy from Liberty. She is licensed in Pennsylvania & Tennessee. The late poet Maya Angelou quoted, “There is no greater agony than bearing an untold story inside of you”. This quote holds a powerful message to those interested in a therapeutic relationship.
(615) 455-3920 View (615) 455-3920
Photo of Susan S. Han, Psychologist in Franklin, TN
Susan S. Han
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37067
I am a clinical psychologist specializing in cognitive-behavioral therapy for children, adolescents, and families. My approach to treatment is structured and collaborative, engaging and pragmatic, and tailored to the strengths and needs of the client and family. I strive to help young people and their parents to (1) develop a conceptual understanding of their presenting issues and problems of concern, (2) examine how their beliefs and feelings affect their behavior choices, and (3) develop and practice specific coping skills and strategies, emotion regulation skills, and step-by-step problem solving skills to better manage these issues and other stressors.
I am a clinical psychologist specializing in cognitive-behavioral therapy for children, adolescents, and families. My approach to treatment is structured and collaborative, engaging and pragmatic, and tailored to the strengths and needs of the client and family. I strive to help young people and their parents to (1) develop a conceptual understanding of their presenting issues and problems of concern, (2) examine how their beliefs and feelings affect their behavior choices, and (3) develop and practice specific coping skills and strategies, emotion regulation skills, and step-by-step problem solving skills to better manage these issues and other stressors.
(615) 338-8679 View (615) 338-8679
Photo of Michelle Nagy in Franklin, TN
Michelle Nagy
LPCMHSP, MEd
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Franklin, TN 37067
The ups and downs of life can be tough for us all. We strive every day to find a little more light, however, sometimes just as we are starting to see the light at the end of the tunnel, an unexpected new challenge falls in our path. This can feel as if there is no way out. Counseling offers an avenue to work together to brighten this path. The experiences in our past impact the way we live our life today, how we cope with these challenges, and how we see our future. Finding the insight, self-knowledge and inner strength for better coping with our depression, anxiety, or uncertainty is the key to living our most fulfilling lives.
The ups and downs of life can be tough for us all. We strive every day to find a little more light, however, sometimes just as we are starting to see the light at the end of the tunnel, an unexpected new challenge falls in our path. This can feel as if there is no way out. Counseling offers an avenue to work together to brighten this path. The experiences in our past impact the way we live our life today, how we cope with these challenges, and how we see our future. Finding the insight, self-knowledge and inner strength for better coping with our depression, anxiety, or uncertainty is the key to living our most fulfilling lives.
(615) 721-2480 View (615) 721-2480
Photo of Dr. Ramon Presson, Marriage & Family Therapist in Franklin, TN
Dr. Ramon Presson
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37067
In practice since 1987, I enjoy helping couples untangle their knots, improve their communication, resolve issues, rebuild trust, and restore closeness. I work with many couples who have been married for several years and now feel disconnected and unloved. I also work with many couples recovering from an affair. I counsel with couples going through separation as well as couples/individuals facing divorce. Being certified by Prepare-Enrich, I'm experienced in premarital and newlywed counseling. I'm also a Level 2 Gottman couples therapist.
In practice since 1987, I enjoy helping couples untangle their knots, improve their communication, resolve issues, rebuild trust, and restore closeness. I work with many couples who have been married for several years and now feel disconnected and unloved. I also work with many couples recovering from an affair. I counsel with couples going through separation as well as couples/individuals facing divorce. Being certified by Prepare-Enrich, I'm experienced in premarital and newlywed counseling. I'm also a Level 2 Gottman couples therapist.
(615) 789-8751 View (615) 789-8751
Photo of Lacey Ryan, Marriage & Family Therapist in Franklin, TN
Lacey Ryan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MAMFT, LMFT, RPT-S
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Franklin, TN 37064  (Online Only)
Everyone deserves a peaceful and loving home. Does chaos wreak havoc on your home’s happiness? Have you tried every parenting strategy out there? I provide a safe and collaborative space to work through these challenges together. I will share what the latest neuroscience says about behavioral challenges and how we can use this information to our benefit in helping you and your child find healthier ways of interacting. We will practice new tools to help you make the adjustments you need, allowing your home to become the happier place you all deserve.
Everyone deserves a peaceful and loving home. Does chaos wreak havoc on your home’s happiness? Have you tried every parenting strategy out there? I provide a safe and collaborative space to work through these challenges together. I will share what the latest neuroscience says about behavioral challenges and how we can use this information to our benefit in helping you and your child find healthier ways of interacting. We will practice new tools to help you make the adjustments you need, allowing your home to become the happier place you all deserve.
(502) 410-2457 View (502) 410-2457
Photo of Betty Rich, Psychologist in Franklin, TN
Betty Rich
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Franklin, TN 37064
Not accepting new clients
My goal is to help you understand and resolve challenges in your life so that you can feel good about yourself and your important relationships while moving towards a more fulfilling and meaningful life. My style is very engaging and collaborative, and I have a lively sense of humor. If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a challenging situation, need help resolving difficult or traumatic life experiences, or you're just ready to move in a new direction in your life, I look forward to working with you to achieve your goals.
My goal is to help you understand and resolve challenges in your life so that you can feel good about yourself and your important relationships while moving towards a more fulfilling and meaningful life. My style is very engaging and collaborative, and I have a lively sense of humor. If you're looking for extra support and guidance through a challenging situation, need help resolving difficult or traumatic life experiences, or you're just ready to move in a new direction in your life, I look forward to working with you to achieve your goals.
(615) 632-6043 View (615) 632-6043

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Franklin, TN

500+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Franklin, TN who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
84% Relationship Issues
84% Depression
75% Self Esteem
70% Trauma and PTSD
67% Grief
65% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

64% Cigna and Evernorth
61% Aetna
59% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Franklin, TN see their clients

86% In Person and Online
14% Online Only

Gender breakdown

76% Female
23% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Franklin?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.