Therapists in Cumberland County, TN

Photo of Teresa Jean Payne, LCSW, MSSW, VSW, CMLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Teresa Jean Payne
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSSW, VSW, CMLC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Crossville, TN 38555
I approach therapy as a partnership of trust. I'm on this journey with you, meeting you wherever you are in your life’s journey, and helping you to find healing and self-worth in a safe and open environment. I offer you a commitment to unconditional acceptance and a warm and compassionate path to wholeness. I will help you gain insight to the barriers in creating healthy relationships, communication,empowerment, and find that inner peace you are looking for in your life. We will work together to identify new ways of navigating the challenges you face and perceptions that have proven to be ineffective in the past.
I approach therapy as a partnership of trust. I'm on this journey with you, meeting you wherever you are in your life’s journey, and helping you to find healing and self-worth in a safe and open environment. I offer you a commitment to unconditional acceptance and a warm and compassionate path to wholeness. I will help you gain insight to the barriers in creating healthy relationships, communication,empowerment, and find that inner peace you are looking for in your life. We will work together to identify new ways of navigating the challenges you face and perceptions that have proven to be ineffective in the past.
(931) 271-5142 View (931) 271-5142
Photo of Jessica Lynn Bolin Edwards, LPC-MHS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jessica Lynn Bolin Edwards
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC-MHS
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38555
I have worked with clients with a wide range of concerns including depression, anxiety, adoption, trauma, and parenting problems. I also helped many people who have experienced physical trauma or emotional abuse. I have worked in a variety of settings including residential, mobile crisis, outpatient, and in-home. I feel like that is important to explain as, it means that I have had experience working with a broad range and severity of clinical issues. I have the most experience working with anxiety, low self-esteem, depression, family/relationship conflicts, life transitions, and complex trauma/abuse.
I have worked with clients with a wide range of concerns including depression, anxiety, adoption, trauma, and parenting problems. I also helped many people who have experienced physical trauma or emotional abuse. I have worked in a variety of settings including residential, mobile crisis, outpatient, and in-home. I feel like that is important to explain as, it means that I have had experience working with a broad range and severity of clinical issues. I have the most experience working with anxiety, low self-esteem, depression, family/relationship conflicts, life transitions, and complex trauma/abuse.
(931) 202-9089 View (931) 202-9089
Photo of Debra Kay Main, MA,  , LPC-, MHSP, Counselor
Debra Kay Main
Counselor, MA, , LPC-, MHSP
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38555
My clients range from age 3, seeking play therapy, through senior adults who need a place to process life changes. Clients come to my office seeking a safe place to process circumstances that may have resulted in anxiety, depression, stress, or relationship difficulties. They may be feeling hopeless, helpless or overwhelmed and need a comfortable environment that provides a secure place to work toward desired change. Some people come to work through grief, some come to process past and present trauma. All are seeking safety, empathy, and to be heard.
My clients range from age 3, seeking play therapy, through senior adults who need a place to process life changes. Clients come to my office seeking a safe place to process circumstances that may have resulted in anxiety, depression, stress, or relationship difficulties. They may be feeling hopeless, helpless or overwhelmed and need a comfortable environment that provides a secure place to work toward desired change. Some people come to work through grief, some come to process past and present trauma. All are seeking safety, empathy, and to be heard.
(931) 271-4459 View (931) 271-4459
Photo of Courtney Denise Clark, LPC, MHSP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Courtney Denise Clark
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38555  (Online Only)
Hello! My name is Courtney Clark, and I am a licensed professional counselor. With over a decade of experience, I have had the privilege of helping individuals overcome various personal and emotional challenges.
Hello! My name is Courtney Clark, and I am a licensed professional counselor. With over a decade of experience, I have had the privilege of helping individuals overcome various personal and emotional challenges.
(931) 236-1431 View (931) 236-1431
Photo of Andrew C Loomis, LMSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Andrew C Loomis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38555
Let's cross this bridge together! Hi, I'm Andy. Great job reaching out for help. We'll start our journey together from where you are emotionally mentally, and spiritually. I will invest all of my 16 yrs. of experience into helping you get where you want to be. I have a wide background of experience in helping men, women, and teenagers. Ladies, I am very easy to talk to as I was raised by my mom and sis. It's like I never had a man card. ;) LOL Men, I'm 59 yrs. old, married 34 yrs. I know how to help with relationships issues and Man issues. As a non-denominational, ordained Pastor, I'm qualified to do Christian counseling.
Let's cross this bridge together! Hi, I'm Andy. Great job reaching out for help. We'll start our journey together from where you are emotionally mentally, and spiritually. I will invest all of my 16 yrs. of experience into helping you get where you want to be. I have a wide background of experience in helping men, women, and teenagers. Ladies, I am very easy to talk to as I was raised by my mom and sis. It's like I never had a man card. ;) LOL Men, I'm 59 yrs. old, married 34 yrs. I know how to help with relationships issues and Man issues. As a non-denominational, ordained Pastor, I'm qualified to do Christian counseling.
(615) 857-4431 View (615) 857-4431
Photo of Ajay James Rashe, LPC, MHSP, MA, Licensed Professional Counselor
Ajay James Rashe
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP, MA
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38571  (Online Only)
“It’s only a passing thing this shadow. Even darkness must pass. A new day will come. And when the sun shines, it will shine out the clearer.” -J.R.R Tolkien. There are times in life where the road forward is unclear, and all you can do is take the first step. I want to create an open, affirming, and safe place for you to explore your path. There are going to be periods of struggle, loss, grief, joy, growth and celebration. Mental health work is not a destination but a journey created for and by you. I strongly believe in giving you the autonomy, dignity, and respect to make your own decision with a little guidance.
“It’s only a passing thing this shadow. Even darkness must pass. A new day will come. And when the sun shines, it will shine out the clearer.” -J.R.R Tolkien. There are times in life where the road forward is unclear, and all you can do is take the first step. I want to create an open, affirming, and safe place for you to explore your path. There are going to be periods of struggle, loss, grief, joy, growth and celebration. Mental health work is not a destination but a journey created for and by you. I strongly believe in giving you the autonomy, dignity, and respect to make your own decision with a little guidance.
(931) 326-4341 View (931) 326-4341
Photo of H. David Chaney, LPC, MHSP, NCC, Counselor
H. David Chaney
Counselor, LPC, MHSP, NCC
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38555
Waitlist for new clients
My approach begins with listening to your concerns and questions. Hearing your desires and goals about how you would like to respond to the adversities of life and then introducing you to concepts and strategies designed to help you respond to life's problems more effectively. My approach may include spiritual resources but I never impose my values and aim to be respectful of yours.
My approach begins with listening to your concerns and questions. Hearing your desires and goals about how you would like to respond to the adversities of life and then introducing you to concepts and strategies designed to help you respond to life's problems more effectively. My approach may include spiritual resources but I never impose my values and aim to be respectful of yours.
(931) 246-7065 View (931) 246-7065
Photo of Jerri Cross, EdS, LPCMHSP, CPSII, NBCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jerri Cross
Licensed Professional Counselor, EdS, LPCMHSP, CPSII, NBCC
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38555
Not accepting new clients
"Keep your face to the sunshine and you cannot see the shadow." Helen Keller ~~~ I believe all individuals desire joy, hope and happiness and often get so caught up in the difficulties in life, they lose hope in finding these things in their lives again. If in some small way, I can restore hope which leads an another individual to joy and happiness in their lives, then His purpose has been fulfilled. Every person has a plan and purpose in their lives and my desire is to help them reconnect with their plan and purpose.
"Keep your face to the sunshine and you cannot see the shadow." Helen Keller ~~~ I believe all individuals desire joy, hope and happiness and often get so caught up in the difficulties in life, they lose hope in finding these things in their lives again. If in some small way, I can restore hope which leads an another individual to joy and happiness in their lives, then His purpose has been fulfilled. Every person has a plan and purpose in their lives and my desire is to help them reconnect with their plan and purpose.
(931) 548-7625 View (931) 548-7625
Photo of Belinda Leventhal, LCSW, PhD, LPC, MAC, SAP, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Belinda Leventhal
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, PhD, LPC, MAC, SAP
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38555  (Online Only)
Dr. Leventhal's goal is to assist others to achieve their goals for therapy. Anxiety, depression, grief and loss, whatever your personal circumstance- life is often complicated and sometimes difficult. She enjoys working with clients who are seeking to improve their current circumstances, whatever they may be, and to see their own true potential. She is openminded, compassionate, empathic, and very personable.
Dr. Leventhal's goal is to assist others to achieve their goals for therapy. Anxiety, depression, grief and loss, whatever your personal circumstance- life is often complicated and sometimes difficult. She enjoys working with clients who are seeking to improve their current circumstances, whatever they may be, and to see their own true potential. She is openminded, compassionate, empathic, and very personable.
(865) 205-7368 View (865) 205-7368
Photo of Annette J Lynch, MA, LPC, MHSP, ACS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Annette J Lynch
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, MHSP, ACS
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38558
I hold an MA in Educational Psychology specializing in Mental Health Counseling, and am licensed as an LPC, MHSP in Tennessee. I am also an Approved Clinical Supervisor (ACS) for those taking a path toward LPC, MHSP. There are many different therapies, just as there are many different types of individual issues. Therefore, I work with many; however, I believe CBT, DBT, person-centered, and compassion-focused therapies are particularly helpful, especially for those struggling with grief, trauma, behavioral, and long-unaddressed issues.
I hold an MA in Educational Psychology specializing in Mental Health Counseling, and am licensed as an LPC, MHSP in Tennessee. I am also an Approved Clinical Supervisor (ACS) for those taking a path toward LPC, MHSP. There are many different therapies, just as there are many different types of individual issues. Therefore, I work with many; however, I believe CBT, DBT, person-centered, and compassion-focused therapies are particularly helpful, especially for those struggling with grief, trauma, behavioral, and long-unaddressed issues.
(931) 340-7185 View (931) 340-7185
Photo of Mason Doss, LPC, MHSP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Mason Doss
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38555  (Online Only)
Reaching out for help can be either the most normal thing you have ever done or it may feel uncomfortable, or even scary. I am hear to walk with you as you embark on a journey in what might be the most challenging time in your life. One of my goals is to offer hope and encouragement as we work together to cultivate a collaborative therapeutic relationship that promotes growth and healing.
Reaching out for help can be either the most normal thing you have ever done or it may feel uncomfortable, or even scary. I am hear to walk with you as you embark on a journey in what might be the most challenging time in your life. One of my goals is to offer hope and encouragement as we work together to cultivate a collaborative therapeutic relationship that promotes growth and healing.
(931) 322-4625 View (931) 322-4625
Photo of Anne Marie Bryant, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Anne Marie Bryant
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38557  (Online Only)
When life becomes too difficult because of anxiety, stress, depression, trauma or relationship issues to name a few that causes you to feel distress and off balance with your life. You need someone to talk to who is impartial and can help you learn better ways of coping and making decisions to meet your goals you desire to achieve in your life. You can receive the help you need in your own home or wherever you are at because technology allows me to provide TeleMental Health counseling and I can simply send you a link if live in either Tennessee or Kentucky, I will be there to help you.
When life becomes too difficult because of anxiety, stress, depression, trauma or relationship issues to name a few that causes you to feel distress and off balance with your life. You need someone to talk to who is impartial and can help you learn better ways of coping and making decisions to meet your goals you desire to achieve in your life. You can receive the help you need in your own home or wherever you are at because technology allows me to provide TeleMental Health counseling and I can simply send you a link if live in either Tennessee or Kentucky, I will be there to help you.
(615) 667-8394 View (615) 667-8394
Photo of Sarah Morgan, MA, LPC, MHSP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Sarah Morgan
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38555
"You can't go back and change the beginning, but you can start where you are and change the ending.” C.S.Lewis It starts with having someone there to listen; to you and your story. I provide a safe space to talk about the things that are hardest to talk about. For an adult that could be the grief of a loved one, the depression or anxiety that holds you back daily, or a confusing relationship that needs untangling. For a child it could mean talking about something scary that happened, exploring feelings of wanting to hurt themselves, or learning to talk to others in a way that they feel understood. Start the journey to healing today.
"You can't go back and change the beginning, but you can start where you are and change the ending.” C.S.Lewis It starts with having someone there to listen; to you and your story. I provide a safe space to talk about the things that are hardest to talk about. For an adult that could be the grief of a loved one, the depression or anxiety that holds you back daily, or a confusing relationship that needs untangling. For a child it could mean talking about something scary that happened, exploring feelings of wanting to hurt themselves, or learning to talk to others in a way that they feel understood. Start the journey to healing today.
(931) 783-1834 View (931) 783-1834
Photo of Cody Dewayne York, MA, LPC, MHSP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Cody Dewayne York
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38555
“Did you know that there are some seeds that cannot sprout unless they are first burned? Sometimes breaking is making. Even Iron can start again, and there are many things that can move through fire and find themselves much better for it afterward.” Kerrek, Critical Role. Sometimes we are confronted with difficult thoughts and experiences that can feel uncomfortable or impossible. I offer a relaxed environment to help you along that journey; be that depression or anxiety, life changes, grief or loss, mood disorders, etc. I strive to make sure I understand your place within in your story and want to help you get to your next chapter.
“Did you know that there are some seeds that cannot sprout unless they are first burned? Sometimes breaking is making. Even Iron can start again, and there are many things that can move through fire and find themselves much better for it afterward.” Kerrek, Critical Role. Sometimes we are confronted with difficult thoughts and experiences that can feel uncomfortable or impossible. I offer a relaxed environment to help you along that journey; be that depression or anxiety, life changes, grief or loss, mood disorders, etc. I strive to make sure I understand your place within in your story and want to help you get to your next chapter.
(931) 271-5789 View (931) 271-5789
Photo of Christi Young Hassler, MA, LPC, MHSP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Christi Young Hassler
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, MHSP
Verified Verified
Crossville, TN 38555
I'm passionate about helping others become their best selves. At times one can feel weighed down by either their past or current situation. I love seeing others overcome life’s challenges to live life full. I'd love to help you too. I'd meet you where you are; then guide you, at your pace, to where you want to be.
I'm passionate about helping others become their best selves. At times one can feel weighed down by either their past or current situation. I love seeing others overcome life’s challenges to live life full. I'd love to help you too. I'd meet you where you are; then guide you, at your pace, to where you want to be.
(931) 277-4943 View (931) 277-4943

Online Therapists

Photo of Brooke Stephens, MA, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Brooke Stephens
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37924  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Finding the best fit for a new therapist can be challenging and scary as you step into a place of vulnerability. My experience has provided me with the opportunity to work with those who suffer from severe mental illness and substance abuse over the last 10 years in various settings. I specialize in working with individuals, couples, and families who suffer from symptoms of depression, anxiety, other mood disorders, personality disorders, and thought disorders, as well as, those who suffer from trauma (ie. childhood attachment related issues or various relational traumas).
Finding the best fit for a new therapist can be challenging and scary as you step into a place of vulnerability. My experience has provided me with the opportunity to work with those who suffer from severe mental illness and substance abuse over the last 10 years in various settings. I specialize in working with individuals, couples, and families who suffer from symptoms of depression, anxiety, other mood disorders, personality disorders, and thought disorders, as well as, those who suffer from trauma (ie. childhood attachment related issues or various relational traumas).
(615) 205-4597 View (615) 205-4597
Photo of Austin Murray, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Austin Murray
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Chattanooga, TN 37404  (Online Only)
Austin is a licensed Marriage and Family therapist who is enthusiastic about helping clients find positive change. He has experience working with individuals, couples, and families from a multiplicity of backgrounds, and enjoys finding out what “clicks” with each person. Austin employs creative techniques to help clients feel comfortable and confident during sessions, and he believes that incorporating an individual’s interests, hobbies, and passions into the therapeutic process can bolster their involvement and improve outcomes.
Austin is a licensed Marriage and Family therapist who is enthusiastic about helping clients find positive change. He has experience working with individuals, couples, and families from a multiplicity of backgrounds, and enjoys finding out what “clicks” with each person. Austin employs creative techniques to help clients feel comfortable and confident during sessions, and he believes that incorporating an individual’s interests, hobbies, and passions into the therapeutic process can bolster their involvement and improve outcomes.
(423) 401-6779 View (423) 401-6779
Photo of Jeremy Pitzer, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jeremy Pitzer
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Brentwood, TN 37027  (Online Only)
Hello! I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and have been practicing in a variety of settings for 20 years. I enjoy working with clients and families of all ages, to build upon skills and resilience that will serve them in their treatment journey.
Hello! I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker and have been practicing in a variety of settings for 20 years. I enjoy working with clients and families of all ages, to build upon skills and resilience that will serve them in their treatment journey.
(615) 265-6766 View (615) 265-6766
Photo of Dr. Samantha A Hutton-Metheney, MA, LMFT, PhD, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dr. Samantha A Hutton-Metheney
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, PhD
Verified Verified
Oak Ridge, TN 37830
Waitlist for new clients
I believe that clients have the innate ability to heal through accessing their innermost selves. Each client is traveling their own personal, interpersonal, and spiritual path and I act as a guide to help facilitate and co- create healing and wholeness. Through healing old wounds, past traumas, and solving relationship conflicts, I aspire to help individuals, couples, and families reach their highest potentials to aid in having richer and more fulfilling lives. My approach is Transpersonal, which means that I look beyond the ego into the spiritual to encourage wholeness in each client.
I believe that clients have the innate ability to heal through accessing their innermost selves. Each client is traveling their own personal, interpersonal, and spiritual path and I act as a guide to help facilitate and co- create healing and wholeness. Through healing old wounds, past traumas, and solving relationship conflicts, I aspire to help individuals, couples, and families reach their highest potentials to aid in having richer and more fulfilling lives. My approach is Transpersonal, which means that I look beyond the ego into the spiritual to encourage wholeness in each client.
(865) 730-4209 View (865) 730-4209
Photo of Liza Varlan, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Liza Varlan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Knoxville, TN 37917
Waitlist for new clients
I understand reaching out for help takes courage and bravery. In my practice, I hope to create a safe and empathetic space for all struggling with life’s challenges. I am passionate about helping clients reach balance in life after difficult events. I have 7 years experience providing therapy to adults and children who have experienced traumatic experiences.
I understand reaching out for help takes courage and bravery. In my practice, I hope to create a safe and empathetic space for all struggling with life’s challenges. I am passionate about helping clients reach balance in life after difficult events. I have 7 years experience providing therapy to adults and children who have experienced traumatic experiences.
(865) 217-2745 View (865) 217-2745

See more therapy options for Cumberland County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Cumberland County, TN

10+

Average cost per session

$100

Therapists in Cumberland County, TN who prioritize treating:

100% Depression
100% Anxiety
87% Grief
87% Trauma and PTSD
87% Coping Skills
87% Stress
80% Relationship Issues

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

85% Cigna and Evernorth
77% Aetna
77% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in Cumberland County, TN see their clients

67% In Person and Online
33% Online Only

Gender breakdown

65% Female
35% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Cumberland County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.