Kyle Yamasaki MFT
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, MFT Verified
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Major specialties includes addressing adult and child insomnias, and comorbid (“secondary”) insomnia.
Compassionate, and Integrative. Welcome! My approach to well-being and psychological health is influenced by over 15 years of experience applying science and best practices, and is also inspired by holistic psychologies that can be described as compassionate and genuine. This experience integrates "what works", along with an emphasis on authenticity and personal growth. Goals range from reduction of symptoms, improving day-to-day functioning (work/school), or exploring and uncovering parts of our deeper selves.
(408) 922-9008
Verified
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Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Major specialties includes addressing adult and child insomnias, and comorbid (“secondary”) insomnia.
Compassionate, and Integrative. Welcome! My approach to well-being and psychological health is influenced by over 15 years of experience applying science and best practices, and is also inspired by holistic psychologies that can be described as compassionate and genuine. This experience integrates "what works", along with an emphasis on authenticity and personal growth. Goals range from reduction of symptoms, improving day-to-day functioning (work/school), or exploring and uncovering parts of our deeper selves.
Angela Krumm
Psychologist, PhD Verified
Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Concerns I most often work with include anxiety (panic, fears, phobias, general worries), sleep difficulties, dating concerns, social skills, depression, low self-esteem, and communication struggles.
Ineffective therapy can feel like an endless routine of talking without a plan for change. Are you ready to make true life changes, move beyond just talking and do the work that will help you move past your challenges? Together we can create change. First, we will take time to learn about your unique situation, complex identities, and life circumstances. Then, we will develop a plan. Next, you will learn a replicable process: identify achievable goals, overcome barriers to change, learn and master new skills. I believe you can learn the skills needed to overcome your challenges.
(650) 646-2170
Verified
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Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Concerns I most often work with include anxiety (panic, fears, phobias, general worries), sleep difficulties, dating concerns, social skills, depression, low self-esteem, and communication struggles.
Ineffective therapy can feel like an endless routine of talking without a plan for change. Are you ready to make true life changes, move beyond just talking and do the work that will help you move past your challenges? Together we can create change. First, we will take time to learn about your unique situation, complex identities, and life circumstances. Then, we will develop a plan. Next, you will learn a replicable process: identify achievable goals, overcome barriers to change, learn and master new skills. I believe you can learn the skills needed to overcome your challenges.
Photo of Sita Sawyer, Psychologist
Sita Sawyer
Psychologist, PhD Verified
Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Sleep is as important to wellness as diet or exercise.
Mental wellness and physical wellness can either help or hinder the other. Behavioral treatments significantly improve both mental and physical outcomes, but we know it's easier said than done. I take a primarily cognitive-behavioral approach, which has the strongest evidence base and research backing, to most problem areas impacting your wellness. CBT techniques effectively change your life in the here-and-now, but careful consideration of your values show us what changes to make and how. We will explore your values and goals together; I have not climbed your mountain, but as I climb mine I’m driven to help you summit yours.
(408) 341-6986
Verified
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Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Sleep is as important to wellness as diet or exercise.
Mental wellness and physical wellness can either help or hinder the other. Behavioral treatments significantly improve both mental and physical outcomes, but we know it's easier said than done. I take a primarily cognitive-behavioral approach, which has the strongest evidence base and research backing, to most problem areas impacting your wellness. CBT techniques effectively change your life in the here-and-now, but careful consideration of your values show us what changes to make and how. We will explore your values and goals together; I have not climbed your mountain, but as I climb mine I’m driven to help you summit yours.
Photo of Peter Adler PhD Licensed Psychologist, Inc., Psychologist
Peter Adler PhD Licensed Psychologist, Inc.
Psychologist, PhD Verified
Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
With Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MSBR) techniques, I treat Anxiety, OCD, Panic, Excessive Worry, Depression, ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Insomnia, Chronic Pain, Anger, Relationship Difficulties, Marital and Family Discord, Grief, Life Transition Issues, School Problems, and Social Skills Difficulties.
I believe in the capacity of each person to transcend obstacles and problems. Through caring, empathic support, I assist you to tap into your strengths and use these to overcome the problems bringing you to treatment. I listen deeply, and help you tap into your inner strengths to overcome challenges. We work collaboratively to find solutions and address your concerns with my knowledge of effective treatments. I've helped adults, children, and adolescents for over twenty-five years. Feel free to contact me. I'd be happy to provide more information and answer any questions.
(408) 922-9459
Verified

Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
With Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MSBR) techniques, I treat Anxiety, OCD, Panic, Excessive Worry, Depression, ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Insomnia, Chronic Pain, Anger, Relationship Difficulties, Marital and Family Discord, Grief, Life Transition Issues, School Problems, and Social Skills Difficulties.
I believe in the capacity of each person to transcend obstacles and problems. Through caring, empathic support, I assist you to tap into your strengths and use these to overcome the problems bringing you to treatment. I listen deeply, and help you tap into your inner strengths to overcome challenges. We work collaboratively to find solutions and address your concerns with my knowledge of effective treatments. I've helped adults, children, and adolescents for over twenty-five years. Feel free to contact me. I'd be happy to provide more information and answer any questions.
Photo of Robert John Bischoff, Marriage & Family Therapist
Robert John Bischoff
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, MFT Verified
Cupertino, CA 95014
Not accepting new clients
"The healing begins when we risk moving out of isolation." This is one of my favorite quotes, because it is so very true. Opening yourself up to ask for help feels very risky and I deeply appreciate the experience. I would like to help and specialize in helping people come to terms with their fears and in making necessary changes in their lives.
(408) 757-0130
Verified
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Cupertino, CA 95014
Not accepting new clients
"The healing begins when we risk moving out of isolation." This is one of my favorite quotes, because it is so very true. Opening yourself up to ask for help feels very risky and I deeply appreciate the experience. I would like to help and specialize in helping people come to terms with their fears and in making necessary changes in their lives.
Sherian Lee
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, ADHD, Health, Coach Verified
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Get the support, accountability, and tools you need to build a better you! We will do an intake and assessments to identify your issues and goals so that we can measure your progress. Together we can identy your core issues, break through them, and build a better YOU. We do this by calming down your nervous system and assessing the deeper part of your brain where core memories and emotions are stored. I am blessed to have the privilege of helping people be better for 30 years. I use neurobiology to build resilience. It would be an honor to connect with you and help you be your best self
(408) 638-2300
Verified
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Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Get the support, accountability, and tools you need to build a better you! We will do an intake and assessments to identify your issues and goals so that we can measure your progress. Together we can identy your core issues, break through them, and build a better YOU. We do this by calming down your nervous system and assessing the deeper part of your brain where core memories and emotions are stored. I am blessed to have the privilege of helping people be better for 30 years. I use neurobiology to build resilience. It would be an honor to connect with you and help you be your best self
Photo of Veronica Calkins, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Veronica Calkins
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW Verified
Cupertino, CA 95014
A Licensed Psychotherapist specializing in trauma, crisis, grief, anxiety, depression, and relationships. Veronica provides an empathetic and caring environment to work through challenges without judgment. Veronica obtained her B.A. in Psychology with a minor in Applied Developmental Psychology and Master’s in Social Welfare at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). She is trained in CBT, DBT, and family and couples therapy. She is also certified in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and the administration of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Deep-Brain Theta Stimulation.
(562) 268-0957
Verified
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Cupertino, CA 95014
A Licensed Psychotherapist specializing in trauma, crisis, grief, anxiety, depression, and relationships. Veronica provides an empathetic and caring environment to work through challenges without judgment. Veronica obtained her B.A. in Psychology with a minor in Applied Developmental Psychology and Master’s in Social Welfare at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). She is trained in CBT, DBT, and family and couples therapy. She is also certified in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and the administration of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Deep-Brain Theta Stimulation.
Dr. Mariella Lauriola
Psychologist, PhD Verified
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Welcome to my practice! Do you feel like you are not "the same person" after having experienced one or more very overwhelming/traumatic life events? Are you feeling anxious, scared or extremely sad? Do you feel you are struggling in your relationships with peers and/or romantic partners? Do you identify as a woman/non binary client and/or as belonging to the LGBTQ+ community? Are you an immigrant? Are you looking forward to starting a journey of positive self-discover and self-love? If you answered yes to one or more of the above questions, I might be the right therapist for you!
Verified
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Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Welcome to my practice! Do you feel like you are not "the same person" after having experienced one or more very overwhelming/traumatic life events? Are you feeling anxious, scared or extremely sad? Do you feel you are struggling in your relationships with peers and/or romantic partners? Do you identify as a woman/non binary client and/or as belonging to the LGBTQ+ community? Are you an immigrant? Are you looking forward to starting a journey of positive self-discover and self-love? If you answered yes to one or more of the above questions, I might be the right therapist for you!
Photo of Kyle Pettit, Marriage & Family Therapist Associate
Kyle Pettit
Marriage & Family Therapist Associate, MA, AMFT Verified
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Have you been struggling with self-esteem issues, anxiety, depression, or stress? I understand how difficult that can be. I work collaboratively with my clients to help them achieve their potential and overcome life’s difficulties. I utilize evidence-based techniques such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and others to help men and women achieve their potential. Using confidential, one-on-one telehealth sessions (phone or video), we’ll work together to understand the past and create a positive future with new tools and strategies. As a biracial Asian American man, I have personal insight into our unique cultural experience.
(408) 692-1770
Verified
View

Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Have you been struggling with self-esteem issues, anxiety, depression, or stress? I understand how difficult that can be. I work collaboratively with my clients to help them achieve their potential and overcome life’s difficulties. I utilize evidence-based techniques such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and others to help men and women achieve their potential. Using confidential, one-on-one telehealth sessions (phone or video), we’ll work together to understand the past and create a positive future with new tools and strategies. As a biracial Asian American man, I have personal insight into our unique cultural experience.
Photo of A Center for Growth - Peter Seimas, Ph.D., Pastoral Counselor/Therapist
A Center for Growth - Peter Seimas, Ph.D.
Pastoral Counselor/Therapist, PhD
Cupertino, CA 95014
I am a Pastoral Counselor. I hold a Ph.D. in Pastoral Counseling and a Ph.D. in Theology from Atlantic Coast Seminary. I also hold a Masters in Counseling Psychology with an emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy from the University of San Francisco, along with a Master of Divinity from St. Patrick's Seminary & University, and a Bachelor's Degree in Business Management from San Jose State University. I have Clinical-Pastoral Counseling training from Stanford University Hospital and Clinics in their Clinical Pastoral Education Program (CPE).
(408) 590-5847
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Cupertino, CA 95014
I am a Pastoral Counselor. I hold a Ph.D. in Pastoral Counseling and a Ph.D. in Theology from Atlantic Coast Seminary. I also hold a Masters in Counseling Psychology with an emphasis in Marriage and Family Therapy from the University of San Francisco, along with a Master of Divinity from St. Patrick's Seminary & University, and a Bachelor's Degree in Business Management from San Jose State University. I have Clinical-Pastoral Counseling training from Stanford University Hospital and Clinics in their Clinical Pastoral Education Program (CPE).
Photo of Melanie Galan, Marriage & Family Therapist
Melanie Galan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT Verified
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist Trauma can significantly impact your life and keep you in a prison of fear, lack of motivation, mistrust, hyper-vigilance, hopelessness, sadness, and other suffering. As an experienced, trauma-informed psychotherapist who specializes in trauma, we will work together, using evidence-based practices like Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), EMDR, and other proven therapies to reduce or eliminate these symptoms. Your healing journey can begin today with safe, supportive, and private telehealth sessions. I work with women, men, couples, and families.
(408) 740-7899
Verified
View

Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist Trauma can significantly impact your life and keep you in a prison of fear, lack of motivation, mistrust, hyper-vigilance, hopelessness, sadness, and other suffering. As an experienced, trauma-informed psychotherapist who specializes in trauma, we will work together, using evidence-based practices like Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), EMDR, and other proven therapies to reduce or eliminate these symptoms. Your healing journey can begin today with safe, supportive, and private telehealth sessions. I work with women, men, couples, and families.
Photo of Siobhan O'Connor, Marriage & Family Therapist
Siobhan O'Connor
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT Verified
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
I am a collaborator helping you get the quality of life you deserve. Together, we will work towards the changes you are hoping to make in your life. We'll look at the barriers, the "what's getting in the way" of what you'd like your daily life to be like. My belief about doing therapy with people is that you are the expert in your life. My job is to help you find a stronger connection to your preferred self, and help you untangle from the habits that get in the way of you being more comfortable in your own skin.
(408) 769-5795
Verified
View

Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
I am a collaborator helping you get the quality of life you deserve. Together, we will work towards the changes you are hoping to make in your life. We'll look at the barriers, the "what's getting in the way" of what you'd like your daily life to be like. My belief about doing therapy with people is that you are the expert in your life. My job is to help you find a stronger connection to your preferred self, and help you untangle from the habits that get in the way of you being more comfortable in your own skin.
Photo of Marli Diniz, Marriage & Family Therapist
Marli Diniz
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, PhD Verified
Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Are you feeling depressed, anxious or having relationship issues? You don't have to feel that way. I'm a compassionate therapist who can help you have a joyful life. For 15 years, I've used Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in English, Spanish and Portuguese to help adults, couples and teens. I primarily use CBT, but depending upon what's best for you, I use Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), Mindfulness-Based Therapy, Solution Focused Brief Therapy and Positive Psychology. I treat depression, anxiety, relationship issues, PTSD, phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sexual issues, and victims of sexual and physical abuse.
(408) 217-0937
Verified
View

Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Are you feeling depressed, anxious or having relationship issues? You don't have to feel that way. I'm a compassionate therapist who can help you have a joyful life. For 15 years, I've used Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in English, Spanish and Portuguese to help adults, couples and teens. I primarily use CBT, but depending upon what's best for you, I use Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), Mindfulness-Based Therapy, Solution Focused Brief Therapy and Positive Psychology. I treat depression, anxiety, relationship issues, PTSD, phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sexual issues, and victims of sexual and physical abuse.
Photo of Lois Sharp, Psychologist
Lois Sharp
Psychologist, PhD Verified
Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
I enjoy working with people who have addictions or anxiety or something else weighing them down, working with them for a relatively short period of time, and watching them become energized and passionate about their lives. I believe that my clients know themselves better than anyone else. I work to help my clients achieve their goals. I believe I can best serve people by using what research has shown to be effective. I do not believe therapy should take a long time; most of my clients graduate within 3-6 months. I work on an time-sensitive basis so some require more sessions.
(408) 896-5972
Verified
View

Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
I enjoy working with people who have addictions or anxiety or something else weighing them down, working with them for a relatively short period of time, and watching them become energized and passionate about their lives. I believe that my clients know themselves better than anyone else. I work to help my clients achieve their goals. I believe I can best serve people by using what research has shown to be effective. I do not believe therapy should take a long time; most of my clients graduate within 3-6 months. I work on an time-sensitive basis so some require more sessions.
Photo of Dr. Beate Klein, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dr. Beate Klein
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD Verified
Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95015
Not accepting new clients
Talking with one another can help you finding a more quiet space within yourself. If you are struggling with depression and sadness, anxieties and worries, insecurities and troubled relationships, psychotherapy can be a place from where you can travel, explore, and listen to the sound between the lines. I invite you to embark on this voyage that gently and steadily benefits yourself and your relationships with those around you. Therapy can help you develop understanding and acceptance of overwhelming and conflicting life events. Finding your way through life's maze can finally be one of your most wonderful achievements.
(650) 241-4687
Verified
View

Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95015
Not accepting new clients
Talking with one another can help you finding a more quiet space within yourself. If you are struggling with depression and sadness, anxieties and worries, insecurities and troubled relationships, psychotherapy can be a place from where you can travel, explore, and listen to the sound between the lines. I invite you to embark on this voyage that gently and steadily benefits yourself and your relationships with those around you. Therapy can help you develop understanding and acceptance of overwhelming and conflicting life events. Finding your way through life's maze can finally be one of your most wonderful achievements.
Photo of Kelly Koken, Marriage & Family Therapist
Kelly Koken
Marriage & Family Therapist, MBA, MA, LMFT Verified
Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Are you feeling stuck in life? Does stress at work, from life, from family, your partner or friends, feel overwhelming? I believe that we all deserver to live happy, healthy lives. I help adults and adolescents who are struggling with depression, trauma, anxiety, stress, anger, life transitions, or grief. Together we untangle what is holding you back and keeping you from being your best self. Whether you are feeling anxious, depressed, or at your wits' end there is help for you. Together, we will help you get unstuck and cope with your life’s challenges. Let's bring happiness back to your life!
(408) 599-3066
Verified
View

Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Are you feeling stuck in life? Does stress at work, from life, from family, your partner or friends, feel overwhelming? I believe that we all deserver to live happy, healthy lives. I help adults and adolescents who are struggling with depression, trauma, anxiety, stress, anger, life transitions, or grief. Together we untangle what is holding you back and keeping you from being your best self. Whether you are feeling anxious, depressed, or at your wits' end there is help for you. Together, we will help you get unstuck and cope with your life’s challenges. Let's bring happiness back to your life!
Photo of Holly-Marie Arce, Psychologist
Holly-Marie Arce
Psychologist, PsyD Verified
Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95015
Offers online therapy
Dr. Arce is a licensed clinical psychologist, experienced in working with multicultural individuals, catering treatment to patient's needs. She has worked in multiple settings including: university counseling, hospitals, medical school, and community mental health agencies. Most recently she has worked with couples in pre-marital counseling. Dr. Arce specializes in life transitions, anxiety disorders, depression, heath-related difficulties, relationships, and spiritual development. Communication of needs and progress are reviewed regularly to ensure that each patient finds value in the time spent in treatment.
(408) 669-4076
Verified
View

Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95015
Offers online therapy
Dr. Arce is a licensed clinical psychologist, experienced in working with multicultural individuals, catering treatment to patient's needs. She has worked in multiple settings including: university counseling, hospitals, medical school, and community mental health agencies. Most recently she has worked with couples in pre-marital counseling. Dr. Arce specializes in life transitions, anxiety disorders, depression, heath-related difficulties, relationships, and spiritual development. Communication of needs and progress are reviewed regularly to ensure that each patient finds value in the time spent in treatment.
Photo of Thi-Van Nguyen, Marriage & Family Therapist
Thi-Van Nguyen
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, MFT Verified
Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Not accepting new clients
“It’s okay to not be okay” has become a popular quote more recently as we all become more open and aware of how important our mental health is. Ideally, we want to say, “Yes! You will be happy!” But the reality is our feelings ebb and flow and it really is okay if we have days that are not as good as others. With the right therapist, you will be able to gain insight, heal from past trauma, understand why you do the things you do, and have a more meaningful relationship with yourself and others.
(408) 601-4582
Verified
View

Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Not accepting new clients
“It’s okay to not be okay” has become a popular quote more recently as we all become more open and aware of how important our mental health is. Ideally, we want to say, “Yes! You will be happy!” But the reality is our feelings ebb and flow and it really is okay if we have days that are not as good as others. With the right therapist, you will be able to gain insight, heal from past trauma, understand why you do the things you do, and have a more meaningful relationship with yourself and others.
Photo of Ginger Martire, Psychologist
Ginger Martire
Psychologist, PhD Verified
Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Silicon Valley can be a stressful place to live. Sometimes, the demands of living and working in this area rob us of the passion we once had. If you are feeling pulled in too many directions...if you are feeling like your needs take a backseat to everything else in your life: kids, work, older parents, spouse, then I would like to help. You can feel like you once did, full of LIFE and PASSION. Running on empty can lead to depression, anxiety, relationship drama, and health problems. You can feel better, even THRIVE, while meeting life's challenges with ease.
(408) 741-9042
Verified
View

Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Offers online therapy
Silicon Valley can be a stressful place to live. Sometimes, the demands of living and working in this area rob us of the passion we once had. If you are feeling pulled in too many directions...if you are feeling like your needs take a backseat to everything else in your life: kids, work, older parents, spouse, then I would like to help. You can feel like you once did, full of LIFE and PASSION. Running on empty can lead to depression, anxiety, relationship drama, and health problems. You can feel better, even THRIVE, while meeting life's challenges with ease.
Photo of Yu Shin Chuang, Marriage & Family Therapist
Yu Shin Chuang
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT Verified
Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Feeling lost and unsure about how to handle things in your life? We all feel like this at one time or another in our lives and it is helpful to have someone support you while trying to figure things out. I would be honored to assist you in this process. As a therapist, I will work collaboratively with you to help you move towards your life goals and a deeper understanding of self.
(626) 238-0377
Verified
View

Office is near:
Cupertino, CA 95014
Feeling lost and unsure about how to handle things in your life? We all feel like this at one time or another in our lives and it is helpful to have someone support you while trying to figure things out. I would be honored to assist you in this process. As a therapist, I will work collaboratively with you to help you move towards your life goals and a deeper understanding of self.

See more therapy options for Cupertino

Sleep or Insomnia Therapists
What is a Sleep Disorder or Insomnia?

Almost everyone goes through bouts of sleeplessness in Cupertino from time to time. Chronic insomnia, however, is marked by difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, or waking up too early. If it takes you thirty minutes or more to fall asleep, or you're awake for thirty minutes or more during the night at least three times a week-for a month or more-you're likely suffering from insomnia.

Insomnia has major effects on mood as well as alertness. It is also a classic symptom of depression.

The most effective treatments for chronic insomnia are behavioral techniques that eliminate sleep anxiety and allow the body's own sleep cycle to kick in. It may require as little as doing nothing. But Sleep specialists in Cupertino or therapists who specialize in sleep in Cupertino, or simply a Cupertino sleep therapist, can help. Likewise, insomnia specialists in Cupertino or therapists who specialize in insomnia in Cupertino, or simply a Cupertino insomnia therapist, can help.

Sleep disorders may include sleep apnea, narcolepsy or simply chronic snoring.