Psychodynamic Therapists in Squirrel Hill, PA

Photo of Dr. Ann C Barrows, PhD, Psychologist
Dr. Ann C Barrows
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
I am a clinical psychologist who practices psychodynamic psychotherapy with older adolescents, young adults, and adults.
I am a clinical psychologist who practices psychodynamic psychotherapy with older adolescents, young adults, and adults.
(412) 440-5501 View (412) 440-5501
Photo of Gwen F Melnick, LCSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Gwen F Melnick
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Prior jobs (Clinical Social Worker at The Pentagon, an EAP, hospitals; Fortune 500 Subject Matter Expert; Medical School Mentor; MSW Program Director) have informed my practice as has training in CBT, EMDR, DBT, & Psychodynamic Therapy.
Would you like to feel less overwhelmed, anxious, sad, fearful, depressed or unsure of yourself? Are you going through a life transition, dealing with chronic illness, or are unproductive behaviors holding you back? Perhaps you’re unhappy at work/school, experiencing grief/loss, uncertain about your professional goals, or dissatisfied with your relationships. Life issues may seem insurmountable. Once you begin therapy with me, we'll work collaboratively to increase your self-understanding & insight. I'll help you identify & effectuate necessary life changes (step by step), embrace self acceptance, or move toward a little of both.
Prior jobs (Clinical Social Worker at The Pentagon, an EAP, hospitals; Fortune 500 Subject Matter Expert; Medical School Mentor; MSW Program Director) have informed my practice as has training in CBT, EMDR, DBT, & Psychodynamic Therapy.
Would you like to feel less overwhelmed, anxious, sad, fearful, depressed or unsure of yourself? Are you going through a life transition, dealing with chronic illness, or are unproductive behaviors holding you back? Perhaps you’re unhappy at work/school, experiencing grief/loss, uncertain about your professional goals, or dissatisfied with your relationships. Life issues may seem insurmountable. Once you begin therapy with me, we'll work collaboratively to increase your self-understanding & insight. I'll help you identify & effectuate necessary life changes (step by step), embrace self acceptance, or move toward a little of both.
(412) 356-9859 View (412) 356-9859
Photo of Megan Dufford, PsyD, Psychologist
Megan Dufford
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
Many find psychotherapy useful as a space to explore stressors and difficulties, learn new ways to cope with hardships, and ultimately make changes to enhance quality of life. I remain focused on providing support to each client and incorporate techniques aimed to alleviate distress, foster resilience, and help one move closer to achieving their goals. I utilize an integrative approach including person-centered, supportive, CBT, and/or psychodynamic techniques, always tailoring my style to meet each client's unique needs.
Many find psychotherapy useful as a space to explore stressors and difficulties, learn new ways to cope with hardships, and ultimately make changes to enhance quality of life. I remain focused on providing support to each client and incorporate techniques aimed to alleviate distress, foster resilience, and help one move closer to achieving their goals. I utilize an integrative approach including person-centered, supportive, CBT, and/or psychodynamic techniques, always tailoring my style to meet each client's unique needs.
(412) 253-7125 View (412) 253-7125
Photo of Lynn T. Allen, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lynn T. Allen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
Teletherapy Available! During these uncertain times, connection and self-care are more important than ever. Are you going through times of high emotions and stress? Let me help. You deserve an experienced and competent professional that works with you to explore your situation with respect and compassion. Together, we will get to the heart of the problem and find fresh ways of managing your situation. I collaborate with you to help move you toward healthy change. I have a flexible approach that takes the best parts of different treatments and uses them in a way that fits your needs.
Teletherapy Available! During these uncertain times, connection and self-care are more important than ever. Are you going through times of high emotions and stress? Let me help. You deserve an experienced and competent professional that works with you to explore your situation with respect and compassion. Together, we will get to the heart of the problem and find fresh ways of managing your situation. I collaborate with you to help move you toward healthy change. I have a flexible approach that takes the best parts of different treatments and uses them in a way that fits your needs.
(412) 906-4423 View (412) 906-4423
Photo of Molly Mitchell, MS, LPC, CAADC, SAP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Molly Mitchell
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, CAADC, SAP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Most people seek therapy when they are in a vulnerable state. In a warm and supportive atmosphere offering personal safety, I'll work with you in a highly personalized approach tailored to your specific needs. The goal is to support you in attaining personal growth that taps the best in you. I utilize both a Positive Psychology and Gestalt Therapy approach. Gestalt Therapy is an expressive, action-based approach to growth, which supports an individual's ability to notice self in the moment and understand one's meaning-making process. This is a collaborative process between therapist and client.
Most people seek therapy when they are in a vulnerable state. In a warm and supportive atmosphere offering personal safety, I'll work with you in a highly personalized approach tailored to your specific needs. The goal is to support you in attaining personal growth that taps the best in you. I utilize both a Positive Psychology and Gestalt Therapy approach. Gestalt Therapy is an expressive, action-based approach to growth, which supports an individual's ability to notice self in the moment and understand one's meaning-making process. This is a collaborative process between therapist and client.
(412) 888-0467 View (412) 888-0467
Photo of Lauren Lazar Stern, MA, LPC, ATR-BC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Lauren Lazar Stern
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, ATR-BC
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
Recovering from an eating disorder and/or severe trauma can frequently be difficult. My broad training and extensive experience enables me to work with patients in a variety of ways including traditional therapeutic approaches, the incorporation of art therapy as a component of treatment, and the use of EMDR. I work with each individual patient to determine the type of approach that best matches her personality and therapeutic needs. I have been one of the first psychotherapists to make use of expressive arts and EMDR in the treatment of eating disorders.
Recovering from an eating disorder and/or severe trauma can frequently be difficult. My broad training and extensive experience enables me to work with patients in a variety of ways including traditional therapeutic approaches, the incorporation of art therapy as a component of treatment, and the use of EMDR. I work with each individual patient to determine the type of approach that best matches her personality and therapeutic needs. I have been one of the first psychotherapists to make use of expressive arts and EMDR in the treatment of eating disorders.
(412) 847-5210 View (412) 847-5210
Photo of Dr. Ili Rivera Walter, PhD, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dr. Ili Rivera Walter
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, LMFT
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
You’re a modern couple, building a career and a relationship. You notice the effort taking its toll. You’re ready to learn how to protect your spark, so that your love continues to thrive. Perhaps, it’s been too long since you experienced passion and fun with your partner, or, you're going through a relationship crisis. You remember when things were different, and you long to re-connect, and uncover the relationship you desire. Whether you are dating, living together, or married, I will help you face the realities in your relationship and grow through them.
You’re a modern couple, building a career and a relationship. You notice the effort taking its toll. You’re ready to learn how to protect your spark, so that your love continues to thrive. Perhaps, it’s been too long since you experienced passion and fun with your partner, or, you're going through a relationship crisis. You remember when things were different, and you long to re-connect, and uncover the relationship you desire. Whether you are dating, living together, or married, I will help you face the realities in your relationship and grow through them.
(844) 627-7506 View (844) 627-7506
Photo of Alexander Waitt, LPC, MS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Alexander Waitt
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, MS
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
Is your relationship impacting your mental health? Whether you're experiencing communication breakdowns, loneliness, or general relationship dissatisfaction, know that you are not alone. Relationship issues are a primary contributor to mental health challenges. Acknowledging this provides an opportunity to take control and respond before challenges worsen. If thinking about your relationship is keeping you up at night or draining your energy throughout the day, reach out and see how therapy might help.
Is your relationship impacting your mental health? Whether you're experiencing communication breakdowns, loneliness, or general relationship dissatisfaction, know that you are not alone. Relationship issues are a primary contributor to mental health challenges. Acknowledging this provides an opportunity to take control and respond before challenges worsen. If thinking about your relationship is keeping you up at night or draining your energy throughout the day, reach out and see how therapy might help.
(412) 844-2736 View (412) 844-2736
Photo of Loren Sobel, MD
Loren Sobel
MD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
As a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, I am uniquely suited to provide holistic care. A psychoanalytic therapy approach offers a highly effective form of treatment through a comprehensive and nuanced framework for working with and addressing trauma, anxiety, depression, identity struggles, low self-esteem, a lostness around a sense of self, struggles in your connections to other people, and feelings of meaninglessness. If advisable, I can also provide careful expert medication management. Together, we will embark on a collaborative exploration, delving into your unique background and personal influences as we work towards healing.
As a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, I am uniquely suited to provide holistic care. A psychoanalytic therapy approach offers a highly effective form of treatment through a comprehensive and nuanced framework for working with and addressing trauma, anxiety, depression, identity struggles, low self-esteem, a lostness around a sense of self, struggles in your connections to other people, and feelings of meaninglessness. If advisable, I can also provide careful expert medication management. Together, we will embark on a collaborative exploration, delving into your unique background and personal influences as we work towards healing.
(412) 618-0441 View (412) 618-0441
Photo of Akiko Motomura, PhD, Psychologist
Akiko Motomura
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Not accepting new clients
I work with adults with anxiety, depression, and relationship issues, as well as other difficulties or experiences of pain that are hard to categorize. My style is collaborative and interactive to meet each person’s unique needs and concerns, with a relational psychoanalytic, and psychodynamic approach.
I work with adults with anxiety, depression, and relationship issues, as well as other difficulties or experiences of pain that are hard to categorize. My style is collaborative and interactive to meet each person’s unique needs and concerns, with a relational psychoanalytic, and psychodynamic approach.
(412) 253-4899 View (412) 253-4899
Photo of Deborah Sharp Molchan, PhD, Psychologist
Deborah Sharp Molchan
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Not accepting new clients
I engage in a variety of methods including cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, Emotional Freedom Techniques, strength-based psychotherapy and mind-body applications.
** Currently not accepting new clients. ** I believe you can promote wellness in your life. I have deep respect for the client's I work with and believe choosing therapy is a healthy act of growth. My style is to create a collaborative, respectful, and compassionate relationship in which we explore both your challenges and your strengths. I emphasize a whole-person integrative treatment plan utilizing evidence-based interventions and complimentary approaches as appropriate.
I engage in a variety of methods including cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, Emotional Freedom Techniques, strength-based psychotherapy and mind-body applications.
** Currently not accepting new clients. ** I believe you can promote wellness in your life. I have deep respect for the client's I work with and believe choosing therapy is a healthy act of growth. My style is to create a collaborative, respectful, and compassionate relationship in which we explore both your challenges and your strengths. I emphasize a whole-person integrative treatment plan utilizing evidence-based interventions and complimentary approaches as appropriate.
(412) 312-4177 View (412) 312-4177
Photo of Katerina Istomin, PsyD, Psychologist
Katerina Istomin
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Not accepting new clients
My therapeutic approach is primarily grounded in evidence-based practice drawing from Psychodynamic Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) with an emphasis on social justice and a multicultural framework.
Therapy offers us an opportunity to be seen and understood as we are in the present moment. Turning inward lets us examine and explore our values, needs, and relationships with others. I work from a collaborative, warm, and open approach to therapy, highlighting the therapeutic relationship to build self-awareness, meaning, and cognitive flexibility. I believe that building insight and awareness into what motivates our behaviors leads to long lasting change. My areas of specialization include those in STEM and other professionals, University students, relationship counseling, and Mindfulness based psychotherapy.
My therapeutic approach is primarily grounded in evidence-based practice drawing from Psychodynamic Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) with an emphasis on social justice and a multicultural framework.
Therapy offers us an opportunity to be seen and understood as we are in the present moment. Turning inward lets us examine and explore our values, needs, and relationships with others. I work from a collaborative, warm, and open approach to therapy, highlighting the therapeutic relationship to build self-awareness, meaning, and cognitive flexibility. I believe that building insight and awareness into what motivates our behaviors leads to long lasting change. My areas of specialization include those in STEM and other professionals, University students, relationship counseling, and Mindfulness based psychotherapy.
(412) 307-8868 View (412) 307-8868
Photo of Claire Fior, PsyD, Psychologist
Claire Fior
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Not accepting new clients
My orientation to psychology integrates interpersonal, psychodynamic, creative, and somatic/mindfulness approaches, each looking at different aspects of our relationship to the world around us.
I believe how humans experience growth and how they change are the big themes of psychology. We grow and change through our relationships with others, but sometimes we can get stuck in certain relationship patterns that cause distress. Uncovering the dynamics of these patterns, how they affect our self-concept, our feelings, our understanding of others, and our nervous systems can be healing. Practicing new patterns of emotion, thought, and behavior, whether through talk- therapy, mindfulness practices, or a combination of both, can assist growth and change toward more compassion and connection in our lives.
My orientation to psychology integrates interpersonal, psychodynamic, creative, and somatic/mindfulness approaches, each looking at different aspects of our relationship to the world around us.
I believe how humans experience growth and how they change are the big themes of psychology. We grow and change through our relationships with others, but sometimes we can get stuck in certain relationship patterns that cause distress. Uncovering the dynamics of these patterns, how they affect our self-concept, our feelings, our understanding of others, and our nervous systems can be healing. Practicing new patterns of emotion, thought, and behavior, whether through talk- therapy, mindfulness practices, or a combination of both, can assist growth and change toward more compassion and connection in our lives.
(412) 871-6296 View (412) 871-6296
Photo of Heather Walker, LPC, NCC, MA, Licensed Professional Counselor
Heather Walker
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC, MA
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Not accepting new clients
I offer psychodynamic psychotherapy, focusing on the important ways your past experience impacts your current emotions and behaviors.
As a therapist, I strive to collaborate with my clients to create an environment that offers the support and safety necessary to explore life’s complexity. It is my belief that in order to meaningfully move through the our challenges, we first must understand ourselves and how we got here. I work with individuals and couples dealing with a wide variety a challenges, including anxiety, depression, eating disorders, identity issues, difficult transitions, self-esteem, relationship issues, self-harm and substance abuse.
I offer psychodynamic psychotherapy, focusing on the important ways your past experience impacts your current emotions and behaviors.
As a therapist, I strive to collaborate with my clients to create an environment that offers the support and safety necessary to explore life’s complexity. It is my belief that in order to meaningfully move through the our challenges, we first must understand ourselves and how we got here. I work with individuals and couples dealing with a wide variety a challenges, including anxiety, depression, eating disorders, identity issues, difficult transitions, self-esteem, relationship issues, self-harm and substance abuse.
(724) 862-4542 View (724) 862-4542
Photo of Marisa Costa, MET, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Marisa Costa
Licensed Professional Counselor, MET, LPC
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Not accepting new clients
**I am not currently accepting new clients** Each of us has intrinsic worth and our hearts and psyches have the ability to heal. My work with adults of all ages draws on the expressive arts, motivational and strengths-based therapies and cognitive behavioral and trauma-informed therapies. One of my passions has been exploring the ways in which the expressive arts - visual art, drama, music, movement, writing - touch us deeply and express emotions for which there may simply be no words. Where the response to suffering is compassion and hope, the goals of the individual - not the therapist - inspire the therapeutic process.
**I am not currently accepting new clients** Each of us has intrinsic worth and our hearts and psyches have the ability to heal. My work with adults of all ages draws on the expressive arts, motivational and strengths-based therapies and cognitive behavioral and trauma-informed therapies. One of my passions has been exploring the ways in which the expressive arts - visual art, drama, music, movement, writing - touch us deeply and express emotions for which there may simply be no words. Where the response to suffering is compassion and hope, the goals of the individual - not the therapist - inspire the therapeutic process.
(412) 532-1356 View (412) 532-1356
Photo of Nicholas Demaio, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Nicholas Demaio
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Not accepting new clients
**I am not currently accepting new clients** With a contemplative model of engagement, and honoring the immediate moment, I am dedicated to offering a compassionate and vibrant therapeutic relationship to those seeking support. Whether facing depression, anxiety, grief, PTSD, trauma or struggling with life transitions or addiction, the healing process begins just the same: right where we are. Contemplative psychotherapy and mindfulness practices include insights from behavioral-cognitive therapy, guided imagery, breath work and narrative therapy.
**I am not currently accepting new clients** With a contemplative model of engagement, and honoring the immediate moment, I am dedicated to offering a compassionate and vibrant therapeutic relationship to those seeking support. Whether facing depression, anxiety, grief, PTSD, trauma or struggling with life transitions or addiction, the healing process begins just the same: right where we are. Contemplative psychotherapy and mindfulness practices include insights from behavioral-cognitive therapy, guided imagery, breath work and narrative therapy.
View
Photo of Sarah C Trafican, PsyD, Psychologist
Sarah C Trafican
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Not accepting new clients
It is possible to overcome seemingly insurmountable life challenges and find stability. Psychotherapy can light the way from chaos and hopelessness towards self-acceptance, meaning, and control. Focused on your individual needs, I strive to create a time and space which is entirely yours. A safe, private, well-bounded space where honest and intimate discussions can take place. For the past 12 years, I have been working with a diverse mixture of individuals and couples using primarily psychoanalytic techniques. My aim is not simply to facilitate symptom relief, but to midwife meaningful and positive changes in your life.
It is possible to overcome seemingly insurmountable life challenges and find stability. Psychotherapy can light the way from chaos and hopelessness towards self-acceptance, meaning, and control. Focused on your individual needs, I strive to create a time and space which is entirely yours. A safe, private, well-bounded space where honest and intimate discussions can take place. For the past 12 years, I have been working with a diverse mixture of individuals and couples using primarily psychoanalytic techniques. My aim is not simply to facilitate symptom relief, but to midwife meaningful and positive changes in your life.
(814) 303-5880 View (814) 303-5880
Photo of Frances Kelley, PhD, Psychologist
Frances Kelley
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Not accepting new clients
I specialize in working with clients who have experienced trauma including PTSD, C-PTSD and dissociative disorders. I provide a safe, nonjudgmental, identity-affirming space where we can explore what may be causing difficulty in your life. I help my clients develop self-compassion and acceptance while addressing and healing the root causes of their trauma, anger, anxiety, depression, and grief. I view psychotherapy as a collaborative experience between therapist and client. Together we will envision where you want to be and I will support and challenge you to grow and heal.
I specialize in working with clients who have experienced trauma including PTSD, C-PTSD and dissociative disorders. I provide a safe, nonjudgmental, identity-affirming space where we can explore what may be causing difficulty in your life. I help my clients develop self-compassion and acceptance while addressing and healing the root causes of their trauma, anger, anxiety, depression, and grief. I view psychotherapy as a collaborative experience between therapist and client. Together we will envision where you want to be and I will support and challenge you to grow and heal.
(412) 307-8464 View (412) 307-8464

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Rebecca Williams, MS, NCC, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Rebecca Williams
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, NCC, LPC
Verified Verified
Pittsburgh, PA 15217
In my approach, I try and lead my clients to come to their own answers, unearthing solutions and insight that they hold within themselves. My direct approach can often be funny, though empathetic; lighthearted, though deeply emotional. Typically, I find that clients benefit from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, as well as Motivational Interviewing to solve current issues, and can utilize Psychodynamic approaches to delve into more deep rooted issues. In helping clients tell their own story through therapy, I've been able guide clients through finding their own solutions when motivated for change.
In my approach, I try and lead my clients to come to their own answers, unearthing solutions and insight that they hold within themselves. My direct approach can often be funny, though empathetic; lighthearted, though deeply emotional. Typically, I find that clients benefit from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, as well as Motivational Interviewing to solve current issues, and can utilize Psychodynamic approaches to delve into more deep rooted issues. In helping clients tell their own story through therapy, I've been able guide clients through finding their own solutions when motivated for change.
(412) 785-2664 View (412) 785-2664
Photo of Audrey Miller, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Audrey Miller
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Pittsburgh, PA 15217
In our therapeutic journey together, utilizing a blend of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and a psychodynamic approach, we will establish a safe and non-judgmental space.
Are you someone that has a history of struggling to make relationships work, whether it be with friends, family, or intimate partners? Do low mood, racing thoughts, and lack of energy often affect your functioning in day-to-day life? Do you struggle with feelings of worthlessness or not being "enough"? As a therapist, I specialize in supporting adults of all ages who grapple with interpersonal issues, mood concerns, and self-esteem. Together, we'll address these challenges and work towards building fulfilling relationships and improving your overall well-being.
In our therapeutic journey together, utilizing a blend of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and a psychodynamic approach, we will establish a safe and non-judgmental space.
Are you someone that has a history of struggling to make relationships work, whether it be with friends, family, or intimate partners? Do low mood, racing thoughts, and lack of energy often affect your functioning in day-to-day life? Do you struggle with feelings of worthlessness or not being "enough"? As a therapist, I specialize in supporting adults of all ages who grapple with interpersonal issues, mood concerns, and self-esteem. Together, we'll address these challenges and work towards building fulfilling relationships and improving your overall well-being.
(412) 991-2270 View (412) 991-2270

See more therapy options for Squirrel Hill

Psychodynamic Therapists

Is psychodynamic therapy evidence-based?

Studies have found psychodynamic therapy to be effective in treating conditions like social anxiety, eating disorders, chronic pain, some personality disorders, and depression; indeed, some studies have found it to be just as effective as CBT or medication. What’s more, several studies have found that the benefits of psychodynamic therapy tend to endure—even grow—long after treatment has ended.

How long does psychodynamic therapy last?

Unlike CBT and other more structured forms of therapy, psychodynamic therapy tends to be open-ended and may not be limited to a set number of sessions. It is common for clients to be in therapy for a year or longer and to see their therapist one to three times a week, though the exact schedule and timeline may vary depending on a client’s challenges and progress. However, brief psychodynamic therapy is available, which tends to be more goal-oriented and typically unfolds over 16 to 30 sessions.

Does psychodynamic therapy work?

Research finds that psychodynamic therapy can help someone manage or reduce symptoms of diagnosable mental health conditions like depression or anxiety. The modality may also offer a range of benefits that are harder to measure but just as valuable—such as increased self-worth or healthier relationships. While no therapy type will work for everyone, research and anecdotal evidence suggest that psychodynamic therapy can be highly effective.

What are the limitations of psychodynamic therapy?

Some meta-analyses have concluded that there is little evidence to suggest that psychodynamic therapy can effectively treat certain mental health conditions such as PTSD, OCD, or psychosis, though it is sometimes used to do so. More broadly, the open-ended, free-association structure of psychodynamic therapy may be frustrating for clients who prefer a more structured, time-limited, or goal-oriented approach.