Depression Therapists in Squirrel Hill, PA

Photo of Samuel K Schachner, PhD, Psychologist
Samuel K Schachner
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
I enjoy working with people who present with a variety of backgrounds and challenges. I believe that the relationship is the most important and powerful part of therapy. Whether I'm involved in play therapy with a child or problem solving with an adult client, I wish for my caring and support to be most evident. I work with children, adolescents and adults dealing with anxiety, depression, learning problems, and substance abuse. I conduct testing and forensic psychology evaluations as well.
I enjoy working with people who present with a variety of backgrounds and challenges. I believe that the relationship is the most important and powerful part of therapy. Whether I'm involved in play therapy with a child or problem solving with an adult client, I wish for my caring and support to be most evident. I work with children, adolescents and adults dealing with anxiety, depression, learning problems, and substance abuse. I conduct testing and forensic psychology evaluations as well.
(412) 567-5846 View (412) 567-5846
Photo of Caitlin Senk, PhD, NCC, LPC, CCTP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Caitlin Senk
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, NCC, LPC, CCTP
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
With a compassionate approach, I will provide a safe environment to explore feelings, address anxiety and depression, and build resilience.
My approach to therapy is an integrative one that focuses on a person-centered approach. I view the therapeutic relationship as a significant element of change and will collaborate with you in a respectful, nonjudgmental, empathetic, and supportive manner. I believe that our past and current experiences effect our lives in impactful ways and influence our relationship with ourselves and those around us. I aim to empower you by uncovering your strengths and resilience on which we will build a more confident and vivid individual. I am here to help you find your place, feel connected, and reclaim control of your mind and body.
With a compassionate approach, I will provide a safe environment to explore feelings, address anxiety and depression, and build resilience.
My approach to therapy is an integrative one that focuses on a person-centered approach. I view the therapeutic relationship as a significant element of change and will collaborate with you in a respectful, nonjudgmental, empathetic, and supportive manner. I believe that our past and current experiences effect our lives in impactful ways and influence our relationship with ourselves and those around us. I aim to empower you by uncovering your strengths and resilience on which we will build a more confident and vivid individual. I am here to help you find your place, feel connected, and reclaim control of your mind and body.
(412) 981-2059 View (412) 981-2059
Photo of Nancy Aranson, MSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Nancy Aranson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
Sometimes life and its transitions can be too much and leave us feeling, anxious, depressed or overwhelmed. I’m here to help and let you know there is hope. Therapy is more than just telling someone your problems. It is a way to process what is happening in your life and how you are feeling, and also learn new ways to cope and grow. I am here to listen and support you, by bringing my experience and knowledge to your unique situation. Please call me for a free 20-minute consultation.
Sometimes life and its transitions can be too much and leave us feeling, anxious, depressed or overwhelmed. I’m here to help and let you know there is hope. Therapy is more than just telling someone your problems. It is a way to process what is happening in your life and how you are feeling, and also learn new ways to cope and grow. I am here to listen and support you, by bringing my experience and knowledge to your unique situation. Please call me for a free 20-minute consultation.
(412) 547-5692 View (412) 547-5692
Photo of Gwen F Melnick, LCSW, LICSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Gwen F Melnick
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Would you like to feel less overwhelmed, anxious, sad, fearful, depressed or unsure of yourself? Are you going through a life transition, dealing with chronic illness, or are unproductive behaviors holding you back? Perhaps you’re unhappy at work/school, experiencing grief/loss, uncertain about your professional goals, or dissatisfied with your relationships. Life issues may seem insurmountable. Once you begin therapy with me, we'll work collaboratively to increase your self-understanding & insight. I'll help you identify & effectuate necessary life changes (step by step), embrace self acceptance, or move toward a little of both.
Would you like to feel less overwhelmed, anxious, sad, fearful, depressed or unsure of yourself? Are you going through a life transition, dealing with chronic illness, or are unproductive behaviors holding you back? Perhaps you’re unhappy at work/school, experiencing grief/loss, uncertain about your professional goals, or dissatisfied with your relationships. Life issues may seem insurmountable. Once you begin therapy with me, we'll work collaboratively to increase your self-understanding & insight. I'll help you identify & effectuate necessary life changes (step by step), embrace self acceptance, or move toward a little of both.
(412) 356-9859 View (412) 356-9859
Photo of Michael McCormick Quirk, MS, LPC, MT-BC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Michael McCormick Quirk
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, MT-BC
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
Do you feel stuck with traditional therapy? I am a practitioner of EMDR and utilize EMDR daily in my group practice with my clients. I am interested in exploring how I can help you through EMDR. I believe that we can learn to be compassionate towards ourselves.  I have over 15 years experience helping individuals with anxiety, depression and trauma to cultivate more self-compassion. I am bi-lingual and fluent in both English and Spanish.
Do you feel stuck with traditional therapy? I am a practitioner of EMDR and utilize EMDR daily in my group practice with my clients. I am interested in exploring how I can help you through EMDR. I believe that we can learn to be compassionate towards ourselves.  I have over 15 years experience helping individuals with anxiety, depression and trauma to cultivate more self-compassion. I am bi-lingual and fluent in both English and Spanish.
(412) 547-5791 View (412) 547-5791
Photo of Paige Beckwith, LPC, ATR-BC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Paige Beckwith
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, ATR-BC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Change is an inevitable part of life that can sometimes be scary, anxiety inducing, and difficult to cope with. Because change is often fraught with unknowns, I believe a strong therapeutic relationship – one that is built on trust, empathy, compassion, and non-judgement – is essential to the healing process. My focuses include working with adults of all ages to address a variety of concerns, such as anxiety, depression, life transitions, self-esteem, and grief and loss. I also have experience working with individuals diagnosed with chronic or terminal illnesses, as well as their family members and caregivers.
Change is an inevitable part of life that can sometimes be scary, anxiety inducing, and difficult to cope with. Because change is often fraught with unknowns, I believe a strong therapeutic relationship – one that is built on trust, empathy, compassion, and non-judgement – is essential to the healing process. My focuses include working with adults of all ages to address a variety of concerns, such as anxiety, depression, life transitions, self-esteem, and grief and loss. I also have experience working with individuals diagnosed with chronic or terminal illnesses, as well as their family members and caregivers.
View
Photo of Megan Dufford, PsyD, Psychologist
Megan Dufford
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
Anxiety, depression, adjustment difficulties, identity concerns, grief/loss, chronic illness, and women's issues are a sampling of concerns I find meaning in helping clients navigate.
Many find psychotherapy useful as a space to explore stressors and difficulties, learn new ways to cope with hardships, and ultimately make changes to enhance quality of life. I remain focused on providing support to each client and incorporate techniques aimed to alleviate distress, foster resilience, and help one move closer to achieving their goals. I utilize an integrative approach including person-centered, supportive, CBT, and/or psychodynamic techniques, always tailoring my style to meet each client's unique needs.
Anxiety, depression, adjustment difficulties, identity concerns, grief/loss, chronic illness, and women's issues are a sampling of concerns I find meaning in helping clients navigate.
Many find psychotherapy useful as a space to explore stressors and difficulties, learn new ways to cope with hardships, and ultimately make changes to enhance quality of life. I remain focused on providing support to each client and incorporate techniques aimed to alleviate distress, foster resilience, and help one move closer to achieving their goals. I utilize an integrative approach including person-centered, supportive, CBT, and/or psychodynamic techniques, always tailoring my style to meet each client's unique needs.
(412) 253-7125 View (412) 253-7125
Photo of Loren Sobel, MD
Loren Sobel
MD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
When you're navigating trauma, depression, anxiety, or identity challenges, you need a space where your experiences are met with genuine empathy, active curiosity, and a willingness to encourage honest self-examination.
As a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, I am uniquely suited to provide holistic care. A psychoanalytic therapy approach offers a highly effective form of treatment through a comprehensive and nuanced framework for working with and addressing trauma, anxiety, depression, identity struggles, low self-esteem, a lostness around a sense of self, struggles in your connections to other people, and feelings of meaninglessness. If advisable, I can also provide careful expert medication management. Together, we will embark on a collaborative exploration, delving into your unique background and personal influences as we work towards healing.
When you're navigating trauma, depression, anxiety, or identity challenges, you need a space where your experiences are met with genuine empathy, active curiosity, and a willingness to encourage honest self-examination.
As a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, I am uniquely suited to provide holistic care. A psychoanalytic therapy approach offers a highly effective form of treatment through a comprehensive and nuanced framework for working with and addressing trauma, anxiety, depression, identity struggles, low self-esteem, a lostness around a sense of self, struggles in your connections to other people, and feelings of meaninglessness. If advisable, I can also provide careful expert medication management. Together, we will embark on a collaborative exploration, delving into your unique background and personal influences as we work towards healing.
(412) 618-0441 View (412) 618-0441
Photo of Alexandra Ditchkus, MA, LAPC
Alexandra Ditchkus
MA, LAPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Whether you're navigating anxiety, depression, interpersonal issues, life transitions, or seeking personal development, I am dedicated to supporting you every step of the way.
I am a Licensed Associate Professional Counselor (LAPC) who is passionate about creating a therapeutic environment that supports individuals in uncovering their inner strengths, developing coping strategies, and learning how to incorporate self-compassion into their journey towards emotional well-being. I believe each individual's journey is unique, therefore I work collaboratively with my clients and tailor my interventions to meet their needs.
Whether you're navigating anxiety, depression, interpersonal issues, life transitions, or seeking personal development, I am dedicated to supporting you every step of the way.
I am a Licensed Associate Professional Counselor (LAPC) who is passionate about creating a therapeutic environment that supports individuals in uncovering their inner strengths, developing coping strategies, and learning how to incorporate self-compassion into their journey towards emotional well-being. I believe each individual's journey is unique, therefore I work collaboratively with my clients and tailor my interventions to meet their needs.
(412) 912-2023 View (412) 912-2023
Photo of Leigh Montgomery, MS, LPC, CAADC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Leigh Montgomery
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, CAADC
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
I have an interest in helping individuals deal with depression, anxiety, ADHD and newly diagnosed illness.
Waitlist for 2024 - I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and a Certified Advanced Alcohol and Drug Counselor. I provide a warm, non judgmental environment for you to explore your thoughts, habits and behaviors that may be holding you back from achieving authentic happiness. I specialize in working with adults and families dealing with the effects of addiction. Substance abuse impacts all areas of your life and my goal is to help you get your life back on track, restore hope and work towards inner peace. You do not need to struggle through this on your own.
I have an interest in helping individuals deal with depression, anxiety, ADHD and newly diagnosed illness.
Waitlist for 2024 - I am a Licensed Professional Counselor and a Certified Advanced Alcohol and Drug Counselor. I provide a warm, non judgmental environment for you to explore your thoughts, habits and behaviors that may be holding you back from achieving authentic happiness. I specialize in working with adults and families dealing with the effects of addiction. Substance abuse impacts all areas of your life and my goal is to help you get your life back on track, restore hope and work towards inner peace. You do not need to struggle through this on your own.
(878) 206-1965 View (878) 206-1965
Photo of Jennifer Black, MSPC, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jennifer Black
Licensed Professional Counselor, MSPC, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
Waitlist for new clients
Life presents us with a variety of stressors and demands that at times may feel difficult to manage. Experiencing loss, depression, anxiety, or memories of disturbing past events may feel overwhelming and prevent us from fully living in the present. Or, we may feel stuck and unsure of what to do next. If you are experiencing similar challenges, I want to help you to process them, identify strengths, and utilize those strengths to heal. I will provide a safe, supportive, judgment-free space for you to share your story, help you to be present focused, and cope with difficult emotions and situations.
Life presents us with a variety of stressors and demands that at times may feel difficult to manage. Experiencing loss, depression, anxiety, or memories of disturbing past events may feel overwhelming and prevent us from fully living in the present. Or, we may feel stuck and unsure of what to do next. If you are experiencing similar challenges, I want to help you to process them, identify strengths, and utilize those strengths to heal. I will provide a safe, supportive, judgment-free space for you to share your story, help you to be present focused, and cope with difficult emotions and situations.
(878) 217-8245 View (878) 217-8245
Photo of Casey O'Hara, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Casey O'Hara
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
When we’re struggling, it can help to talk with a trained professional who is able to offer empathy, understanding, and perspective. Casey has experience treating clients struggling with depression, anxiety, adjustment disorder, and bipolar disorder. Casey creates a non-judgmental space so that individuals can see the possibility of growth and change. She champions an integrative, person-centered approach, and incorporates her experience in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) to achieve positive outcomes for her clients.
When we’re struggling, it can help to talk with a trained professional who is able to offer empathy, understanding, and perspective. Casey has experience treating clients struggling with depression, anxiety, adjustment disorder, and bipolar disorder. Casey creates a non-judgmental space so that individuals can see the possibility of growth and change. She champions an integrative, person-centered approach, and incorporates her experience in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) to achieve positive outcomes for her clients.
(412) 318-9380 View (412) 318-9380
Photo of Sydney Stephenson, MS, NCC, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Sydney Stephenson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, NCC, LPC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
In the words of Mr. Rogers, “Play is really the work of childhood." I see kids who have prenatal, preverbal, or early childhood trauma; attachment and behavioral issues; or struggle with anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and anger. I will work with you to create a flexible treatment plan tailored to your child's individual needs, using techniques like prescriptive play therapy, filial therapy, expressive arts, sandtray, geek therapy, and attachment-based activities to directly address and heal the impact of stress on the body and brain. I help identify the reasons for children’s behavior and healthier ways to meet those needs.
In the words of Mr. Rogers, “Play is really the work of childhood." I see kids who have prenatal, preverbal, or early childhood trauma; attachment and behavioral issues; or struggle with anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and anger. I will work with you to create a flexible treatment plan tailored to your child's individual needs, using techniques like prescriptive play therapy, filial therapy, expressive arts, sandtray, geek therapy, and attachment-based activities to directly address and heal the impact of stress on the body and brain. I help identify the reasons for children’s behavior and healthier ways to meet those needs.
(412) 214-8961 View (412) 214-8961
Photo of Colin O'Grady, MEd, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Colin O'Grady
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
****Teletherapy Available****Hello and nice to meet you. I look forward to supporting your journey of problem solving, gaining insight and living a fuller life. Are your family members practicing "unhealthy" communication habits? Is your child, adolescent or college age student struggling in school? If so, counseling may be an option. I am a former School Counselor for 12 years, so I am well versed in a variety of school related issues such as academic and career counseling and personal or social difficulties.
****Teletherapy Available****Hello and nice to meet you. I look forward to supporting your journey of problem solving, gaining insight and living a fuller life. Are your family members practicing "unhealthy" communication habits? Is your child, adolescent or college age student struggling in school? If so, counseling may be an option. I am a former School Counselor for 12 years, so I am well versed in a variety of school related issues such as academic and career counseling and personal or social difficulties.
(724) 620-4909 View (724) 620-4909
Photo of David Mente, MA, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
David Mente
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
I have been working as a psychotherapist for over 30 years. Having a respectful, productive working relationship with my clients is my first priority. This is true whether I am working with an adult individual, a couple, children, adolescents or families. I will encourage you to evaluate whether you are improving in the ways that you desire and will strive to provide you with treatment which suits you. I have intentionally worked in a wide variety of settings and with many different kinds of clients and problems. I welcome any questions you have and offer a free initial consultation.
I have been working as a psychotherapist for over 30 years. Having a respectful, productive working relationship with my clients is my first priority. This is true whether I am working with an adult individual, a couple, children, adolescents or families. I will encourage you to evaluate whether you are improving in the ways that you desire and will strive to provide you with treatment which suits you. I have intentionally worked in a wide variety of settings and with many different kinds of clients and problems. I welcome any questions you have and offer a free initial consultation.
(412) 532-1602 View (412) 532-1602
Photo of Dr. Ann C Barrows, PhD, Psychologist
Dr. Ann C Barrows
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
I am a clinical psychologist who practices psychodynamic psychotherapy with older adolescents, young adults, and adults.
I am a clinical psychologist who practices psychodynamic psychotherapy with older adolescents, young adults, and adults.
(412) 440-5501 View (412) 440-5501
Photo of Rachel Buffo, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Rachel Buffo
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor who has expertise in working with children, adolescents, and young adults. I provide individual therapy to those who want to enjoy life and get to know themselves better in the process. Through my experience, I have learned the value of an interactive and collaborative environment to best support my client’s growth and development.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor who has expertise in working with children, adolescents, and young adults. I provide individual therapy to those who want to enjoy life and get to know themselves better in the process. Through my experience, I have learned the value of an interactive and collaborative environment to best support my client’s growth and development.
(412) 547-8554 View (412) 547-8554
Photo of Lynn T. Allen, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lynn T. Allen
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
Teletherapy Available! During these uncertain times, connection and self-care are more important than ever. Are you going through times of high emotions and stress? Let me help. You deserve an experienced and competent professional that works with you to explore your situation with respect and compassion. Together, we will get to the heart of the problem and find fresh ways of managing your situation. I collaborate with you to help move you toward healthy change. I have a flexible approach that takes the best parts of different treatments and uses them in a way that fits your needs.
Teletherapy Available! During these uncertain times, connection and self-care are more important than ever. Are you going through times of high emotions and stress? Let me help. You deserve an experienced and competent professional that works with you to explore your situation with respect and compassion. Together, we will get to the heart of the problem and find fresh ways of managing your situation. I collaborate with you to help move you toward healthy change. I have a flexible approach that takes the best parts of different treatments and uses them in a way that fits your needs.
(412) 906-4423 View (412) 906-4423
Photo of Molly Mitchell, MS, LPC, CAADC, SAP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Molly Mitchell
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, CAADC, SAP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Most people seek therapy when they are in a vulnerable state. In a warm and supportive atmosphere offering personal safety, I'll work with you in a highly personalized approach tailored to your specific needs. The goal is to support you in attaining personal growth that taps the best in you. I utilize both a Positive Psychology and Gestalt Therapy approach. Gestalt Therapy is an expressive, action-based approach to growth, which supports an individual's ability to notice self in the moment and understand one's meaning-making process. This is a collaborative process between therapist and client.
Most people seek therapy when they are in a vulnerable state. In a warm and supportive atmosphere offering personal safety, I'll work with you in a highly personalized approach tailored to your specific needs. The goal is to support you in attaining personal growth that taps the best in you. I utilize both a Positive Psychology and Gestalt Therapy approach. Gestalt Therapy is an expressive, action-based approach to growth, which supports an individual's ability to notice self in the moment and understand one's meaning-making process. This is a collaborative process between therapist and client.
(412) 888-0467 View (412) 888-0467
Photo of Lauren Lazar Stern, MA, LPC, ATR-BC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Lauren Lazar Stern
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, ATR-BC
Verified Verified
Squirrel Hill, PA 15217  (Online Only)
Recovering from an eating disorder and/or severe trauma can frequently be difficult. My broad training and extensive experience enables me to work with patients in a variety of ways including traditional therapeutic approaches, the incorporation of art therapy as a component of treatment, and the use of EMDR. I work with each individual patient to determine the type of approach that best matches her personality and therapeutic needs. I have been one of the first psychotherapists to make use of expressive arts and EMDR in the treatment of eating disorders.
Recovering from an eating disorder and/or severe trauma can frequently be difficult. My broad training and extensive experience enables me to work with patients in a variety of ways including traditional therapeutic approaches, the incorporation of art therapy as a component of treatment, and the use of EMDR. I work with each individual patient to determine the type of approach that best matches her personality and therapeutic needs. I have been one of the first psychotherapists to make use of expressive arts and EMDR in the treatment of eating disorders.
(412) 847-5210 View (412) 847-5210

See more therapy options for Squirrel Hill

Depression Therapists

What is the goal of therapy for depression?

Therapy for depression has several major goals. One is to relieve the mental pain of depression, which distorts feeling and thinking so that sufferers cannot see beyond their current state of mind or envision feeling better. Another is to give people the mental tools to recognize and correct the kinds of distorted thinking that turn a problem into a catastrophe and lead to despair. Therapy also teaches people how to process negative emotions in constructive ways, so they have more control over their own emotional reactivity. And it helps people regain the ability to see themselves positively, the motivation to do things, and the capacity for pleasure.

What happens in therapy for depression?

Perhaps most important, no matter the type of therapy, patients form an alliance with the therapist; that connection is therapeutic in itself, plus it becomes an instrument of change. Patients learn to identify and to challenge their own erroneous beliefs and thoughts that amplify the effects of negative experiences. They learn to identify situations in which they are especially vulnerable. And they learn new patterns of thinking and behaving. They may be given “homework” assignments in which they practice their developing skills. In addition, good therapists regularly monitor patients to assess whether and how much the condition is improving.

What therapy types help with depression?

Several types of short-term therapy have been found effective, each targeting one or more areas of dysfunction. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) helps clients challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs, learn new behavioral strategies, and curb reactivity to distressing situations. Behavioral activation (BA) is a form of therapy often used in conjunction with CBT; it focuses on engagement in rewarding activity as a pathway to changing negative feelings and disturbed mood. Another widely used approach is interpersonal therapy (IPT), which targets the social difficulties that both give rise to and get exacerbated by depression. Therapists may combine approaches as needed.

Can therapy for depression be done online?

Studies have found that online therapy can be highly effective for treating depression, although it may be more challenging to build a good therapist-patient alliance on screen than in person—at least at first. However, online therapy can offer considerable advantages. Accessibility and convenience are tops among them. Some people actually find it easier to talk about problems online than in person. While online therapy typically limits visibility of facial expression and body gestures that give important nonverbal cues to a patient’s state of mind, it can give therapists a glimpse into a patient’s world and life, providing information that can be highly useful in guiding therapy.

How effective is therapy for depression?

Many studies show that therapy is highly effective provided that patients complete the prescribed course of therapy, commonly 16 to 20 sessions. Over the long term, it is more effective than medication and the effects are more enduring. As a result, psychotherapy has the power not just to relieve current suffering but to prevent future episodes of the disorder. Therapy reverses the dysfunction in neural circuitry that disposes individuals to a negative view of themselves, the world, and their future and they acquire coping techniques, problem-solving skills, and understanding of their own vulnerabilities that are useful over the course of a lifetime.