Depression Therapists in Penn Hills, PA

Photo of David Bajada, PhD, Psychologist
David Bajada
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I am doing Telehealth which I find to be effective. I have a great passion for working with my clients. Much of my current focus is working with individuals who have concerns related to: 1. building and sustaining stronger relationships (partner, work, family, etc.) 2. issues of anxiety, panic, and depression - including loss/grief. 3. Work and career challenges, including the high stress of balancing work and personal life. I've also been successful with clients who not only want to get out of the "rut" of the their lives, but who also want to explore their desire for genuine happiness, contentment, and peace of mind.
I am doing Telehealth which I find to be effective. I have a great passion for working with my clients. Much of my current focus is working with individuals who have concerns related to: 1. building and sustaining stronger relationships (partner, work, family, etc.) 2. issues of anxiety, panic, and depression - including loss/grief. 3. Work and career challenges, including the high stress of balancing work and personal life. I've also been successful with clients who not only want to get out of the "rut" of the their lives, but who also want to explore their desire for genuine happiness, contentment, and peace of mind.
(412) 536-5337 View (412) 536-5337
Photo of Dante Mancini, PhD, Psychologist
Dante Mancini
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Penn Hills, PA 15235
I offer special services to those with relationship difficulties, academic and career difficulties, depression and anxiety, trouble with maintaining weight loss, and individuals and couples struggling with infertility.
I am a Pennsylvania and New York licensed clinical psychologist. I believe that every person is different, bringing with him or her a unique set of difficulties, backgrounds, and strengths to my office. Therefore, I like to take an eclectic approach, meaning that I tailor the treatment specifically to the individual patient's needs. There is no "one size fits all" therapy. Of course this is done collaboratively; anything that is done in therapy is at first discussed, and I never proceed unless the patient agrees with the treatment plan.
I offer special services to those with relationship difficulties, academic and career difficulties, depression and anxiety, trouble with maintaining weight loss, and individuals and couples struggling with infertility.
I am a Pennsylvania and New York licensed clinical psychologist. I believe that every person is different, bringing with him or her a unique set of difficulties, backgrounds, and strengths to my office. Therefore, I like to take an eclectic approach, meaning that I tailor the treatment specifically to the individual patient's needs. There is no "one size fits all" therapy. Of course this is done collaboratively; anything that is done in therapy is at first discussed, and I never proceed unless the patient agrees with the treatment plan.
(412) 265-1314 View (412) 265-1314
Photo of Eric L Tillman, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Eric L Tillman
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235
You may be feeling anxious, sad, depressed, overwhelmed, misunderstood, and lonely right now. It takes a lot of courage to ask for help, and I applaud you for reaching out. I am passionate about bringing healing to those who have been through traumatic and stressful experiences. I provide psychotherapy and counseling to individuals dealing with issues related to anxiety, depression, stress, personality disorders, substance abuse, trauma, panic disorder, life transitions, etc. I will provide a thorough assessment to aid in identifying specific concerns and will modify my therapeutic approaches to match your individualized needs.
You may be feeling anxious, sad, depressed, overwhelmed, misunderstood, and lonely right now. It takes a lot of courage to ask for help, and I applaud you for reaching out. I am passionate about bringing healing to those who have been through traumatic and stressful experiences. I provide psychotherapy and counseling to individuals dealing with issues related to anxiety, depression, stress, personality disorders, substance abuse, trauma, panic disorder, life transitions, etc. I will provide a thorough assessment to aid in identifying specific concerns and will modify my therapeutic approaches to match your individualized needs.
(412) 226-9993 View (412) 226-9993
Photo of Erin McNally, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Erin McNally
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Penn Hills, PA 15235
I work with individuals, children and families, who face challenges with low self-esteem, communication struggles, ADHD symptoms, depression and trauma.
Hello! I am happy to help guide your through the fog we call life. At some point in our lives, we need an extra hand to get through the struggles and to find our purpose again. Let me assist with this journey. During our time together, I want to help you seek your highest potential with styles of person centered approaches with a touch of Cognitive behavior therapy and trauma focused interventions. These approaches will help guide you to meet your full potential and help you feel more at ease when stressors return. You are in the driver's seat. I am here to guide you towards your destination.
I work with individuals, children and families, who face challenges with low self-esteem, communication struggles, ADHD symptoms, depression and trauma.
Hello! I am happy to help guide your through the fog we call life. At some point in our lives, we need an extra hand to get through the struggles and to find our purpose again. Let me assist with this journey. During our time together, I want to help you seek your highest potential with styles of person centered approaches with a touch of Cognitive behavior therapy and trauma focused interventions. These approaches will help guide you to meet your full potential and help you feel more at ease when stressors return. You are in the driver's seat. I am here to guide you towards your destination.
(878) 201-6597 View (878) 201-6597
Photo of Tess Kenney - HandinHand Counseling Services, LLC, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
HandinHand Counseling Services, LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235
Specialties include: We have helped clients successfully address issues related to Anxiety, Depression, Trauma/PTSD, Attachment Issues, Grief and Loss/Bereavement, Mood Disorders, Family Conflict, Personality Disorders, Self-Esteem issues and Stress Management.
At HandinHand Counseling, LLC our GOAL is to promote HOPE, HEALTH and HEALING to individuals and families dealing with generational and situational obstacles. We are a practice with a 21st century approach to counseling devoted to removing the stigma attached to mental health counseling. We see peace in the place of chaos. We see function where there appears to be dysfunction. Our goal is to tap into the strengths you possess, that are often times masked by life's complexities through therapeutic intervention and resource building. Let us assist you in bridging the gap between the problem and the solution.
Specialties include: We have helped clients successfully address issues related to Anxiety, Depression, Trauma/PTSD, Attachment Issues, Grief and Loss/Bereavement, Mood Disorders, Family Conflict, Personality Disorders, Self-Esteem issues and Stress Management.
At HandinHand Counseling, LLC our GOAL is to promote HOPE, HEALTH and HEALING to individuals and families dealing with generational and situational obstacles. We are a practice with a 21st century approach to counseling devoted to removing the stigma attached to mental health counseling. We see peace in the place of chaos. We see function where there appears to be dysfunction. Our goal is to tap into the strengths you possess, that are often times masked by life's complexities through therapeutic intervention and resource building. Let us assist you in bridging the gap between the problem and the solution.
(412) 444-7250 View (412) 444-7250
Photo of Melissa Oliver, LPC, CST, Licensed Professional Counselor
Melissa Oliver
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, CST
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Penn Hills, PA 15235
Not accepting new clients
Have you been feeling stressed, anxious or unbalanced? I provide therapy to individuals ages 18 and older. I provide individual and couple's therapy. I am committed to providing a non-judgmental space to services clients. I provide services for individuals dealing with grief, relationship issues, adjustment issues, life changes, divorce and separation, nontraditional relationships, marital therapy, sexual identity, women's sexual health, general anxiety and depression.
Have you been feeling stressed, anxious or unbalanced? I provide therapy to individuals ages 18 and older. I provide individual and couple's therapy. I am committed to providing a non-judgmental space to services clients. I provide services for individuals dealing with grief, relationship issues, adjustment issues, life changes, divorce and separation, nontraditional relationships, marital therapy, sexual identity, women's sexual health, general anxiety and depression.
(412) 253-4568 View (412) 253-4568
Photo of Ellen Freise-March, MSCP, LPC, NCC, CCTP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Ellen Freise-March
Licensed Professional Counselor, MSCP, LPC, NCC, CCTP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Penn Hills, PA 15235
Not accepting new clients
Additionally, I work with individuals with anxiety and depression, trauma, educational support, geriatric, health, wellness, as well as counseling support for grief, bereavement, loss, and trauma for individuals of all ages,.
The focus of my counseling is to provide support and help for individuals of all ages to discover their strengths as they work through life's challenges. My clinical experience and training enable me to provide palliative and hospice support counseling to individuals who are currently aggressively treating their life-threatening illness or those individuals who have transitioned to hospice care.
Additionally, I work with individuals with anxiety and depression, trauma, educational support, geriatric, health, wellness, as well as counseling support for grief, bereavement, loss, and trauma for individuals of all ages,.
The focus of my counseling is to provide support and help for individuals of all ages to discover their strengths as they work through life's challenges. My clinical experience and training enable me to provide palliative and hospice support counseling to individuals who are currently aggressively treating their life-threatening illness or those individuals who have transitioned to hospice care.
(412) 847-5007 View (412) 847-5007
Photo of Heidi McKenzie, PsyD, LMFT, CHT, Psychologist
Heidi McKenzie
Psychologist, PsyD, LMFT, CHT
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235
I'm an experienced, licensed psychologist who helps people get "unstuck" from unhelpful behavior patterns. Whether you're facing a temporary, difficult life situation or struggling with more long-standing problems like depression or anxiety, I can help. My style is direct and active - I don't simply nod my head while you talk. I'll listen closely, we'll work together on the problem and I'll offer you supportive, non-judgmental and practical feedback that will help you to navigate through the issue as quickly and effectively as possible.
I'm an experienced, licensed psychologist who helps people get "unstuck" from unhelpful behavior patterns. Whether you're facing a temporary, difficult life situation or struggling with more long-standing problems like depression or anxiety, I can help. My style is direct and active - I don't simply nod my head while you talk. I'll listen closely, we'll work together on the problem and I'll offer you supportive, non-judgmental and practical feedback that will help you to navigate through the issue as quickly and effectively as possible.
(412) 567-8902 View (412) 567-8902
Photo of Jodi Lynn Buzzell, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jodi Lynn Buzzell
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Penn Hills, PA 15235
Life has its challenges can be overwhelming and stressful. Individuals, families and couples can be effected by these issues . If you are feeling anxious, depressed or suffering from emotional or substance uses issues, experiencing family or relationship conflicts, let my 12 years of experience working with children, adults, families and couples, assist. My approach for families and couples, is exploring patterns in relationship dynamics, providing insight and improving communication . I have worked with adults and children to develop coping skills to manage emotional issues. Therapy is client centered, strength based and the goal is to empower and reach full potential.
Life has its challenges can be overwhelming and stressful. Individuals, families and couples can be effected by these issues . If you are feeling anxious, depressed or suffering from emotional or substance uses issues, experiencing family or relationship conflicts, let my 12 years of experience working with children, adults, families and couples, assist. My approach for families and couples, is exploring patterns in relationship dynamics, providing insight and improving communication . I have worked with adults and children to develop coping skills to manage emotional issues. Therapy is client centered, strength based and the goal is to empower and reach full potential.
(724) 216-6773 View (724) 216-6773
Photo of Brittany Littlejohn Maxshure - Littlejohn Counseling & Consulting, LLC, MSW, MPH, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Littlejohn Counseling & Consulting, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, MPH, LCSW
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235
I primarily use EMDR or CBT to help those coping with grief & loss, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem issues.
Brittany Littlejohn Maxshure is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in the state of Pennsylvania. She's spent much of her career working with individuals with chronic health conditions. Her experience with and understanding of the concerns and stressors of individuals among this population has equipped her with a unique skillset. She has an overall focus on supporting clients as they navigate through life’s transitions and challenges; whether it be in their personal or professional lives. Brittany strongly believes that everyone has the ability to reach their full potential and she has a desire to assist them in achieving their goals.
I primarily use EMDR or CBT to help those coping with grief & loss, anxiety, depression, and self-esteem issues.
Brittany Littlejohn Maxshure is a Licensed Clinical Social Worker in the state of Pennsylvania. She's spent much of her career working with individuals with chronic health conditions. Her experience with and understanding of the concerns and stressors of individuals among this population has equipped her with a unique skillset. She has an overall focus on supporting clients as they navigate through life’s transitions and challenges; whether it be in their personal or professional lives. Brittany strongly believes that everyone has the ability to reach their full potential and she has a desire to assist them in achieving their goals.
(412) 407-8630 View (412) 407-8630
Photo of Sheryl Schoenfeld - Fortress Counseling, MA, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Fortress Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Penn Hills, PA 15235
Waitlist for new clients
Life is not easy. At Fortress Counseling I provide individual counseling in a supportive, non-judgmental, and confidential environment. I am committed to working with adolescents, adults, and families to assist them during their current life situation. I believe everyone has the power to make positive changes within their life that can enhance their lifestyle, improve their mood, and encourage happiness.
Life is not easy. At Fortress Counseling I provide individual counseling in a supportive, non-judgmental, and confidential environment. I am committed to working with adolescents, adults, and families to assist them during their current life situation. I believe everyone has the power to make positive changes within their life that can enhance their lifestyle, improve their mood, and encourage happiness.
(724) 740-4610 View (724) 740-4610
Photo of Diana Charlton, MS, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Diana Charlton
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235
Do you find yourself struggling with feelings of sadness, nervousness, worry or anger? Are you having trouble in your relationships, feeling powerless or frustrated. I can help. Are you someone in early recovery who has stopped using substances, but feels their life isn't improving? I can help.
Do you find yourself struggling with feelings of sadness, nervousness, worry or anger? Are you having trouble in your relationships, feeling powerless or frustrated. I can help. Are you someone in early recovery who has stopped using substances, but feels their life isn't improving? I can help.
(724) 726-4080 View (724) 726-4080
Photo of Tiffany Leonard, PsyD, Psychologist
Tiffany Leonard
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Penn Hills, PA 15235  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Life is constantly changing. Transitions are often rewarding, yet change can create distress, upsetting your closest relationships, turn daily functioning into a struggle, or have you feeling physically ill. I specialize in working with adults & young adults managing life transitions & interpersonal conflicts (partner, coworker, peer). I would like to join with you on your journey to regaining a sense of control over your life. Other special interests include issues related to: young adulthood, college, career change or conflict, family of origin conflict/(how growing up impacted your choices today), & codependency.
Life is constantly changing. Transitions are often rewarding, yet change can create distress, upsetting your closest relationships, turn daily functioning into a struggle, or have you feeling physically ill. I specialize in working with adults & young adults managing life transitions & interpersonal conflicts (partner, coworker, peer). I would like to join with you on your journey to regaining a sense of control over your life. Other special interests include issues related to: young adulthood, college, career change or conflict, family of origin conflict/(how growing up impacted your choices today), & codependency.
(412) 407-4182 View (412) 407-4182
Photo of Betsy A DeChant, LCSW, LISW-S, BCD, FAGPA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Betsy A DeChant
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LISW-S, BCD, FAGPA
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235
I have been in full-time practice as a clinical social worker/psychotherapist since 1969, and practiced in both hospital and agency psychiatric settings for over 15 years, in addition to maintaining a private practice. Throughout my career, I have provided numerous national and regional training seminars and workshops for MH professionals on women's issues; the chronically mentally ill; dual-diagnosed populations; and group psychotherapy modalities, and have also published in these areas. I have an eclectic style that encourages a flexible and collaborative working partnership which reflects the needs, goals, and personal context of the individual person.
I have been in full-time practice as a clinical social worker/psychotherapist since 1969, and practiced in both hospital and agency psychiatric settings for over 15 years, in addition to maintaining a private practice. Throughout my career, I have provided numerous national and regional training seminars and workshops for MH professionals on women's issues; the chronically mentally ill; dual-diagnosed populations; and group psychotherapy modalities, and have also published in these areas. I have an eclectic style that encourages a flexible and collaborative working partnership which reflects the needs, goals, and personal context of the individual person.
(724) 907-1668 View (724) 907-1668
Photo of Dana Nicholson Psy.d. - Inspire Psychological Services, LLC, PsyD, Psychologist
Inspire Psychological Services, LLC
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235
Today you are one step closer to a new you where you feel empowered and on a positive path to growth and well-being. Dr. Nicholson provides counseling services to those in need of hope, encouragement and support. Christian counseling, rooted in Biblical truth, is available upon request and offered when desired. My goal is to enable families, adults and adolescents to know true peace and freedom from psychological pain through the utilization of professional psychotherapy.
Today you are one step closer to a new you where you feel empowered and on a positive path to growth and well-being. Dr. Nicholson provides counseling services to those in need of hope, encouragement and support. Christian counseling, rooted in Biblical truth, is available upon request and offered when desired. My goal is to enable families, adults and adolescents to know true peace and freedom from psychological pain through the utilization of professional psychotherapy.
(843) 594-2632 View (843) 594-2632
Photo of Linda A Martin, LCSW, RN, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Linda A Martin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, RN
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235
Not accepting new clients
At the core of my work as a licensed clinical social worker psychotherapist is awareness of human suffering in ourselves and in the world and dignity and respect of each individual. I understand that personal growth and individuation are continuous throughout life regardless of past circumstances, current struggles or future aspirations. Some problems are readily resolved by meeting once a week. When comprehensive change is desired I use an analytic method (free association, dream work, relational analysis) meeting 2 or more times a week which can free up energy, bring new perspectives, and change unproductive personality patterns.
At the core of my work as a licensed clinical social worker psychotherapist is awareness of human suffering in ourselves and in the world and dignity and respect of each individual. I understand that personal growth and individuation are continuous throughout life regardless of past circumstances, current struggles or future aspirations. Some problems are readily resolved by meeting once a week. When comprehensive change is desired I use an analytic method (free association, dream work, relational analysis) meeting 2 or more times a week which can free up energy, bring new perspectives, and change unproductive personality patterns.
(412) 219-3705 View (412) 219-3705
Photo of Lais Alexander, MA, Pre-Licensed Professional
Lais Alexander
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235
Self-exploration can be challenging yet liberating. Learning who we are and who we are meant to become is rewarding for ourselves and others. Mental health needs to be a priority. I will help you begin self-examination by creating a safe space and strong therapeutic relationship. I can help you access feelings and thoughts so you can rediscover the joy and learn the benefits of healthy communication and boundaries. You will know your rhythm and feel more confident applying the developed tools.
Self-exploration can be challenging yet liberating. Learning who we are and who we are meant to become is rewarding for ourselves and others. Mental health needs to be a priority. I will help you begin self-examination by creating a safe space and strong therapeutic relationship. I can help you access feelings and thoughts so you can rediscover the joy and learn the benefits of healthy communication and boundaries. You will know your rhythm and feel more confident applying the developed tools.
(412) 504-7487 View (412) 504-7487
Photo of Amanda Ludwig -Becoming Whole Counseling Consulting, MS, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Amanda Ludwig -Becoming Whole Counseling Consulting
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Penn Hills, PA 15235
Not accepting new clients
Welcome to my page! I'm passionate first about listening well, and then secondly, guiding you through the change and transformation process. Maybe you have been struggling to feel hopeful. Or maybe you're confused about who you really are underneath the masks you wear. Perhaps you're noticing patterns in your life and you're not sure how to change. Or maybe you have experienced one too many losses and are struggling to grieve. I believe you are here because you're working up the courage to do something different. I believe you are here because you want to experience hope and healing.
Welcome to my page! I'm passionate first about listening well, and then secondly, guiding you through the change and transformation process. Maybe you have been struggling to feel hopeful. Or maybe you're confused about who you really are underneath the masks you wear. Perhaps you're noticing patterns in your life and you're not sure how to change. Or maybe you have experienced one too many losses and are struggling to grieve. I believe you are here because you're working up the courage to do something different. I believe you are here because you want to experience hope and healing.
(412) 534-5316 View (412) 534-5316
Photo of Monté Robinson, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Monté Robinson
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235
Are you having difficulties managing your stress and mood due to family, relationships, work, school or the daily grind of life?
Are you having difficulties managing your stress and mood due to family, relationships, work, school or the daily grind of life?
(412) 275-4692 View (412) 275-4692
Photo of Timothy Gonzalez - A Wellness Place, LLC., LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
A Wellness Place, LLC.
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Penn Hills, PA 15235
A Wellness Place (AWP) is a mental health outpatient group practice which provides individual, family, and group therapy. We are dedicated to the growth and development of our clients within themselves, their families, their relationships and their futures. We pride ourselves on providing service from an authentic and genuine posture as foundational to true connection and care. Only through true connection and care will the journey to Wellness be achieved.
A Wellness Place (AWP) is a mental health outpatient group practice which provides individual, family, and group therapy. We are dedicated to the growth and development of our clients within themselves, their families, their relationships and their futures. We pride ourselves on providing service from an authentic and genuine posture as foundational to true connection and care. Only through true connection and care will the journey to Wellness be achieved.
(412) 436-5256 View (412) 436-5256

See more therapy options for Penn Hills

Depression Therapists

What is the goal of therapy for depression?

Therapy for depression has several major goals. One is to relieve the mental pain of depression, which distorts feeling and thinking so that sufferers cannot see beyond their current state of mind or envision feeling better. Another is to give people the mental tools to recognize and correct the kinds of distorted thinking that turn a problem into a catastrophe and lead to despair. Therapy also teaches people how to process negative emotions in constructive ways, so they have more control over their own emotional reactivity. And it helps people regain the ability to see themselves positively, the motivation to do things, and the capacity for pleasure.

What happens in therapy for depression?

Perhaps most important, no matter the type of therapy, patients form an alliance with the therapist; that connection is therapeutic in itself, plus it becomes an instrument of change. Patients learn to identify and to challenge their own erroneous beliefs and thoughts that amplify the effects of negative experiences. They learn to identify situations in which they are especially vulnerable. And they learn new patterns of thinking and behaving. They may be given “homework” assignments in which they practice their developing skills. In addition, good therapists regularly monitor patients to assess whether and how much the condition is improving.

What therapy types help with depression?

Several types of short-term therapy have been found effective, each targeting one or more areas of dysfunction. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) helps clients challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs, learn new behavioral strategies, and curb reactivity to distressing situations. Behavioral activation (BA) is a form of therapy often used in conjunction with CBT; it focuses on engagement in rewarding activity as a pathway to changing negative feelings and disturbed mood. Another widely used approach is interpersonal therapy (IPT), which targets the social difficulties that both give rise to and get exacerbated by depression. Therapists may combine approaches as needed.

Can therapy for depression be done online?

Studies have found that online therapy can be highly effective for treating depression, although it may be more challenging to build a good therapist-patient alliance on screen than in person—at least at first. However, online therapy can offer considerable advantages. Accessibility and convenience are tops among them. Some people actually find it easier to talk about problems online than in person. While online therapy typically limits visibility of facial expression and body gestures that give important nonverbal cues to a patient’s state of mind, it can give therapists a glimpse into a patient’s world and life, providing information that can be highly useful in guiding therapy.

How effective is therapy for depression?

Many studies show that therapy is highly effective provided that patients complete the prescribed course of therapy, commonly 16 to 20 sessions. Over the long term, it is more effective than medication and the effects are more enduring. As a result, psychotherapy has the power not just to relieve current suffering but to prevent future episodes of the disorder. Therapy reverses the dysfunction in neural circuitry that disposes individuals to a negative view of themselves, the world, and their future and they acquire coping techniques, problem-solving skills, and understanding of their own vulnerabilities that are useful over the course of a lifetime.