Therapists in Berwyn, PA

Photo of Barbara Ellis, Psychologist in Berwyn, PA
Barbara Ellis
Psychologist, PsyD, EdM
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
My orientation is psychodynamic/ interpersonal and my approach a mixture of insight-oriented, ego-supportive and cognitive behavioral strategies. Insight-oriented therapy focuses on unconscious factors, faulty belief systems and unmet needs which influence a person's perceptions and emotional response patterns. Goals of treatment are to: increase self-awareness, self-acceptance and emotional intelligence; work though past wounds and current fears; identify what is important in one's life and relationships: and, develop new skill-sets and thinking patterns which lead to better choices and outcomes. Life is about challenges and successes, not impossibilities.
My orientation is psychodynamic/ interpersonal and my approach a mixture of insight-oriented, ego-supportive and cognitive behavioral strategies. Insight-oriented therapy focuses on unconscious factors, faulty belief systems and unmet needs which influence a person's perceptions and emotional response patterns. Goals of treatment are to: increase self-awareness, self-acceptance and emotional intelligence; work though past wounds and current fears; identify what is important in one's life and relationships: and, develop new skill-sets and thinking patterns which lead to better choices and outcomes. Life is about challenges and successes, not impossibilities.
(610) 915-8026 View (610) 915-8026
Photo of Annie Baker, Licensed Professional Counselor in Berwyn, PA
Annie Baker
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, CCTP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Berwyn, PA 19312
Are you considering starting therapy? I'm interested in learning about what is bringing you here. Starting this process can feel very overwhelming. I believe people start to heal the moment they feel heard. As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I offer a warm, supportive, and nonjudgmental environment that focuses on developing an authentic and therapeutic relationship with my clients. Together we can understand what has been happening in your life, explore your values, gain insight, and increase self-awareness to help you live more effectively and understand yourself in new ways.
Are you considering starting therapy? I'm interested in learning about what is bringing you here. Starting this process can feel very overwhelming. I believe people start to heal the moment they feel heard. As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I offer a warm, supportive, and nonjudgmental environment that focuses on developing an authentic and therapeutic relationship with my clients. Together we can understand what has been happening in your life, explore your values, gain insight, and increase self-awareness to help you live more effectively and understand yourself in new ways.
(484) 214-2952 View (484) 214-2952
Photo of Elizabeth Brown, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Berwyn, PA
Elizabeth Brown
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSS, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Berwyn, PA 19312
Waitlist for new clients
Finding the right therapist can be a challenge. It is extremely important to find the right fit for you. This creates the foundation for success in therapy. Together, we will work toward creating a new in-depth relationship which is supportive, strengthening, and enlivening. Understanding why and how we react or feel the way we do in relationships with others is a step toward a healthy, grounded, and fulfilled place in life. Working with a trained therapist will help you explore your life with different lenses and introduce alternative choices and pathways.
Finding the right therapist can be a challenge. It is extremely important to find the right fit for you. This creates the foundation for success in therapy. Together, we will work toward creating a new in-depth relationship which is supportive, strengthening, and enlivening. Understanding why and how we react or feel the way we do in relationships with others is a step toward a healthy, grounded, and fulfilled place in life. Working with a trained therapist will help you explore your life with different lenses and introduce alternative choices and pathways.
(484) 262-0127 View (484) 262-0127
Photo of Esther S Schlessinger-Mita, Psychologist in Berwyn, PA
Esther S Schlessinger-Mita
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312
I enjoy working with adults, children and adolescents, as well as couples and families. I work with couples seeking to work through a breach of trust in a relationship, or a loss of connection, or who desire to improve intimacy. I also serve adolescents trying to transition to adulthood and navigate high school, college or post college stress. I work with adults and children trying to navigate anxiety that is intrusive. I try to help those with depression over loss or past trauma that hold them back from making meaningful changes and strides in their live. I want to help make difficult family and peer relationships more functional.
I enjoy working with adults, children and adolescents, as well as couples and families. I work with couples seeking to work through a breach of trust in a relationship, or a loss of connection, or who desire to improve intimacy. I also serve adolescents trying to transition to adulthood and navigate high school, college or post college stress. I work with adults and children trying to navigate anxiety that is intrusive. I try to help those with depression over loss or past trauma that hold them back from making meaningful changes and strides in their live. I want to help make difficult family and peer relationships more functional.
(484) 592-4923 View (484) 592-4923
Photo of Julie L Guay, Psychologist in Berwyn, PA
Julie L Guay
Psychologist, PsyD, ABPP-CN
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312
I specialize in psychological and neuropsychological assessment. My services include: 1) comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for all types of neurological conditions that can impact children and adults; 2) time-limited psycho-educational treatment to improve attention, memory, and executive functioning; and 3) time-limited supportive therapy and psycho-education for individuals with post-concussion syndrome. Please note, I am not taking therapy clients at this time.
I specialize in psychological and neuropsychological assessment. My services include: 1) comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for all types of neurological conditions that can impact children and adults; 2) time-limited psycho-educational treatment to improve attention, memory, and executive functioning; and 3) time-limited supportive therapy and psycho-education for individuals with post-concussion syndrome. Please note, I am not taking therapy clients at this time.
(484) 933-4198 View (484) 933-4198
Photo of Nicole D Chaikin, Psychologist in Berwyn, PA
Nicole D Chaikin
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Berwyn, PA 19312
Integrative Psychological Associates - I work with pre-adolescents, adolescents, and adults struggling with current life challenges, mood and anxiety disorders. I also provide consultation services to parents regarding child development issues and parenting concerns.
Integrative Psychological Associates - I work with pre-adolescents, adolescents, and adults struggling with current life challenges, mood and anxiety disorders. I also provide consultation services to parents regarding child development issues and parenting concerns.
(610) 915-8275 View (610) 915-8275
Photo of Opal DBT, Psychologist in Berwyn, PA
Opal DBT
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312
OPAL DBT, LLC is a treatment program offering Dialectical Behavior Therapy to teens, young adults, families, and parents. Comprehensive DBT is a treatment approach that incorporates multiple modalities, including individual therapy, group skills training, and support between sessions in the form of on-call phone coaching. We also offer the following skills groups: Multifamily, Young Adult, and Dialectical Parenting.
OPAL DBT, LLC is a treatment program offering Dialectical Behavior Therapy to teens, young adults, families, and parents. Comprehensive DBT is a treatment approach that incorporates multiple modalities, including individual therapy, group skills training, and support between sessions in the form of on-call phone coaching. We also offer the following skills groups: Multifamily, Young Adult, and Dialectical Parenting.
(484) 214-2766 View (484) 214-2766
Photo of Justin Jenkins, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Berwyn, PA
Justin Jenkins
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LSW, MSW
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312  (Online Only)
Welcome to therapy! I am here to provide a safe, supportive, and non-judgmental space for individuals to explore their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. I understand asking for help is hard; it can be a vulnerable and courageous step, and I am here to support you on your journey toward healing and personal growth.
Welcome to therapy! I am here to provide a safe, supportive, and non-judgmental space for individuals to explore their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. I understand asking for help is hard; it can be a vulnerable and courageous step, and I am here to support you on your journey toward healing and personal growth.
(484) 603-6143 View (484) 603-6143
Photo of Lauren Merclean, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Berwyn, PA
Lauren Merclean
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LCSW
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Berwyn, PA 19312
I am a LCSW who specializes in treatment of mood and anxiety disorders for adults. I have a special interest and expertise in the treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and have significant experience with Exposure and Response Prevention and Dialectal Behavior Therapy Skills Training. I have worked with individuals who struggle with a variety of behavioral health issues to include but not limited to OCD, Anxiety Disorders, and Depressive Disorders. I have completed the Behavior Therapy Training Institute (BTTI) by the International OCD Foundation, an advanced training in the treatment of OCD.
I am a LCSW who specializes in treatment of mood and anxiety disorders for adults. I have a special interest and expertise in the treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and have significant experience with Exposure and Response Prevention and Dialectal Behavior Therapy Skills Training. I have worked with individuals who struggle with a variety of behavioral health issues to include but not limited to OCD, Anxiety Disorders, and Depressive Disorders. I have completed the Behavior Therapy Training Institute (BTTI) by the International OCD Foundation, an advanced training in the treatment of OCD.
(484) 321-6277 View (484) 321-6277
Photo of Jennifer Lachance-Poirrier, Licensed Professional Counselor in Berwyn, PA
Jennifer Lachance-Poirrier
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, EMDR, ATR-BC, LCAT
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312
I work with individuals coping with various concerns related to psychological trauma, grief, toxic cycles, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, PTSD, relationship concerns, parenting struggles, and general life dissatisfaction. I use a flexible, integrative approach to therapy which combines psychodynamic applications, art therapy, and trauma-informed (EMDR) therapies to help my clients access their innate capacity for healing and growth, giving them room to further experience a sense of lightness, playfulness, and personal joy.
I work with individuals coping with various concerns related to psychological trauma, grief, toxic cycles, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, PTSD, relationship concerns, parenting struggles, and general life dissatisfaction. I use a flexible, integrative approach to therapy which combines psychodynamic applications, art therapy, and trauma-informed (EMDR) therapies to help my clients access their innate capacity for healing and growth, giving them room to further experience a sense of lightness, playfulness, and personal joy.
(484) 310-7506 View (484) 310-7506
Photo of Julie E Keaveney, Psychologist in Berwyn, PA
Julie E Keaveney
Psychologist, PsyD, ABPP
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312
CURRENTLY ONLY ACCEPTING TESTING CLIENTS, NO THERAPY CASES. I specialize in providing comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations of adolescents/adults throughout the lifespan with dementia, brain injury, learning disabilities, ADHD, and psychiatric disorders affecting cognitive functioning and wellness. I provide diagnostic evaluations for veterans through the VA, Independent Medical Evaluations for disability insurance companies, and guardianship evaluations for the courts. I evaluate clients in personal injury lawsuits and testify.I am board certified in clinical neuropsychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology.
CURRENTLY ONLY ACCEPTING TESTING CLIENTS, NO THERAPY CASES. I specialize in providing comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations of adolescents/adults throughout the lifespan with dementia, brain injury, learning disabilities, ADHD, and psychiatric disorders affecting cognitive functioning and wellness. I provide diagnostic evaluations for veterans through the VA, Independent Medical Evaluations for disability insurance companies, and guardianship evaluations for the courts. I evaluate clients in personal injury lawsuits and testify.I am board certified in clinical neuropsychology by the American Board of Professional Psychology.
(610) 810-1056 View (610) 810-1056
Photo of Dr. Bill Morgan, Psychologist in Berwyn, PA
Dr. Bill Morgan
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312
As a psychologist, counselor, and evaluator, I look at sessions as a collaborative process. Together we work towards making the changes my clients desire so that they experience more contentment, peace, satisfaction and success. I specialize in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, an evidence-based approach that helps people learn skills that last a lifetime. I am a licensed psychologist with over twenty years experience as a counselor, therapist, and diagnostician, and am active in training therapists.
As a psychologist, counselor, and evaluator, I look at sessions as a collaborative process. Together we work towards making the changes my clients desire so that they experience more contentment, peace, satisfaction and success. I specialize in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, an evidence-based approach that helps people learn skills that last a lifetime. I am a licensed psychologist with over twenty years experience as a counselor, therapist, and diagnostician, and am active in training therapists.
(610) 644-8182 View (610) 644-8182
Victor Shklyarevsky
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Berwyn, PA 19312
Individual/Family/Couples Therapy (10-50), Children, Adolescents, Young Adults, Adults. Psychoeducational/Psychodiagnostic Assessment, Substance Abuse, Anger Management, AD/HD/Learning Disability, Life Transitions
Individual/Family/Couples Therapy (10-50), Children, Adolescents, Young Adults, Adults. Psychoeducational/Psychodiagnostic Assessment, Substance Abuse, Anger Management, AD/HD/Learning Disability, Life Transitions
(610) 616-4811 View (610) 616-4811
Photo of Kelly Pohlig, Pre-Licensed Professional in Berwyn, PA
Kelly Pohlig
Pre-Licensed Professional, MS, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Berwyn, PA 19312  (Online Only)
Hey there! It can be highly challenging it can be to reach out for help; you are taking the best step in seeking a partner for personal healing. I will work with you to create positive changes in your life, resolve conflicts, and towards the goals you desire. As a counselor, I work with individuals coping with various concerns related to neurodiversity, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, PTSD/ complex trauma, caregiver concerns, relationship issues, parenting struggles, communication skills, and general life dissatisfaction.
Hey there! It can be highly challenging it can be to reach out for help; you are taking the best step in seeking a partner for personal healing. I will work with you to create positive changes in your life, resolve conflicts, and towards the goals you desire. As a counselor, I work with individuals coping with various concerns related to neurodiversity, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, PTSD/ complex trauma, caregiver concerns, relationship issues, parenting struggles, communication skills, and general life dissatisfaction.
(484) 646-2710 View (484) 646-2710
Photo of David Barnes, Counselor in Berwyn, PA
David Barnes
Counselor, M Ed, NCC
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312
I help successful men who struggle to understand and communicate effectively with their family. If you're struggling to connect with your family and you want to be the amazing father and husband that you are capable of, I will help you develop the skills you already have that make you amazing. Text or call me to set up a free consultation now. ‪(484) 681-2768‬
I help successful men who struggle to understand and communicate effectively with their family. If you're struggling to connect with your family and you want to be the amazing father and husband that you are capable of, I will help you develop the skills you already have that make you amazing. Text or call me to set up a free consultation now. ‪(484) 681-2768‬
(267) 399-4161 View (267) 399-4161
Photo of Kim Zahlaway U Got This Counseling Services, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Berwyn, PA
Kim Zahlaway U Got This Counseling Services
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, Founder, PCC
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312
Welcome! As a Therapist or Parenting Consultant for children, adolescents, young adults, adults and parents with Anxiety and ADHD, School and Work related problems and social relationships, we will explore the skills needed to make desired change at any level. You will learn to support your or your child's social and emotional growth through a positive process of self-discovery, empowerment and problem-solving. Modalities include: CBT; DBT; Anxiety and Stress management; Mindfulness; Social thinking and perception; identifying emotions and self-regulation; problem solving; and the incorporation of mindful behavior into daily life.
Welcome! As a Therapist or Parenting Consultant for children, adolescents, young adults, adults and parents with Anxiety and ADHD, School and Work related problems and social relationships, we will explore the skills needed to make desired change at any level. You will learn to support your or your child's social and emotional growth through a positive process of self-discovery, empowerment and problem-solving. Modalities include: CBT; DBT; Anxiety and Stress management; Mindfulness; Social thinking and perception; identifying emotions and self-regulation; problem solving; and the incorporation of mindful behavior into daily life.
(484) 334-8975 View (484) 334-8975
Photo of Couples and Family Wellness Center, Marriage & Family Therapist in Berwyn, PA
Couples and Family Wellness Center
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Berwyn, PA 19312
Are your partner, parents or children driving you crazy? Our counselors can show you how to enjoy the best of your family while learning to let go of the parts that interfere with your happiness. If you struggle with anxiety, depression, or make the same self-defeating relationship mistakes repeatedly, we'd like to work with you to break these cycles and enjoy life. Are you a first responder or veteran? Talk therapy won't help. We provide evidence-based EMDR. You deserve a counselor with the training and experience to help resolve the problems that bring you to therapy, heal old wounds and deepen the bonds you already share.
Are your partner, parents or children driving you crazy? Our counselors can show you how to enjoy the best of your family while learning to let go of the parts that interfere with your happiness. If you struggle with anxiety, depression, or make the same self-defeating relationship mistakes repeatedly, we'd like to work with you to break these cycles and enjoy life. Are you a first responder or veteran? Talk therapy won't help. We provide evidence-based EMDR. You deserve a counselor with the training and experience to help resolve the problems that bring you to therapy, heal old wounds and deepen the bonds you already share.
(484) 739-1145 View (484) 739-1145
Photo of Jim Coupe, Psychologist in Berwyn, PA
Jim Coupe
Psychologist, PsyD, MBA
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312
In practice for over 15 years, I work with a wide range of people who may be experiencing anxiety, low mood, and stress. In particular, many people come into my office because they have found an aspect of their life is not rewarding, whether this be handling life's pressures, relationships with a spouse/children, or how one thinks about one's self. It is always my objective to work with people collaboratively in order to develop goals that guide the psychotherapy.
In practice for over 15 years, I work with a wide range of people who may be experiencing anxiety, low mood, and stress. In particular, many people come into my office because they have found an aspect of their life is not rewarding, whether this be handling life's pressures, relationships with a spouse/children, or how one thinks about one's self. It is always my objective to work with people collaboratively in order to develop goals that guide the psychotherapy.
(484) 674-6322 View (484) 674-6322
Photo of Dr. Danielle Hanna, Pre-Licensed Professional in Berwyn, PA
Dr. Danielle Hanna
Pre-Licensed Professional, PsyD, CBIS
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312
Currently only accepting testing clients, no therapy cases. I am a postdoctoral fellow specializing in providing comprehensive neuropsychological assessments across the lifespan, assessing dementia and cognitive decline, ADHD, brain injury, and psychiatric disorders. I also have experience working with individuals experiencing cognitive difficulties secondary to medical conditions (e.g., spina bifida, HIV).
Currently only accepting testing clients, no therapy cases. I am a postdoctoral fellow specializing in providing comprehensive neuropsychological assessments across the lifespan, assessing dementia and cognitive decline, ADHD, brain injury, and psychiatric disorders. I also have experience working with individuals experiencing cognitive difficulties secondary to medical conditions (e.g., spina bifida, HIV).
(484) 265-9834 View (484) 265-9834
Photo of Jennifer Granozio, Counselor in Berwyn, PA
Jennifer Granozio
Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Berwyn, PA 19312
I am a licensed therapist with a passion for helping individuals navigate life’s challenges and achieve emotional well-being. Since 2020, I have been dedicated to creating a safe and supportive environment for my clients to explore their thoughts and emotions. My therapeutic approach combines evidence-based techniques such as cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive processing therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, exposure therapy, strength-based therapy, and person-centered therapy. Whether you are struggling with anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship issues, or life transitions, I am here to support you.
I am a licensed therapist with a passion for helping individuals navigate life’s challenges and achieve emotional well-being. Since 2020, I have been dedicated to creating a safe and supportive environment for my clients to explore their thoughts and emotions. My therapeutic approach combines evidence-based techniques such as cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive processing therapy, dialectical behavior therapy, exposure therapy, strength-based therapy, and person-centered therapy. Whether you are struggling with anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship issues, or life transitions, I am here to support you.
(484) 218-4922 View (484) 218-4922

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Berwyn, PA

70+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Berwyn, PA who prioritize treating:

91% Depression
91% Anxiety
69% Relationship Issues
69% Self Esteem
67% Trauma and PTSD
64% Coping Skills
59% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

13 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

82% Aetna
82% Highmark
70% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Berwyn, PA see their clients

89% In Person and Online
11% Online Only

Gender breakdown

71% Female
29% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Berwyn?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.