Depression Therapists in Aspinwall, PA

Photo of Jamie C. Rivers, MSCP, NCC, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Jamie C. Rivers
Licensed Professional Counselor, MSCP, NCC, LPC
Verified Verified
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Waitlist for new clients
In addition to working with people with medical health diagnosis, I specialize in working with people who are grieving, depressed and anxious.
I help people navigate through complex medical and psychological conditions. Often times a diagnosis of cancer, diabetes, infertility, chronic pain/fatigue leaves us confused, frustrated and powerless. Medical health setbacks can impact our mental health. Conditions that may occur or worsen include: depression, anxiety, substance dependency, interpersonal conflict and relationship issues. This is not always truth. Many find their voice, their personal strength, and their love and compassion of self and others deepen.
In addition to working with people with medical health diagnosis, I specialize in working with people who are grieving, depressed and anxious.
I help people navigate through complex medical and psychological conditions. Often times a diagnosis of cancer, diabetes, infertility, chronic pain/fatigue leaves us confused, frustrated and powerless. Medical health setbacks can impact our mental health. Conditions that may occur or worsen include: depression, anxiety, substance dependency, interpersonal conflict and relationship issues. This is not always truth. Many find their voice, their personal strength, and their love and compassion of self and others deepen.
(412) 426-3655 View (412) 426-3655
Photo of Rebecca Wells, MSEd, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Rebecca Wells
Licensed Professional Counselor, MSEd, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Hi there! I'm so happy that you're here! I am passionate about helping people struggling with depression, anxiety, trauma, addiction and transitional life challenges. If you want a life with less anxiety, worry, stress, or sadness, we'll work together to achieve attainable goals to get you where you want to be. I want to create a safe, inclusive space for you to talk about your unique challenges, and how you envision a life worth living and thriving! I welcome the individuality of each client's life story. My ideal client is committed to exploring their potential for change and growth in a supportive and collaborative environment.
Hi there! I'm so happy that you're here! I am passionate about helping people struggling with depression, anxiety, trauma, addiction and transitional life challenges. If you want a life with less anxiety, worry, stress, or sadness, we'll work together to achieve attainable goals to get you where you want to be. I want to create a safe, inclusive space for you to talk about your unique challenges, and how you envision a life worth living and thriving! I welcome the individuality of each client's life story. My ideal client is committed to exploring their potential for change and growth in a supportive and collaborative environment.
(412) 561-9419 View (412) 561-9419
Photo of Kathleen Seitz, MA, NCC, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Kathleen Seitz
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, NCC, LPC
Verified Verified
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Do you feel like you are going through life’s struggles alone, unsupported and with no direction? Balancing the demands of life, work or school in today's fast paced and changing world can leave us feeling overwhelmed, stressed, anxious, depressed, lonely or even angry. As children we sometimes develop behavioral strategies to face life's challenges or trauma's that as adults, simply no longer fit with how we imagine or intend ourselves to be. Understanding the nature and origin of destructive patterns and their consequences, addressing current challenges and long standing issues, gaining insight and learning the skills necessary for change is what successful therapy is about.
Do you feel like you are going through life’s struggles alone, unsupported and with no direction? Balancing the demands of life, work or school in today's fast paced and changing world can leave us feeling overwhelmed, stressed, anxious, depressed, lonely or even angry. As children we sometimes develop behavioral strategies to face life's challenges or trauma's that as adults, simply no longer fit with how we imagine or intend ourselves to be. Understanding the nature and origin of destructive patterns and their consequences, addressing current challenges and long standing issues, gaining insight and learning the skills necessary for change is what successful therapy is about.
(412) 436-3928 View (412) 436-3928
Photo of Justin Greenfield, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Justin Greenfield
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Waitlist for new clients
Psychotherapy can help you to better approach problems with depression, loss, anxiety, trauma, relationships and self-esteem issues with greater understanding and possibility for transformation. I practice in the psychodynamic model of Object Relations that emphasizes the development of empathy, a process of "knowing with" between client and therapist, to discover previously unknown or inaccessible sources of frustration and distress leading to greater self-capacity.
Psychotherapy can help you to better approach problems with depression, loss, anxiety, trauma, relationships and self-esteem issues with greater understanding and possibility for transformation. I practice in the psychodynamic model of Object Relations that emphasizes the development of empathy, a process of "knowing with" between client and therapist, to discover previously unknown or inaccessible sources of frustration and distress leading to greater self-capacity.
(412) 998-8768 View (412) 998-8768
Photo of Barbara Lynn Smith, MA, CAADC, CCDPD, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Barbara Lynn Smith
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, CAADC, CCDPD, LPC
Verified Verified
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Areas of focus include: anxiety, depression, life transition issues, conflict resolution, stress management, loss & bereavement issues, self-esteem issues, codependency issues, emotional regulation issues, and communication issues.
Barbara is a Licensed Professional Counselor who specializes in Mental Health Counseling. Barbara received her Master's Degree from Slippery Rock University in Psychology. Her counseling approach is eclectic in nature and adjusted to meet the existing needs of the client in relationship to their own individual developmental needs.
Areas of focus include: anxiety, depression, life transition issues, conflict resolution, stress management, loss & bereavement issues, self-esteem issues, codependency issues, emotional regulation issues, and communication issues.
Barbara is a Licensed Professional Counselor who specializes in Mental Health Counseling. Barbara received her Master's Degree from Slippery Rock University in Psychology. Her counseling approach is eclectic in nature and adjusted to meet the existing needs of the client in relationship to their own individual developmental needs.
(412) 685-3190 View (412) 685-3190
Photo of Pamela Hoopes, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Pamela Hoopes
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Aspinwall, PA 15215  (Online Only)
I work with adults 18-70's . I welcome college/grad students who arr transitioning to a new chapter in their lives and adults navigating the many changes/challenges we all can face. I help clients explore their emotions, life events & goals in a supportive and collaborative environment. I use a CBT, , narrative, solution focused and Mindfulness practice specializing in treating depression, anxiety, grief/loss, and life transitions. I enjoy sharing/educating about how mindfulness/intuition can be integrated into every day life, how Food/Nutrition can affect our Mood and Empath Survival Skills. Small steps lead to lasting change.
I work with adults 18-70's . I welcome college/grad students who arr transitioning to a new chapter in their lives and adults navigating the many changes/challenges we all can face. I help clients explore their emotions, life events & goals in a supportive and collaborative environment. I use a CBT, , narrative, solution focused and Mindfulness practice specializing in treating depression, anxiety, grief/loss, and life transitions. I enjoy sharing/educating about how mindfulness/intuition can be integrated into every day life, how Food/Nutrition can affect our Mood and Empath Survival Skills. Small steps lead to lasting change.
(878) 205-0814 View (878) 205-0814
Melissa Galiotto EMDR Cert.
LPC, NCC, EMDR
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Aspinwall, PA 15215
I welcome working with anyone interested in the therapy process regardless of their issues or goals. There are many options for coping skills such as from EMDR (emdria certified); Gestalt, Existential, DBT, CBT and Mindfulness. Past/ current clients have worked through generational trauma, disordered eating, sexual assault, family and/ or marital concerns, trauma, depression and anxiety, attention deficit, career and direction of life concerns. It is common to struggle with the first step of reaching out to a provider.. typically people feel relief once they start talking to and then selecting a provider.
I welcome working with anyone interested in the therapy process regardless of their issues or goals. There are many options for coping skills such as from EMDR (emdria certified); Gestalt, Existential, DBT, CBT and Mindfulness. Past/ current clients have worked through generational trauma, disordered eating, sexual assault, family and/ or marital concerns, trauma, depression and anxiety, attention deficit, career and direction of life concerns. It is common to struggle with the first step of reaching out to a provider.. typically people feel relief once they start talking to and then selecting a provider.
(412) 888-0452 View (412) 888-0452
Photo of undefined - Karen J Stickel, LCSW, BCD, LCSW, BCD, FAPA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Karen J Stickel, LCSW, BCD
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, BCD, FAPA
Verified Verified
Aspinwall, PA 15215
We all deal with changes. Change is inevitable in our lives and you can either manage change and shape it to your advantage, or let those changes manage and shape you. We have the abilities to cope with the changes in our lives. Sometimes we don't realize that we can and feel overwhelmed in dealing with stress. At other times we find ourselves in unexpected or extreme situations for which our normal coping skills are inadequate. Whatever the sources of your stress, the result could be anxious or depressed moods, panic attacks and more.
We all deal with changes. Change is inevitable in our lives and you can either manage change and shape it to your advantage, or let those changes manage and shape you. We have the abilities to cope with the changes in our lives. Sometimes we don't realize that we can and feel overwhelmed in dealing with stress. At other times we find ourselves in unexpected or extreme situations for which our normal coping skills are inadequate. Whatever the sources of your stress, the result could be anxious or depressed moods, panic attacks and more.
(412) 214-8785 View (412) 214-8785
Photo of Fox Chapel Consulting And Psychological Services, PhD, Psychologist
Fox Chapel Consulting And Psychological Services
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Dr. Victor H.W. is a specialist in Clinical Psychology and can effectively treat many challenging adult and youth presentations. My approach to treatment is influence by the scientific evidence! With children, adolescents, and adults, I draw from evidence-based treatments that have been proven to work; including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Acceptance Commitment Therapy (ACT), and Existential Therapy in addition to traditional talk and play therapies. However, psychotherapy is both an art and science and what works best depends on the person and the problem that the individual or family is facing.
Dr. Victor H.W. is a specialist in Clinical Psychology and can effectively treat many challenging adult and youth presentations. My approach to treatment is influence by the scientific evidence! With children, adolescents, and adults, I draw from evidence-based treatments that have been proven to work; including Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Acceptance Commitment Therapy (ACT), and Existential Therapy in addition to traditional talk and play therapies. However, psychotherapy is both an art and science and what works best depends on the person and the problem that the individual or family is facing.
(878) 203-1830 View (878) 203-1830
Photo of Betsy A DeChant, LCSW, LISW-S, BCD, FAGPA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Betsy A DeChant
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LISW-S, BCD, FAGPA
Verified Verified
Aspinwall, PA 15215
I have been in full-time practice as a clinical social worker/psychotherapist since 1969, and practiced in both hospital and agency psychiatric settings for over 15 years, in addition to maintaining a private practice. Throughout my career, I have provided numerous national and regional training seminars and workshops for MH professionals on women's issues; the chronically mentally ill; dual-diagnosed populations; and group psychotherapy modalities, and have also published in these areas. I have an eclectic style that encourages a flexible and collaborative working partnership which reflects the needs, goals, and personal context of the individual person.
I have been in full-time practice as a clinical social worker/psychotherapist since 1969, and practiced in both hospital and agency psychiatric settings for over 15 years, in addition to maintaining a private practice. Throughout my career, I have provided numerous national and regional training seminars and workshops for MH professionals on women's issues; the chronically mentally ill; dual-diagnosed populations; and group psychotherapy modalities, and have also published in these areas. I have an eclectic style that encourages a flexible and collaborative working partnership which reflects the needs, goals, and personal context of the individual person.
(724) 907-1668 View (724) 907-1668
Photo of Daniel Rhodes, PhD, LPC, NCC, ACS, Licensed Professional Counselor
Daniel Rhodes
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC, NCC, ACS
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Thanks for clicking! Feeling like you're not growing? Have you hit a snag or is there a barrier that is keeping you from meeting your goals? I'd love to help! I would like to help you reach the longer-lasting effects that are the consequences of an insight-based and action-oriented approach to counseling. Let's figure out what happened, how it's affecting you, and what we can do together to help you overcome it, learn from it, and grow.
Thanks for clicking! Feeling like you're not growing? Have you hit a snag or is there a barrier that is keeping you from meeting your goals? I'd love to help! I would like to help you reach the longer-lasting effects that are the consequences of an insight-based and action-oriented approach to counseling. Let's figure out what happened, how it's affecting you, and what we can do together to help you overcome it, learn from it, and grow.
(878) 206-1061 View (878) 206-1061
Photo of Linda Dukess, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Linda Dukess
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Waitlist for new clients
Do you feel that no matter how much you understand yourself you still struggle to change and to heal? Do you feel like you're not able to be your best self in your relationships or with your work? Do you always put yourself last and find it challenging to meet your own needs for self care? Do you need a safe place to heal from trauma? Please know that you are not alone
Do you feel that no matter how much you understand yourself you still struggle to change and to heal? Do you feel like you're not able to be your best self in your relationships or with your work? Do you always put yourself last and find it challenging to meet your own needs for self care? Do you need a safe place to heal from trauma? Please know that you are not alone
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Photo of Brittany Hautz : Queer Trauma Therapist In Pa, MSEd, NCC, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Brittany Hautz : Queer Trauma Therapist In Pa
Licensed Professional Counselor, MSEd, NCC, LPC
Verified Verified
18 Endorsed
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Waitlist for new clients
My name is Brittany (she/her), and I help folx develop their sense of inner strength and trust, and overcome trauma related symptoms. Yes, people actually heal from trauma. My clients are eager to learn how to maintain boundaries, effectively communicate, and more mindfully navigate the stressors of daily life. They know their triggers and understand "why" they have symptoms, and now they are ready for the deep work - to actually not be triggered all of the time! I also have a special interest in working with my LGBTQIA+ Queer, and ND communities, and diving into identity and self acceptance work. Let's be bold and bright!
My name is Brittany (she/her), and I help folx develop their sense of inner strength and trust, and overcome trauma related symptoms. Yes, people actually heal from trauma. My clients are eager to learn how to maintain boundaries, effectively communicate, and more mindfully navigate the stressors of daily life. They know their triggers and understand "why" they have symptoms, and now they are ready for the deep work - to actually not be triggered all of the time! I also have a special interest in working with my LGBTQIA+ Queer, and ND communities, and diving into identity and self acceptance work. Let's be bold and bright!
(878) 205-0553 View (878) 205-0553
Photo of Sarah Vogel, MSW, LSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sarah Vogel
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LSW
Verified Verified
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Whether you are having challenges adjusting to stressful life events, or you have experienced personal trauma(s) that you are having difficulty processing, Sarah is a compassionate, well rounded professional who will work alongside you through your inner healing journey. Together, you will create treatment goals that will help guide you as you develop practical and life changing coping strategies. Sarah also believes in an inclusive and comprehensive therapeutic approach. With your consent, she collaborates with other professionals providing medical or mental health services to you to ensure coordination and quality care.
Whether you are having challenges adjusting to stressful life events, or you have experienced personal trauma(s) that you are having difficulty processing, Sarah is a compassionate, well rounded professional who will work alongside you through your inner healing journey. Together, you will create treatment goals that will help guide you as you develop practical and life changing coping strategies. Sarah also believes in an inclusive and comprehensive therapeutic approach. With your consent, she collaborates with other professionals providing medical or mental health services to you to ensure coordination and quality care.
(412) 520-3149 View (412) 520-3149
Photo of Jessica Olifson, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jessica Olifson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Not accepting new clients
Making the decision to reach out for support or guidance isn’t easy. You might be going through a difficult life transition, experiencing relationship problems, feeling depressed or anxious, or struggling to manage life stressors. Therapy can be a great opportunity to explore long-standing problems and to work through current challenges in the safety of a nurturing, non-judgmental environment.
Making the decision to reach out for support or guidance isn’t easy. You might be going through a difficult life transition, experiencing relationship problems, feeling depressed or anxious, or struggling to manage life stressors. Therapy can be a great opportunity to explore long-standing problems and to work through current challenges in the safety of a nurturing, non-judgmental environment.
(412) 453-8710 View (412) 453-8710
Photo of Joy B Krumenacker, PsyD, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Joy B Krumenacker
Licensed Professional Counselor, PsyD, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Not accepting new clients
Psychotherapy is a unique journey; a journey that I am committed to taking with you. My interests include working with interpersonal/relational issues as well as concerns related to identity, personality, sex/sexuality, anxiety, and trauma. I practice from a psychodynamic approach, personalized to meet the needs of each client. Our sessions together will assist you in developing a greater understanding of self and your interactions with others. I am currently offering individual sessions as well as supervision to pre-licensed professionals.
Psychotherapy is a unique journey; a journey that I am committed to taking with you. My interests include working with interpersonal/relational issues as well as concerns related to identity, personality, sex/sexuality, anxiety, and trauma. I practice from a psychodynamic approach, personalized to meet the needs of each client. Our sessions together will assist you in developing a greater understanding of self and your interactions with others. I am currently offering individual sessions as well as supervision to pre-licensed professionals.
(412) 927-0795 View (412) 927-0795
Photo of Kristen Waldsmith, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Kristen Waldsmith
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Aspinwall, PA 15215
Not accepting new clients
Are you looking to improve you or your child's mood, lifestyle or relationships? Have you or someone you love turned to substances as a way to cope with life? The pressures of todays society effect those of all ages and their families. Therapy is an avenue to assist in working through life's imperfections and I would like to make it a positive experience for you.
Are you looking to improve you or your child's mood, lifestyle or relationships? Have you or someone you love turned to substances as a way to cope with life? The pressures of todays society effect those of all ages and their families. Therapy is an avenue to assist in working through life's imperfections and I would like to make it a positive experience for you.
(724) 246-6524 View (724) 246-6524

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Rachel Simonds, PhD, Psychologist
Rachel Simonds
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Pittsburgh, PA 15201
I also have training in treating teens and college students with depression, anxiety, and self-harm.
ONLY accepting new neuropsych clients at this time. I am a licensed psychologist who works with adolescents and young adults who are seeking help with emotional, social, and behavioral problems. Building a strong therapeutic relationship is essential to creating change. My goal is to create a safe, supportive environment to help you navigate the challenges you're facing. I use CBT and other evidence-based treatments, tailored to each individual, to help meet their needs and achieve their goals. I also conduct neuropsychological assessments for ADHD for adults.
I also have training in treating teens and college students with depression, anxiety, and self-harm.
ONLY accepting new neuropsych clients at this time. I am a licensed psychologist who works with adolescents and young adults who are seeking help with emotional, social, and behavioral problems. Building a strong therapeutic relationship is essential to creating change. My goal is to create a safe, supportive environment to help you navigate the challenges you're facing. I use CBT and other evidence-based treatments, tailored to each individual, to help meet their needs and achieve their goals. I also conduct neuropsychological assessments for ADHD for adults.
(412) 293-0692 View (412) 293-0692
Photo of Group Therapy For Therapists, PhD, Psychologist
Group Therapy For Therapists
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Pittsburgh, PA 15206  (Online Only)
Mondays OR Wednesdays 11:30a EST. Therapy group for therapists experiencing stress, grief, depression, anxiety, life transitions, relationship issues, compassion fatigue & burnout. The goal is to have a confidential space to be able to process & get support around being a mental health provider in the midst of our own mental health struggles & growth. As a member of PSYPACT, group is open to mental health providers from 38 states. States can be found here: www.drellenbronder.com. Therapists include: psychologists, therapists, counselors, social workers and psychiatrists.
Mondays OR Wednesdays 11:30a EST. Therapy group for therapists experiencing stress, grief, depression, anxiety, life transitions, relationship issues, compassion fatigue & burnout. The goal is to have a confidential space to be able to process & get support around being a mental health provider in the midst of our own mental health struggles & growth. As a member of PSYPACT, group is open to mental health providers from 38 states. States can be found here: www.drellenbronder.com. Therapists include: psychologists, therapists, counselors, social workers and psychiatrists.
(216) 299-3810 View (216) 299-3810
Photo of Nathan Russell Earl, MS, LPC, NCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Nathan Russell Earl
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Pittsburgh, PA 15201  (Online Only)
As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I have worked with individuals struggling with a variety of issues, including depression, anxiety, anger, grief and addiction. I aim to create a safe, supportive environment for my clients to process their emotions, and to create positive change in their lives. I hope to help my clients gain a healthier relationship with themselves by challenging their critical self-talk. I have worked with may people who think and say harsh, or even cruel things to themselves; that they would never say to another person, or a friend.
As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I have worked with individuals struggling with a variety of issues, including depression, anxiety, anger, grief and addiction. I aim to create a safe, supportive environment for my clients to process their emotions, and to create positive change in their lives. I hope to help my clients gain a healthier relationship with themselves by challenging their critical self-talk. I have worked with may people who think and say harsh, or even cruel things to themselves; that they would never say to another person, or a friend.
(412) 301-9147 View (412) 301-9147

See more therapy options for Aspinwall

Depression Therapists

What is the goal of therapy for depression?

Therapy for depression has several major goals. One is to relieve the mental pain of depression, which distorts feeling and thinking so that sufferers cannot see beyond their current state of mind or envision feeling better. Another is to give people the mental tools to recognize and correct the kinds of distorted thinking that turn a problem into a catastrophe and lead to despair. Therapy also teaches people how to process negative emotions in constructive ways, so they have more control over their own emotional reactivity. And it helps people regain the ability to see themselves positively, the motivation to do things, and the capacity for pleasure.

What happens in therapy for depression?

Perhaps most important, no matter the type of therapy, patients form an alliance with the therapist; that connection is therapeutic in itself, plus it becomes an instrument of change. Patients learn to identify and to challenge their own erroneous beliefs and thoughts that amplify the effects of negative experiences. They learn to identify situations in which they are especially vulnerable. And they learn new patterns of thinking and behaving. They may be given “homework” assignments in which they practice their developing skills. In addition, good therapists regularly monitor patients to assess whether and how much the condition is improving.

What therapy types help with depression?

Several types of short-term therapy have been found effective, each targeting one or more areas of dysfunction. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) helps clients challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs, learn new behavioral strategies, and curb reactivity to distressing situations. Behavioral activation (BA) is a form of therapy often used in conjunction with CBT; it focuses on engagement in rewarding activity as a pathway to changing negative feelings and disturbed mood. Another widely used approach is interpersonal therapy (IPT), which targets the social difficulties that both give rise to and get exacerbated by depression. Therapists may combine approaches as needed.

Can therapy for depression be done online?

Studies have found that online therapy can be highly effective for treating depression, although it may be more challenging to build a good therapist-patient alliance on screen than in person—at least at first. However, online therapy can offer considerable advantages. Accessibility and convenience are tops among them. Some people actually find it easier to talk about problems online than in person. While online therapy typically limits visibility of facial expression and body gestures that give important nonverbal cues to a patient’s state of mind, it can give therapists a glimpse into a patient’s world and life, providing information that can be highly useful in guiding therapy.

How effective is therapy for depression?

Many studies show that therapy is highly effective provided that patients complete the prescribed course of therapy, commonly 16 to 20 sessions. Over the long term, it is more effective than medication and the effects are more enduring. As a result, psychotherapy has the power not just to relieve current suffering but to prevent future episodes of the disorder. Therapy reverses the dysfunction in neural circuitry that disposes individuals to a negative view of themselves, the world, and their future and they acquire coping techniques, problem-solving skills, and understanding of their own vulnerabilities that are useful over the course of a lifetime.