Therapists in Medford, OR

Photo of Angela Stiles, Pre-Licensed Professional in Medford, OR
Angela Stiles
Pre-Licensed Professional
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97501  (Online Only)
I'm looking forward to working with you to process trauma, support relationship health, define your goals, increase self-efficacy, and find meaning in the process. I appreciate the bravery and effort it takes to seek counseling. If you are struggling, you will find that I offer unwavering support. I seek to create a warm environment where you can be your authentic self. I hope to champion you toward wellness in whichever ways are most meaningful for you.
I'm looking forward to working with you to process trauma, support relationship health, define your goals, increase self-efficacy, and find meaning in the process. I appreciate the bravery and effort it takes to seek counseling. If you are struggling, you will find that I offer unwavering support. I seek to create a warm environment where you can be your authentic self. I hope to champion you toward wellness in whichever ways are most meaningful for you.
(458) 217-8890 View (458) 217-8890
Photo of Richard M Stubbs, Licensed Professional Counselor in Medford, OR
Richard M Stubbs
Licensed Professional Counselor, MT-BC, LPC, CATP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97501
Richard Stubbs is one of three board certified music therapists licensed in Southern Oregon. He specializes in experiential therapies such as songwriting and lyric analysis, attachment focused music therapy, and an innovative integration of tabletop role-playing games into group therapy. Group therapy is focused on building interpersonal effectiveness, distress tolerance, and problem solving skills.
Richard Stubbs is one of three board certified music therapists licensed in Southern Oregon. He specializes in experiential therapies such as songwriting and lyric analysis, attachment focused music therapy, and an innovative integration of tabletop role-playing games into group therapy. Group therapy is focused on building interpersonal effectiveness, distress tolerance, and problem solving skills.
(458) 207-2469 View (458) 207-2469
Photo of Bryan del Valle, Pre-Licensed Professional in Medford, OR
Bryan del Valle
Pre-Licensed Professional, MDiv
Verified Verified
Medford, OR 97501
As a Marriage and Family Therapist Associate, I work with individuals, couples, and families to facilitate emotional healing and functional relationships.
As a Marriage and Family Therapist Associate, I work with individuals, couples, and families to facilitate emotional healing and functional relationships.
(541) 527-7492 View (541) 527-7492
Photo of Hawthorne Healing Center, LLC , Professional Counselor Associate in Medford, OR
Hawthorne Healing Center, LLC
Professional Counselor Associate, LPC-A
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97504
My name is Alyson Brown, LPC-Associate. It takes courage to take this step and look for a counselor, so thanks for being brave! You may be ready to begin your journey of transformation or take your healing in a new direction. I work with couples and adults to treat anxiety, depression, relationship issues, trauma and more. I work with LGBTQ+, BIPOC and other underserved populations in our area. I can bill OHP in the Southern Oregon & Rogue Valley area. I use Talk-Therapy, Art therapy, Mindfulness based methods and more. I also may accommodate clients for virtual sessions within Oregon.
My name is Alyson Brown, LPC-Associate. It takes courage to take this step and look for a counselor, so thanks for being brave! You may be ready to begin your journey of transformation or take your healing in a new direction. I work with couples and adults to treat anxiety, depression, relationship issues, trauma and more. I work with LGBTQ+, BIPOC and other underserved populations in our area. I can bill OHP in the Southern Oregon & Rogue Valley area. I use Talk-Therapy, Art therapy, Mindfulness based methods and more. I also may accommodate clients for virtual sessions within Oregon.
(541) 697-4733 View (541) 697-4733
Photo of Lisa Allred, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Medford, OR
Lisa Allred
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Medford, OR 97501  (Online Only)
If the ups and downs are overwhelming, you are in the right place. This is down to earth, modern therapy where you will explore who you are, where you have been, and more importantly, where you want to go. Mood related issues do not have to keep you from living life in a way that is meaningful to you. As we find your patterns and best ways to navigate daily living, you will using the strengths you already have to build a life you want, according to you. When we live in according to what is important to us, the world feels different and there is room for experiences and perspectives that we are looking for.
If the ups and downs are overwhelming, you are in the right place. This is down to earth, modern therapy where you will explore who you are, where you have been, and more importantly, where you want to go. Mood related issues do not have to keep you from living life in a way that is meaningful to you. As we find your patterns and best ways to navigate daily living, you will using the strengths you already have to build a life you want, according to you. When we live in according to what is important to us, the world feels different and there is room for experiences and perspectives that we are looking for.
(541) 588-3842 View (541) 588-3842
Photo of Turituri Counseling Services, LLC, Licensed Professional Counselor in Medford, OR
Turituri Counseling Services, LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97504
Accepting new clients. Every now and then, you need someone to help you process difficulties life throws at you. If you are at that place, I would like to help. My name is Darren Turituri, Licensed Professional Counselor. I have worked in the mental health field for close to 20 years, from school counseling, to crisis therapist, to inpatient treatment, to individuals in a Correctional setting. One thing has remained consistent, building rapport with clients is key to change. I look forward to connecting with you and working together to find solutions for what you seek.
Accepting new clients. Every now and then, you need someone to help you process difficulties life throws at you. If you are at that place, I would like to help. My name is Darren Turituri, Licensed Professional Counselor. I have worked in the mental health field for close to 20 years, from school counseling, to crisis therapist, to inpatient treatment, to individuals in a Correctional setting. One thing has remained consistent, building rapport with clients is key to change. I look forward to connecting with you and working together to find solutions for what you seek.
(541) 262-1627 View (541) 262-1627
Photo of Julia Raymond - Mindful Counseling Services, LLC, Professional Counselor Associate in Medford, OR
Julia Raymond - Mindful Counseling Services, LLC
Professional Counselor Associate, CADC, NCC, LPC, ID
Verified Verified
Medford, OR 97504
I work with individuals & couples in Southern Oregon, looking for support with concerns such as anxiety, depression, relationship distress, workplace stress, grief, trauma, feeling disconnected from loved ones, life transition, career, fear of judgment, anger, adult ADHD and more. Therapy can build a path from pain to resilience and it can help to work with a professional where the total focus is on you, what you want for your life and what will help you achieve it; someone who listens to the best in you and celebrates your successes and helps with setbacks along the way.
I work with individuals & couples in Southern Oregon, looking for support with concerns such as anxiety, depression, relationship distress, workplace stress, grief, trauma, feeling disconnected from loved ones, life transition, career, fear of judgment, anger, adult ADHD and more. Therapy can build a path from pain to resilience and it can help to work with a professional where the total focus is on you, what you want for your life and what will help you achieve it; someone who listens to the best in you and celebrates your successes and helps with setbacks along the way.
(541) 656-2351 View (541) 656-2351
Photo of Lois Schlegel, Licensed Professional Counselor in Medford, OR
Lois Schlegel
Licensed Professional Counselor, MFA, MS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97501
"And then the day came when the risk to remain tight in a bud was greater than the risk it took to bloom." Anais Nin Are you longing for greater meaning in your life, a stronger connection with those you love, effective strategies for meeting the challenges and sorrows of living? In an atmosphere of compassion and safety, I offer the latest, evidence-based tools to assist you in creating positive change in your life and relationships.
"And then the day came when the risk to remain tight in a bud was greater than the risk it took to bloom." Anais Nin Are you longing for greater meaning in your life, a stronger connection with those you love, effective strategies for meeting the challenges and sorrows of living? In an atmosphere of compassion and safety, I offer the latest, evidence-based tools to assist you in creating positive change in your life and relationships.
(541) 727-0942 View (541) 727-0942
Photo of Nicole Hoagland, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Medford, OR
Nicole Hoagland
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LASW
Verified Verified
Medford, OR 97504  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
"You are braver than you believe. Stronger than you seem. Smarter than you think." -A.A. Milne. If this is your first step in wondering if therapy is right for you, I'm glad you made it here. If you, or someone you love, has been diagnosed with a life-limiting or terminal illness, I'm glad you made it here. If you're struggling with feelings of grief, loss, burnout, isolation, depression, or anxiety, I'm glad you made it here. If your once-fulfilling work (paid or unpaid) now feels draining, I'm glad you made it here. Therapy is the process of exploring what restricts us and developing the skills and insights to nurture growth.
"You are braver than you believe. Stronger than you seem. Smarter than you think." -A.A. Milne. If this is your first step in wondering if therapy is right for you, I'm glad you made it here. If you, or someone you love, has been diagnosed with a life-limiting or terminal illness, I'm glad you made it here. If you're struggling with feelings of grief, loss, burnout, isolation, depression, or anxiety, I'm glad you made it here. If your once-fulfilling work (paid or unpaid) now feels draining, I'm glad you made it here. Therapy is the process of exploring what restricts us and developing the skills and insights to nurture growth.
(541) 237-1767 View (541) 237-1767
Photo of Robert C Skidmore, Licensed Professional Counselor in Medford, OR
Robert C Skidmore
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, MDiv, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97504
Not accepting new clients
Oh, the places and ways we get stuck! Trauma can make life feel unbearable. Doubt and fear can trip us up in our most-desired plans. Confusion about who we are and why we are here can plague us as we seek direction. Through deep listening, I help you find ways to acknowledge your hurt and difficulties, and identify resources for your forward movement. I work with individuals, couples and families to facilitate and assist the mysterious process of healing.
Oh, the places and ways we get stuck! Trauma can make life feel unbearable. Doubt and fear can trip us up in our most-desired plans. Confusion about who we are and why we are here can plague us as we seek direction. Through deep listening, I help you find ways to acknowledge your hurt and difficulties, and identify resources for your forward movement. I work with individuals, couples and families to facilitate and assist the mysterious process of healing.
(541) 223-7259 View (541) 223-7259
Photo of Steven C. Schoger, Psychologist in Medford, OR
Steven C. Schoger
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Medford, OR 97504
Waitlist for new clients
I have been in the pursuit of helping people achieve a richer life and closer relationships for over 30 years. Through those years I have continued to add intense training and expertise in psychology. I work from a supportive, non-judgmental position which gives you the freedom to design goals, get feedback, and try out new thoughts and behaviors that help you achieve success. I hold a Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology from California School of Professional Psychology (CSPP) at Alliant International University (www.alliant.edu). I am a licensed Psychologist in the State of Oregon.
I have been in the pursuit of helping people achieve a richer life and closer relationships for over 30 years. Through those years I have continued to add intense training and expertise in psychology. I work from a supportive, non-judgmental position which gives you the freedom to design goals, get feedback, and try out new thoughts and behaviors that help you achieve success. I hold a Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology from California School of Professional Psychology (CSPP) at Alliant International University (www.alliant.edu). I am a licensed Psychologist in the State of Oregon.
(541) 209-4387 View (541) 209-4387
Photo of Jennifer Henderson, Licensed Professional Counselor in Medford, OR
Jennifer Henderson
Licensed Professional Counselor, DBH, LPC, NCC, QMHP
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97501
Waitlist for new clients
My therapy practice has focused on interventions for complex family systems including co-parenting after divorce, raising special needs children or supporting patients with navigating agency involvement (child welfare, corrections, education). I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) and Doctor of Behavioral Health (DBH) whose career was founded in Pediatrics. I have a strong commitment to helping families develop secure relationships and additionally offer attachment couples counseling using PACT, EFT and IFS models.
My therapy practice has focused on interventions for complex family systems including co-parenting after divorce, raising special needs children or supporting patients with navigating agency involvement (child welfare, corrections, education). I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) and Doctor of Behavioral Health (DBH) whose career was founded in Pediatrics. I have a strong commitment to helping families develop secure relationships and additionally offer attachment couples counseling using PACT, EFT and IFS models.
(541) 397-0961 View (541) 397-0961
Photo of Jacob Mains, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Medford, OR
Jacob Mains
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97501
Not accepting new clients
Has your anxiety or depression gotten out of control? Is your relationship on life support? Do you feel like you just can't get over a loss in your life and move forward? Or maybe you just feel lost and don't know where your life is heading. You don't have to keep trying to fix these things on your own. We all need help at different times in our lives to get unstuck and start fully living again. I'm here to help you on your journey. So many people I've worked with are happier and healthier now than they ever thought was possible. That's possible for you too. You just have to take the first step and reach out.
Has your anxiety or depression gotten out of control? Is your relationship on life support? Do you feel like you just can't get over a loss in your life and move forward? Or maybe you just feel lost and don't know where your life is heading. You don't have to keep trying to fix these things on your own. We all need help at different times in our lives to get unstuck and start fully living again. I'm here to help you on your journey. So many people I've worked with are happier and healthier now than they ever thought was possible. That's possible for you too. You just have to take the first step and reach out.
(458) 203-8996 View (458) 203-8996
Photo of Richard Dean Tanksley, Pre-Licensed Professional in Medford, OR
Richard Dean Tanksley
Pre-Licensed Professional, MSW, CSWA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97504
I am passionate about working with families, individuals, and couples to help generate the change they desire. As an individual and family counselor, I believe that we hold and can find the answers to our problems. We create solutions and understandings that work for us in our environments. Therefore, I endeavor to create a friendly, informative, and supportive relationship where challenges can be explored and addressed in the best ways possible. It is important to me to counsel others with acceptance, honesty, and compassion. I enjoy learning about the lives and experiences of every type of person. I accept most clients.
I am passionate about working with families, individuals, and couples to help generate the change they desire. As an individual and family counselor, I believe that we hold and can find the answers to our problems. We create solutions and understandings that work for us in our environments. Therefore, I endeavor to create a friendly, informative, and supportive relationship where challenges can be explored and addressed in the best ways possible. It is important to me to counsel others with acceptance, honesty, and compassion. I enjoy learning about the lives and experiences of every type of person. I accept most clients.
(541) 275-9086 View (541) 275-9086
Photo of Quality Counseling Services LLC in Medford, OR
Quality Counseling Services LLC
LPC
Verified Verified
Medford, OR 97504
At Quality Counseling Services we offer individual and family counseling for every sort of issue that you and your loved ones are dealing with. Our goal is to provide a space for you and/or your family to work through difficulties in a manner that brings insight and resolution.
At Quality Counseling Services we offer individual and family counseling for every sort of issue that you and your loved ones are dealing with. Our goal is to provide a space for you and/or your family to work through difficulties in a manner that brings insight and resolution.
(541) 640-5292 View (541) 640-5292
Photo of Kathleen Compton, Licensed Professional Counselor in Medford, OR
Kathleen Compton
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97504
Not accepting new clients
I entered the counseling field because I like people and have faith in their resilience and capacity for growth -- emotionally, psychologically and spiritually. I see my therapist role as one who comes alongside you, the client, to provide a safe, non-judgmental, caring environment in which you access the wisdom of your best self. I listen, ask questions, encourage you toward your goals, offer suggestions, and gently confront habits or ways of thinking that may be keeping you from greater happiness. When it seems appropriate, I employ my sense of humor, believing -- like Reader's Digest -- that laughter really is great medicine.
I entered the counseling field because I like people and have faith in their resilience and capacity for growth -- emotionally, psychologically and spiritually. I see my therapist role as one who comes alongside you, the client, to provide a safe, non-judgmental, caring environment in which you access the wisdom of your best self. I listen, ask questions, encourage you toward your goals, offer suggestions, and gently confront habits or ways of thinking that may be keeping you from greater happiness. When it seems appropriate, I employ my sense of humor, believing -- like Reader's Digest -- that laughter really is great medicine.
(541) 326-4063 x9 View (541) 326-4063 x9
Photo of John M.Gram, Psy.D., Psychologist in Medford, OR
John M.Gram, Psy.D.
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Medford, OR 97504
John is a licensed Psychologist specializing in individual, couples and group psychotherapy. He began his private practice in Grants Pass, Oregon in 1990. Dr. Gram graduated from Rosemead Graduate School of Psychology (Biola University) in 1990 and has been licensed as a psychologist in Oregon since 1991. He balances his practice with a nearly equal number of men and women clients. His special interest is working with adult men and adolescent males fifteen years and older.
John is a licensed Psychologist specializing in individual, couples and group psychotherapy. He began his private practice in Grants Pass, Oregon in 1990. Dr. Gram graduated from Rosemead Graduate School of Psychology (Biola University) in 1990 and has been licensed as a psychologist in Oregon since 1991. He balances his practice with a nearly equal number of men and women clients. His special interest is working with adult men and adolescent males fifteen years and older.
(541) 236-1722 View (541) 236-1722
Photo of Elena Meyer, Licensed Professional Counselor in Medford, OR
Elena Meyer
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, NCC, CCM
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97501
Are you having problems in your relationship? Are you feeling tired or are you emotional due to life stressors? What if you could feel better today? Improve your relationships with others? What if you could learn new tools for more effective communication and learn new ways to resolve conflict and interact with others? I believe that all people have the innate ability to thrive, but sometimes get stuck in limiting life patterns. I am committed to helping you realize your potential.
Are you having problems in your relationship? Are you feeling tired or are you emotional due to life stressors? What if you could feel better today? Improve your relationships with others? What if you could learn new tools for more effective communication and learn new ways to resolve conflict and interact with others? I believe that all people have the innate ability to thrive, but sometimes get stuck in limiting life patterns. I am committed to helping you realize your potential.
(541) 348-6617 View (541) 348-6617
Photo of Dr. Cathi Stegall, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Medford, OR
Dr. Cathi Stegall
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
17 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97504  (Online Only)
Your Relationship & Sex Therapist (cancellation list available upon request): Business Owners, clinicians, & rescue workers are common clients and have experienced confidence in designing customized result-driven therapy tailored to personalized goals. Perhaps your relationship with your partner(s) feels stuck, you're not talking with each other as you once had, you are arguing more, sex seems detached, if at all, and you can't see how or when things will improve. From managing your stress to building resiliency: if you're looking to target symptoms or cultivate meaningful relationships while restoring peace & hope, let's talk.
Your Relationship & Sex Therapist (cancellation list available upon request): Business Owners, clinicians, & rescue workers are common clients and have experienced confidence in designing customized result-driven therapy tailored to personalized goals. Perhaps your relationship with your partner(s) feels stuck, you're not talking with each other as you once had, you are arguing more, sex seems detached, if at all, and you can't see how or when things will improve. From managing your stress to building resiliency: if you're looking to target symptoms or cultivate meaningful relationships while restoring peace & hope, let's talk.
(541) 612-3221 View (541) 612-3221
Photo of Nikki Ryan, Marriage & Family Therapist in Medford, OR
Nikki Ryan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Medford, OR 97504
Waitlist for new clients
I have 22+ years experience working with children, adolescents, couples and families in both residential and outpatient settings including high risk clients and DHS involved families. I am trained in Early Childhood Trauma and Collaborative Problem Solving and believe that people do well if they can and that maladaptive behavior is the result of lagging skills in key areas. I help individuals, couples and families improve emotion regulation, communication and relationships.
I have 22+ years experience working with children, adolescents, couples and families in both residential and outpatient settings including high risk clients and DHS involved families. I am trained in Early Childhood Trauma and Collaborative Problem Solving and believe that people do well if they can and that maladaptive behavior is the result of lagging skills in key areas. I help individuals, couples and families improve emotion regulation, communication and relationships.
(541) 248-6142 View (541) 248-6142

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Medford, OR

200+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Medford, OR who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
88% Depression
81% Relationship Issues
81% Self Esteem
79% Trauma and PTSD
72% Coping Skills
72% Stress

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

68% Oregon Health Plan (OHP)
60% Other
53% Regence

How Therapists in Medford, OR see their clients

71% In Person and Online
29% Online Only

Gender breakdown

77% Female
22% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Medford?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.