David R Llewellyn
Counselor, MA, LMHC, CSAT Verified
Offers online therapy
$200
Using DBT individual therapy & skills training with a task-based model, we treat sexual compulsivity & addiction, partner betrayal, gambling addiction, substance abuse & chemical dependency, video-gaming & internet addiction, spending & shopping addiction, financial & work disorders.
Are you struggling with addictive or compulsive behaviors or substances? Have you tried stopping on your own? Do depression, anxiety or panic take you over? Have you been physically or sexually abused? Do you self-harm? Do you have puzzling memory gaps? Are your relationships suffering? Does your partner or someone you love have a problem? Ready for change? I can help. In a supportive, confidential, non-judgmental environment, using effective research-based methods, I help you break free of addictions, trauma, and/or unhealthy behaviors, and learn how to build a healthy and rewarding life and relationships in recovery.
Internet Addiction
(239) 935-8938
Verified
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Offers online therapy
$200 Per Session
Internet Addiction
Using DBT individual therapy & skills training with a task-based model, we treat sexual compulsivity & addiction, partner betrayal, gambling addiction, substance abuse & chemical dependency, video-gaming & internet addiction, spending & shopping addiction, financial & work disorders.
Are you struggling with addictive or compulsive behaviors or substances? Have you tried stopping on your own? Do depression, anxiety or panic take you over? Have you been physically or sexually abused? Do you self-harm? Do you have puzzling memory gaps? Are your relationships suffering? Does your partner or someone you love have a problem? Ready for change? I can help. In a supportive, confidential, non-judgmental environment, using effective research-based methods, I help you break free of addictions, trauma, and/or unhealthy behaviors, and learn how to build a healthy and rewarding life and relationships in recovery.
Tim Martin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, MDiv, LCSW, CSAT, CMAT Verified
Offers online therapy
$150
Sex & porn addiction (CSAT), affair recovery, sexuality issues, internet addiction, and substance addiction are my specialties. I also work with trauma/PTSD (EMDR), depression and anxiety. Not just endless talk, talk, talk that goes nowhere. I use multiple evidence-based mental health treatments combined with genuine compassion and care so that my clients feel better sooner. If they're open to it, I often give my clients specific handouts or homework to do during the week. I don't believe in forcing the client to do something that isn't working. I begin where you are.
Internet Addiction
(786) 244-8289
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$150 Per Session
Internet Addiction
Sex & porn addiction (CSAT), affair recovery, sexuality issues, internet addiction, and substance addiction are my specialties. I also work with trauma/PTSD (EMDR), depression and anxiety. Not just endless talk, talk, talk that goes nowhere. I use multiple evidence-based mental health treatments combined with genuine compassion and care so that my clients feel better sooner. If they're open to it, I often give my clients specific handouts or homework to do during the week. I don't believe in forcing the client to do something that isn't working. I begin where you are.
Photo of Cusumano Counseling, LLC, Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern
Cusumano Counseling, LLC
Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern, MA, RMHCI Verified
Offers online therapy
$75
Things can get tough but you don’t have to do it alone! I have worked with many types of clients from various backgrounds and concerns, one of my more unique focuses is on Video Game/Internet Addiction. I can offer time management, prioritization, life skills and more! I have interned and worked at Circles of Care and I currently practice at Adult and Child Counseling and Psychiatric Center. I am on your side and I will be here to help you through some of the hardest or most stressful times you have to handle. You have to keep moving forward and I can be the one to help!
Internet Addiction
(321) 241-2953
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$75 Per Session
Internet Addiction
Things can get tough but you don’t have to do it alone! I have worked with many types of clients from various backgrounds and concerns, one of my more unique focuses is on Video Game/Internet Addiction. I can offer time management, prioritization, life skills and more! I have interned and worked at Circles of Care and I currently practice at Adult and Child Counseling and Psychiatric Center. I am on your side and I will be here to help you through some of the hardest or most stressful times you have to handle. You have to keep moving forward and I can be the one to help!
Photo of Jonathan J Lehenbauer
Jonathan J Lehenbauer
MA, RMHCI Verified
Offers online therapy
I am open and willing to support anyone no matter where they are in their life, my goal is to help and most importantly listen. Often times the world ignores our struggles and pushes us onward. I am here to listen and I hope to work with those overcoming the trauma of their past so that they can see their bright and joyous future ahead of them. Working together with you to help you become the best versions of yourself. I would be humbled to work with you if you are struggling with depression, anxiety, Trauma, PTSD, or process addictions( video game addiction, social media addiction, smoking, and internet addiction).
Internet Addiction
(689) 215-4168
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
Internet Addiction
I am open and willing to support anyone no matter where they are in their life, my goal is to help and most importantly listen. Often times the world ignores our struggles and pushes us onward. I am here to listen and I hope to work with those overcoming the trauma of their past so that they can see their bright and joyous future ahead of them. Working together with you to help you become the best versions of yourself. I would be humbled to work with you if you are struggling with depression, anxiety, Trauma, PTSD, or process addictions( video game addiction, social media addiction, smoking, and internet addiction).
Photo of Michael Hoepfl, Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern
Michael Hoepfl
Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern, MS, IMH Verified
Offers online therapy
My expertise is in video game addiction or internet addiction, communication, relationships (family or marriage), anxiety, depression, and self-actualization.
My ideal client is a client that wants help. It takes an immense amount of courage to ask for help - and I am happy to be the person to try my very best to reward that courage with positive growth. I can't say that I have an ideal person with issues, I just hope to do my best to help anyone with any issue - and if I end up not being compatible, helping you find someone who is. I am doing telehealth to reach those who struggle with socializing or leaving their homes, utilizing technology to help those who were previously unreachable.
Internet Addiction
(850) 353-7603
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
Internet Addiction
My expertise is in video game addiction or internet addiction, communication, relationships (family or marriage), anxiety, depression, and self-actualization.
My ideal client is a client that wants help. It takes an immense amount of courage to ask for help - and I am happy to be the person to try my very best to reward that courage with positive growth. I can't say that I have an ideal person with issues, I just hope to do my best to help anyone with any issue - and if I end up not being compatible, helping you find someone who is. I am doing telehealth to reach those who struggle with socializing or leaving their homes, utilizing technology to help those who were previously unreachable.
Photo of Jill S. Levenson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jill S. Levenson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW Verified
Offers online therapy
Expertise: 1) sexual behavior (sexual compulsivity, atypical sexual interests, internet addiction, infidelity, and sexually unlawful behavior); 2) child abuse & trauma survivors (including male survivors); 3) family members of those struggling with substance abuse or sexual abuse issues; 4) Work-related Vicarious Trauma; 5) Illness Anxiety Disorder.
I look forward to helping you explore the dynamics of your relationships, identify long-term interpersonal patterns that may interfere with your happiness, and devise strategies for meaningful changes in your life. Using a trauma-informed cognitive-behavioral approach, I can help you understand the ways in which earlier events and experiences have shaped your view of yourself, others, and the world. We will work on identifying and altering the relational and communication patterns that may get in the way of sustaining satisfying, healthy relationships. Alternative lifestyles welcome.
Internet Addiction
(954) 621-1305
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
Internet Addiction
Expertise: 1) sexual behavior (sexual compulsivity, atypical sexual interests, internet addiction, infidelity, and sexually unlawful behavior); 2) child abuse & trauma survivors (including male survivors); 3) family members of those struggling with substance abuse or sexual abuse issues; 4) Work-related Vicarious Trauma; 5) Illness Anxiety Disorder.
I look forward to helping you explore the dynamics of your relationships, identify long-term interpersonal patterns that may interfere with your happiness, and devise strategies for meaningful changes in your life. Using a trauma-informed cognitive-behavioral approach, I can help you understand the ways in which earlier events and experiences have shaped your view of yourself, others, and the world. We will work on identifying and altering the relational and communication patterns that may get in the way of sustaining satisfying, healthy relationships. Alternative lifestyles welcome.
Kelly Evans
MSW, RCSWI Verified
Offers online therapy
$90
Hi! My name is Kelly Evans and I am a clinical social worker who is passionate about helping others succeed. I have over ten years experience working with children and teens, but also love working with individuals of all ages. I teach clients how to renew their mind using cognitive behavioral therapy techniques. I can provide you with the necessary tools to help you get through any time in your life. Together, we will work on strategies that will allow you to address the root causes of your difficulties and live a more peaceful, enjoyable life. I use psychoeducation to help clients in between sessions.
Internet Addiction
(352) 717-4078
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$90 Per Session
Internet Addiction
Hi! My name is Kelly Evans and I am a clinical social worker who is passionate about helping others succeed. I have over ten years experience working with children and teens, but also love working with individuals of all ages. I teach clients how to renew their mind using cognitive behavioral therapy techniques. I can provide you with the necessary tools to help you get through any time in your life. Together, we will work on strategies that will allow you to address the root causes of your difficulties and live a more peaceful, enjoyable life. I use psychoeducation to help clients in between sessions.
Dira de la Rosa
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT Verified
Offers online therapy
$80
Are you coping with an infidelity in your relationship or marriage and cant move forward? Are you stuck in a toxic life pattern that you don't like? Life is full of challenges that can leave you feeling anxious, stressed and even afraid. Recognizing that we are in a tough spot and reaching out for the right help is the first step to navigating these delicate situations more effectively. We will uncover the root to your problems and release you from toxic patterns and help you make the right underlying changes to restructure and change the course of your life, transforming it to one that is more gratifying.
Internet Addiction
(386) 465-4205
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$80 Per Session
Internet Addiction
Are you coping with an infidelity in your relationship or marriage and cant move forward? Are you stuck in a toxic life pattern that you don't like? Life is full of challenges that can leave you feeling anxious, stressed and even afraid. Recognizing that we are in a tough spot and reaching out for the right help is the first step to navigating these delicate situations more effectively. We will uncover the root to your problems and release you from toxic patterns and help you make the right underlying changes to restructure and change the course of your life, transforming it to one that is more gratifying.
Lauren Roberts
Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern, MA Verified
Offers online therapy
$80
Lauren truly enjoys working with adults, couples, and children ages two and older, along with providing parental support through a love and logic approach. Lauren enjoys working with a variety of issues ranging from Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), Adjustment Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Depression and Couple’s Counseling.
Internet Addiction
(727) 732-4549
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$80 Per Session
Internet Addiction
Lauren truly enjoys working with adults, couples, and children ages two and older, along with providing parental support through a love and logic approach. Lauren enjoys working with a variety of issues ranging from Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), Adjustment Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Depression and Couple’s Counseling.
The Holistic Mental Health Clinic
Counselor, LMHC Verified
Offers online therapy
$125
At the Holistic Mental Health Clinic we specialize in natural treatments for mental health. Along with traditional psychotherapy we provide natural evidenced based treatments such as EMDR, clinical hypnotherapy and the Amen Clinics Method of understanding how your brain uniquely works. Specializations include depression, anxiety, substance abuse, ADHD and behavioral issues for children, individual and couples. This is the time it helps to speak with someone who can help you experience your life, your children and relationships from a new perspective. With this far more targeted treatment there is hope.
Internet Addiction
(727) 800-4928
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$125 Per Session
Internet Addiction
At the Holistic Mental Health Clinic we specialize in natural treatments for mental health. Along with traditional psychotherapy we provide natural evidenced based treatments such as EMDR, clinical hypnotherapy and the Amen Clinics Method of understanding how your brain uniquely works. Specializations include depression, anxiety, substance abuse, ADHD and behavioral issues for children, individual and couples. This is the time it helps to speak with someone who can help you experience your life, your children and relationships from a new perspective. With this far more targeted treatment there is hope.
Elyce Kiperman-Gordon
Counselor, MS, LMHC, NCC Verified
Offers online therapy
$175
If you worry, tense up, feel stressed, or have trouble sleeping, you are not alone. According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, 4 in 10 adults nationwide have reported symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorder as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting economic crisis. I am Nationally Board-Certified to assist clients in addressing and managing their mental health and the impact of Coronavirus pandemic-related depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, self-sabotage, perfection, & trauma/PTSD. I can also assist you in learning how to take back control of your personal and professional life.
Internet Addiction
(561) 562-4607
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$175 Per Session
Internet Addiction
If you worry, tense up, feel stressed, or have trouble sleeping, you are not alone. According to the Kaiser Family Foundation, 4 in 10 adults nationwide have reported symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorder as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and resulting economic crisis. I am Nationally Board-Certified to assist clients in addressing and managing their mental health and the impact of Coronavirus pandemic-related depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, self-sabotage, perfection, & trauma/PTSD. I can also assist you in learning how to take back control of your personal and professional life.
Healthy Sex Consultants, Southwest FL
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CSAT Verified
Offers online therapy
$185
Expertise matters! Work with a Certified Sex Addiction Therapist (CSAT) to heal from sex/porn addiction. Sex/porn addiction is a clinical disorder which has ruined countless lives and families but responds to effective treatment. If you are struggling with sex/porn addiction, you know how debilitating it can be--shame, self-loathing, unable to stop your problematic behaviors and facing consequences like loss of relationship, job, health, and integrity. If you are the partner of a sex/porn addict, you may be wondering where to turn, bewildered and betrayed by the one you love. Good news: you do not have to continue suffering.
Internet Addiction
(833) 604-1778
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$185 Per Session
Internet Addiction
Expertise matters! Work with a Certified Sex Addiction Therapist (CSAT) to heal from sex/porn addiction. Sex/porn addiction is a clinical disorder which has ruined countless lives and families but responds to effective treatment. If you are struggling with sex/porn addiction, you know how debilitating it can be--shame, self-loathing, unable to stop your problematic behaviors and facing consequences like loss of relationship, job, health, and integrity. If you are the partner of a sex/porn addict, you may be wondering where to turn, bewildered and betrayed by the one you love. Good news: you do not have to continue suffering.
Robyn J. Berman
Counselor, LMHC, CAP, IGCG, RMT Verified
Offers online therapy
$180
Together we will explore limiting beliefs and messages that you hold deep inside as a result of your trauma (BigT or little t). Untreated it contributes to anxiety, substance abuse, depression, and/or codependency. This results in a repetitious pattern of self – sabotage. In fact, we can become addicted to the drama &chaos. A true source of unhappiness. Leaving you feeling stuck. I utilize modalities that actually move stuck energy. EMDR can reset negative core beliefs with a more adaptive positive belief using rapid eye movements & reprocessing disturbing events. You don’t even have to talk about them to have it be effective.
Internet Addiction
(561) 609-0616
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$180 Per Session
Internet Addiction
Together we will explore limiting beliefs and messages that you hold deep inside as a result of your trauma (BigT or little t). Untreated it contributes to anxiety, substance abuse, depression, and/or codependency. This results in a repetitious pattern of self – sabotage. In fact, we can become addicted to the drama &chaos. A true source of unhappiness. Leaving you feeling stuck. I utilize modalities that actually move stuck energy. EMDR can reset negative core beliefs with a more adaptive positive belief using rapid eye movements & reprocessing disturbing events. You don’t even have to talk about them to have it be effective.
The Psychology Group Fort Lauderdale
Psychologist, PsyD Verified
Offers online therapy
$175
We’re Here For The Small Things And The Big Things. Want to talk to someone but don’t know where to start? Don’t worry, we’ll guide you through the process of starting therapy. Call us for a free therapy orientation and action plan from one of our psychologists or therapists. Perhaps now more than ever before, we need to care for our most precious asset, our mental health. Through therapy, you'll learn the skills & strategies to manage stress more effectively, elevate your mood, and improve relationships. Choose to attend appointments either in-person or through secure video conferencing. We look forward to hearing from you!
Internet Addiction
(754) 260-1053
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$175 Per Session
Internet Addiction
We’re Here For The Small Things And The Big Things. Want to talk to someone but don’t know where to start? Don’t worry, we’ll guide you through the process of starting therapy. Call us for a free therapy orientation and action plan from one of our psychologists or therapists. Perhaps now more than ever before, we need to care for our most precious asset, our mental health. Through therapy, you'll learn the skills & strategies to manage stress more effectively, elevate your mood, and improve relationships. Choose to attend appointments either in-person or through secure video conferencing. We look forward to hearing from you!
Everyone's Counseling Center, Inc.
Licensed Professional Counselor, LMHC, LMFT, LCSW, MD, ARNP
Offers online therapy
$150
Everyone's Counseling Center (ECC); A not-for-profit private practice: Our mission: To provide the highest quality of mental health guidance to individuals, couples & families, older adults & families, for grief and bereavement, crisis intervention, cultural adjustment, addictions, career & vocational testing, . Our therapists are all employees of ECC & committed spiritually by Faith & professionally licensed or in the process of licensure in the State of Florida. Therapy is provided to you regardless of creed, sexuality, ethnicity, or religious background. Our goal is to guide you and/or your family through the process of healing.
Internet Addiction
(407) 910-1223
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$150 Per Session
Internet Addiction
Everyone's Counseling Center (ECC); A not-for-profit private practice: Our mission: To provide the highest quality of mental health guidance to individuals, couples & families, older adults & families, for grief and bereavement, crisis intervention, cultural adjustment, addictions, career & vocational testing, . Our therapists are all employees of ECC & committed spiritually by Faith & professionally licensed or in the process of licensure in the State of Florida. Therapy is provided to you regardless of creed, sexuality, ethnicity, or religious background. Our goal is to guide you and/or your family through the process of healing.
Ronald L Bergman
Psychologist, PhD, ABPP, FAACP Verified
Offers online therapy
$235
I have been a practicing clinical psychologist for over forty-five years. During that time I have treated an extremely wide variety of clients in the broadest possible array of clinical contexts. Although I am very comfortable in almost any clinical situation, at this stage of my career I tend to spend most of my time with adults of all ages having a wide variety of issues. Most particularly I work with those struggling with addictions ( both classic and process), anxiety, depression, marital and other relationship difficulties, chronic emotional and behavioral problems, and issues attendant to stage of life transitions.
Internet Addiction
(305) 501-4457
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$235 Per Session
Internet Addiction
I have been a practicing clinical psychologist for over forty-five years. During that time I have treated an extremely wide variety of clients in the broadest possible array of clinical contexts. Although I am very comfortable in almost any clinical situation, at this stage of my career I tend to spend most of my time with adults of all ages having a wide variety of issues. Most particularly I work with those struggling with addictions ( both classic and process), anxiety, depression, marital and other relationship difficulties, chronic emotional and behavioral problems, and issues attendant to stage of life transitions.
Neli L Lesser
Registered Mental Health Counselor Intern, MS Verified
Offers online therapy
$100
In a healing environment I work to help create self growth and awareness to help the individual achieve the goals that are important to them. I am committed to providing the best treatment possible focusing on solutions to help achieve self- fulfillment. My goal is to provide a safe space where, together, we can raise awareness of thoughts, feelings, experiences, behaviors, and/or relationships. I offer day and evening appointments. I have experience working with adolescents, adults, and families in different settings, including residential treatment, outpatient facilities and schools.
Internet Addiction
(786) 751-6839
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$100 Per Session
Internet Addiction
In a healing environment I work to help create self growth and awareness to help the individual achieve the goals that are important to them. I am committed to providing the best treatment possible focusing on solutions to help achieve self- fulfillment. My goal is to provide a safe space where, together, we can raise awareness of thoughts, feelings, experiences, behaviors, and/or relationships. I offer day and evening appointments. I have experience working with adolescents, adults, and families in different settings, including residential treatment, outpatient facilities and schools.
Cali Estes
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, PhD, MCAP, ICADC, MAC, MNLP Verified
Offers online therapy
$250
Ready to UnPause Your life and find the best version of yourself? We can help you get to the root cause of everything that holds you back and help you become the BEST version of yourself. Whether you self-soothe with drugs, alcohol, sex, shopping, food, have stress and anxiety or crave personal development, we work together as a team to get to the root cause of the issues and stressors you are experiencing and begin removing them and learning ways to have a more productive, positive life. I can blend therapy and life coaching with a 100% confidential service, phone, skype, or in person. Call Today to get started on your new life.
Internet Addiction
(786) 651-3113
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$250 Per Session
Internet Addiction
Ready to UnPause Your life and find the best version of yourself? We can help you get to the root cause of everything that holds you back and help you become the BEST version of yourself. Whether you self-soothe with drugs, alcohol, sex, shopping, food, have stress and anxiety or crave personal development, we work together as a team to get to the root cause of the issues and stressors you are experiencing and begin removing them and learning ways to have a more productive, positive life. I can blend therapy and life coaching with a 100% confidential service, phone, skype, or in person. Call Today to get started on your new life.
At Reflections, we love helping people to find peace and joy again, and to experience their personal, family, and financial dreams coming true as well. We help our clients to deal with problematic thoughts and behaviors and life stress in general also. We work from a Christian framework and we "dig" only as deeply as needed to correct the problem(s). Our coaches specifically focus on meeting your goals for a promising future! In addition to our in-person work, we also offer online courses that individuals can take in the privacy of their own home!
Internet Addiction
(941) 254-2624
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$120 Per Session
Internet Addiction
At Reflections, we love helping people to find peace and joy again, and to experience their personal, family, and financial dreams coming true as well. We help our clients to deal with problematic thoughts and behaviors and life stress in general also. We work from a Christian framework and we "dig" only as deeply as needed to correct the problem(s). Our coaches specifically focus on meeting your goals for a promising future! In addition to our in-person work, we also offer online courses that individuals can take in the privacy of their own home!
Robert B Hernandez
Psychologist, PsyD, MA Verified
Offers online therapy
$225
If you are desiring to change the way you feel, behave, or perceive life, then I am ready to begin the journey of transformation with you. Through exploring what your feelings, behavior, and symptoms mean, the goal is for increased consciousness, making concrete decisions, and taking steps that will create change in your life. My years of experience and expertise have been helpful in assisting others like yourself deal with changing what no longer feels good, or is working for you. Call now for a complimentary 15 minute phone call to see if we will work well together.
Internet Addiction
(786) 565-4038
Verified
View Profile
Offers online therapy
$225 Per Session
Internet Addiction
If you are desiring to change the way you feel, behave, or perceive life, then I am ready to begin the journey of transformation with you. Through exploring what your feelings, behavior, and symptoms mean, the goal is for increased consciousness, making concrete decisions, and taking steps that will create change in your life. My years of experience and expertise have been helpful in assisting others like yourself deal with changing what no longer feels good, or is working for you. Call now for a complimentary 15 minute phone call to see if we will work well together.

Teletherapy
Teletherapy and Online counseling have grown enormously as a medium for therapy since the advent of social distancing. Most therapists are happy to provide sessions by video or phone.

All professionals are licensed to provide video therapy to clients within the State in which they hold their license. Cross State licensing exists, but is rare.

So if you're a client in Florida, this list of teletherapists are licensed to provide therapy to you online (by phone, video or text based chat) because they are within your state. They are sorted nearest to furthest, with professionals in Florida listed first.

Teletherapy via phone or video can be very similar to conventional in person sessions. The message is the same, even if the medium is different. There are some advantages in the form of convenience, lack of travel and being in comfort of your own home. Set against those, professionals find it more difficult to read non-verbal signals of their clients, and you may find you yourself can be more easily distracted.


All Florida Therapists by Name: A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z