Therapists in Wood County, OH

View cities in Wood County
Photo of Shannan Watson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Wood County, OH
Shannan Watson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW
Verified Verified
Portage, OH 43451  (Online Only)
Do you feel overwhelmed by the stress of your job, family, and social obligations? Like you are trying to make everyone else happy - solve all of their problems, but never have anyone to discuss your problems with? I can help. As a busy, career driven mom, wife, daughter and sister, I know the stress of every day life, when you are prioritizing everyone else, always being the one that everyone comes to for help, and then one day you realize that you are losing who YOU are, that you are not enjoying life anymore, almost just going through the motions. I help people who deal with the same issues I do - - namely anxiety and depression.
Do you feel overwhelmed by the stress of your job, family, and social obligations? Like you are trying to make everyone else happy - solve all of their problems, but never have anyone to discuss your problems with? I can help. As a busy, career driven mom, wife, daughter and sister, I know the stress of every day life, when you are prioritizing everyone else, always being the one that everyone comes to for help, and then one day you realize that you are losing who YOU are, that you are not enjoying life anymore, almost just going through the motions. I help people who deal with the same issues I do - - namely anxiety and depression.
(419) 827-3953 View (419) 827-3953
Photo of Ellen J Anderson, Counselor in Wood County, OH
Ellen J Anderson
Counselor, PhD, LPCC-S
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Perrysburg, OH 43551
I see many people who feel their lives are out of control. I know that they have been deeply wounded and need gentle treatment. I'm ready to help you through the battlefield of trauma, frightening experiences, broken trust, and self-loathing that have altered how you view the world, how you approach other people, and how you feel about yourself. Healing is hard work, but is well worth the struggle. However, you should not have to do it alone. Take the first step and seek help, from someone. It shouldn't have to be this hard. Please call our office at 419-874-3201 to find out if we can help you.
I see many people who feel their lives are out of control. I know that they have been deeply wounded and need gentle treatment. I'm ready to help you through the battlefield of trauma, frightening experiences, broken trust, and self-loathing that have altered how you view the world, how you approach other people, and how you feel about yourself. Healing is hard work, but is well worth the struggle. However, you should not have to do it alone. Take the first step and seek help, from someone. It shouldn't have to be this hard. Please call our office at 419-874-3201 to find out if we can help you.
(419) 318-0831 View (419) 318-0831
Photo of Robert Shear, Licensed Social Worker in Wood County, OH
Robert Shear
Licensed Social Worker, MSW, LSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Perrysburg, OH 43551
Every year, over 40 million American adults seek mental health care. Just as one may seek medical care for physical struggles, mental health treatment is waiting for those who experience mental or emotional hardships. Therapy can benefit a wide range of individuals, from those surrounded by depression and anxiety, past traumas, and life transitions, to those needing someone to talk to.
Every year, over 40 million American adults seek mental health care. Just as one may seek medical care for physical struggles, mental health treatment is waiting for those who experience mental or emotional hardships. Therapy can benefit a wide range of individuals, from those surrounded by depression and anxiety, past traumas, and life transitions, to those needing someone to talk to.
(419) 495-6196 View (419) 495-6196
Photo of Dr. Derek J. Lee, Counselor in Wood County, OH
Dr. Derek J. Lee
Counselor, PhD, CRC, LPCC-S, DBTC
Verified Verified
Perrysburg, OH 43551
My specialty is working with children and teens striving to manage a variety of issues in the areas of anxiety and depression. I also have a full staff at Perrysburg Counseling offering decades of experience with a variety of issues and populations. Issues include anxiety and depression, self-esteem, trauma, behavioral issues, grief and loss and self-harm and suicide. We work with populations that include children, teens, adults, the LGBTQ+ community, and couples. Our goal is to help you learn how to manage these challenges, overcome obstacles, and be successful in anything you choose to do.
My specialty is working with children and teens striving to manage a variety of issues in the areas of anxiety and depression. I also have a full staff at Perrysburg Counseling offering decades of experience with a variety of issues and populations. Issues include anxiety and depression, self-esteem, trauma, behavioral issues, grief and loss and self-harm and suicide. We work with populations that include children, teens, adults, the LGBTQ+ community, and couples. Our goal is to help you learn how to manage these challenges, overcome obstacles, and be successful in anything you choose to do.
(419) 318-1435 x501 View (419) 318-1435 x501
Photo of Debora Van Romer, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in Wood County, OH
Debora Van Romer
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Perrysburg, OH 43551  (Online Only)
Are you struggling to navigate through your life's past or current traumas which may include sexual or physical abuse? Do you need help coping with life transitions? Is your marriage or close relationships strained and in need of tools to help move forward and heal? Is anxiety or depression crippling you? I am here to provide a safe, confidential, and non-judgmental space for you to process and navigate these situations/issues.
Are you struggling to navigate through your life's past or current traumas which may include sexual or physical abuse? Do you need help coping with life transitions? Is your marriage or close relationships strained and in need of tools to help move forward and heal? Is anxiety or depression crippling you? I am here to provide a safe, confidential, and non-judgmental space for you to process and navigate these situations/issues.
(419) 845-5985 View (419) 845-5985
Photo of Terrance Tufts, Counselor in Wood County, OH
Terrance Tufts
Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Perrysburg, OH 43551
I have served those with Anxiety, Depression, Bipolar, Schizophrenia, Family Issues, etc. My ideal client is motivated to roll up their sleeves and engage in the therapeutic process. They have an open mind and can practice effective coping skills to improve their overall functioning and quality of life. They can challenge themselves to be vulnerable and practice accountability while processing their problematic thinking patterns and behaviors in a safe and non-judgmental environment. They wish to engage in therapy because they realize that they need to make a change and are willing to take a leap of faith to make it happen.
I have served those with Anxiety, Depression, Bipolar, Schizophrenia, Family Issues, etc. My ideal client is motivated to roll up their sleeves and engage in the therapeutic process. They have an open mind and can practice effective coping skills to improve their overall functioning and quality of life. They can challenge themselves to be vulnerable and practice accountability while processing their problematic thinking patterns and behaviors in a safe and non-judgmental environment. They wish to engage in therapy because they realize that they need to make a change and are willing to take a leap of faith to make it happen.
(614) 964-5474 View (614) 964-5474
Photo of Shannon L Dillon, Counselor in Wood County, OH
Shannon L Dillon
Counselor, LPCC-S, LICDC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Perrysburg, OH 43551
Going to therapy is a huge investment of time and money and you want to make sure you get the most out of it. In my nearly 20 years of experience, I have been trained in EMDR, DBT, Gottman Level 2, Ego States, and a variety of other modalities. I dress casually, speak plainly, and connect well with people. I hope to hear from you.
Going to therapy is a huge investment of time and money and you want to make sure you get the most out of it. In my nearly 20 years of experience, I have been trained in EMDR, DBT, Gottman Level 2, Ego States, and a variety of other modalities. I dress casually, speak plainly, and connect well with people. I hope to hear from you.
(419) 601-6921 View (419) 601-6921
Photo of Ava Donnersbach, Licensed Professional Counselor in Wood County, OH
Ava Donnersbach
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Perrysburg, OH 43551
Hello! My name is Ava Donnersbach (she/her/hers). I am committed to helping youth (age seven and up), college students, and young to middle-aged adults using collaboration, strengths, and genuine empathy. For youth, I work conjointly with parents/guardians to ensure a well-rounded service that meets your child’s needs. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with a master’s degree in clinical mental health counseling from Bowling Green State University. I can assist you with a variety of social, emotional, and/or behavioral needs including anxiety, depression, self-harm, adjustment challenges, stress, grief, ADHD, and more.
Hello! My name is Ava Donnersbach (she/her/hers). I am committed to helping youth (age seven and up), college students, and young to middle-aged adults using collaboration, strengths, and genuine empathy. For youth, I work conjointly with parents/guardians to ensure a well-rounded service that meets your child’s needs. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with a master’s degree in clinical mental health counseling from Bowling Green State University. I can assist you with a variety of social, emotional, and/or behavioral needs including anxiety, depression, self-harm, adjustment challenges, stress, grief, ADHD, and more.
(419) 664-6670 View (419) 664-6670
Photo of Joy Herrera, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Wood County, OH
Joy Herrera
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Perrysburg, OH 43551
Accepting New Clients! You want your life to be different. You’d love to be able to relax and just be present, but this restlessness inside your mind and body won’t allow you. You’ve attempted to “let it go” or “forgive and forget” the past. You’ve tried LOTS of coping mechanisms: journaling, deep breathing, prayer, meditation, self-help books, talk therapy. You know yourself well, and you know how to cope. But you don’t just want to cope through life or talk about what happened; you want to experience change!
Accepting New Clients! You want your life to be different. You’d love to be able to relax and just be present, but this restlessness inside your mind and body won’t allow you. You’ve attempted to “let it go” or “forgive and forget” the past. You’ve tried LOTS of coping mechanisms: journaling, deep breathing, prayer, meditation, self-help books, talk therapy. You know yourself well, and you know how to cope. But you don’t just want to cope through life or talk about what happened; you want to experience change!
(419) 406-4376 View (419) 406-4376
Photo of Amy Marie Wozny, Counselor in Wood County, OH
Amy Marie Wozny
Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Perrysburg, OH 43551
I believe sometimes we get to a place where we feel stuck, frustrated, or hopeless and need someone to support and assist us without judgment. My purpose is to provide a safe, compassionate space in which you can safely explore and fully understand your current struggles, gain insight and self-awareness, and help build a strong foundation in order to move toward a more balanced, healthy, and peaceful life. There are many parts that make up the whole you, which I believe we can begin to explore and develop together.
I believe sometimes we get to a place where we feel stuck, frustrated, or hopeless and need someone to support and assist us without judgment. My purpose is to provide a safe, compassionate space in which you can safely explore and fully understand your current struggles, gain insight and self-awareness, and help build a strong foundation in order to move toward a more balanced, healthy, and peaceful life. There are many parts that make up the whole you, which I believe we can begin to explore and develop together.
(419) 469-6663 View (419) 469-6663
Photo of Jd Reisinger, Licensed Professional Counselor in Wood County, OH
Jd Reisinger
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Perrysburg, OH 43551
I speak the language of therapy and healing in a way that is relatable and useful for men and boys. If you're struggling with using the same skills and strategies to respond to life, I can help you find new skills to create better results in your life, work, and relationships.
I speak the language of therapy and healing in a way that is relatable and useful for men and boys. If you're struggling with using the same skills and strategies to respond to life, I can help you find new skills to create better results in your life, work, and relationships.
(419) 452-4714 View (419) 452-4714
Photo of Hailey Nicole Thanasiu, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Wood County, OH
Hailey Nicole Thanasiu
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, BSW, LSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bowling Green, OH 43402
Being a child and adolescent can be a tough, and confusing time. So many complex emotions that are difficult to understand or identify. Feelings of anger, sadness, or fear are all normal, but sometimes your child may need extra help with what to do with those feelings. The struggles of daily life, a bully at school, change in living situation or a divorce can all make it even more difficult to navigate these feelings and emotions. Maybe your child is struggling to focus in the classroom, has trouble getting along with peers, stays up late worrying before bed, or cannot sit still in the classroom.
Being a child and adolescent can be a tough, and confusing time. So many complex emotions that are difficult to understand or identify. Feelings of anger, sadness, or fear are all normal, but sometimes your child may need extra help with what to do with those feelings. The struggles of daily life, a bully at school, change in living situation or a divorce can all make it even more difficult to navigate these feelings and emotions. Maybe your child is struggling to focus in the classroom, has trouble getting along with peers, stays up late worrying before bed, or cannot sit still in the classroom.
(567) 246-7386 View (567) 246-7386
Photo of Shelley Horine, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in Wood County, OH
Shelley Horine
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
Perrysburg, OH 43551
I have a variety of experience in my background, but my primary focus is working with adults specifically dealing with anxiety, depression, self-harm, suicidal thoughts, trauma, and managing relationships. From a theoretical standpoint I integrate a variety of treatment approaches to best meet the unique needs of each client.
I have a variety of experience in my background, but my primary focus is working with adults specifically dealing with anxiety, depression, self-harm, suicidal thoughts, trauma, and managing relationships. From a theoretical standpoint I integrate a variety of treatment approaches to best meet the unique needs of each client.
(567) 368-7406 View (567) 368-7406
Photo of Valerie Liebert, Counselor in Wood County, OH
Valerie Liebert
Counselor, MA, LPCC-S
Verified Verified
Perrysburg, OH 43551
I entered this field and have remained in it for over 30 years because I am passionate about helping people to live better lives. I can assist you if are dealing with a mental illness, or if you desire coaching to reach your full potential. If you have had enough of your life as it is, and are ready to make significant changes, I can help you! You deserve a life of peace and hope.
I entered this field and have remained in it for over 30 years because I am passionate about helping people to live better lives. I can assist you if are dealing with a mental illness, or if you desire coaching to reach your full potential. If you have had enough of your life as it is, and are ready to make significant changes, I can help you! You deserve a life of peace and hope.
(567) 380-4336 View (567) 380-4336
Photo of Deana J Couch, Counselor in Wood County, OH
Deana J Couch
Counselor, MRC, CRC, LPCC-S
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bowling Green, OH 43402  (Online Only)
I hold a CRC and LPCC-S with a double masters from Bowling Green State University in Rehabilitation Counseling and Mental Health Counseling. I have over 15 years in the mental health field, and I am an independent Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor - LPCC-S and a Certified Rehabilitation Counselor -CRC. I am licensed in Ohio and Michigan and see individuals via teletherapy platform and offer flexible scheduling hours that work with your life, career and family time. I specialize in Trauma Therapy using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and CBT-TR ( Cognitive Behavior Therapy-Trauma Focused) therapy.
I hold a CRC and LPCC-S with a double masters from Bowling Green State University in Rehabilitation Counseling and Mental Health Counseling. I have over 15 years in the mental health field, and I am an independent Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor - LPCC-S and a Certified Rehabilitation Counselor -CRC. I am licensed in Ohio and Michigan and see individuals via teletherapy platform and offer flexible scheduling hours that work with your life, career and family time. I specialize in Trauma Therapy using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and CBT-TR ( Cognitive Behavior Therapy-Trauma Focused) therapy.
(419) 664-4487 View (419) 664-4487
Photo of Alex Carter, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Wood County, OH
Alex Carter
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Perrysburg, OH 43551  (Online Only)
Congrats on taking a step towards positive and lasting change! We all deserve to experience that feeling of peace, comfort, and a purpose that lasts! It IS possible to have meaningful and thriving relationships. Working with adults and adolescents for nearly a decade, the clients I work with have admittedly benefitted from my warm, motivational, and genuine approach. I am not a therapist who wants to just smile and nod and tell you what you WANT to hear. I will always listen but apart of the change process will involve us discussing what you NEED to hear in an unconditional way that uplifts and enhances your overall well-being.
Congrats on taking a step towards positive and lasting change! We all deserve to experience that feeling of peace, comfort, and a purpose that lasts! It IS possible to have meaningful and thriving relationships. Working with adults and adolescents for nearly a decade, the clients I work with have admittedly benefitted from my warm, motivational, and genuine approach. I am not a therapist who wants to just smile and nod and tell you what you WANT to hear. I will always listen but apart of the change process will involve us discussing what you NEED to hear in an unconditional way that uplifts and enhances your overall well-being.
(419) 792-3858 View (419) 792-3858
Photo of Lee Ring, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Wood County, OH
Lee Ring
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Bowling Green, OH 43402
Not accepting new clients
“People start to heal the moment they feel heard” - Cheryl Richardson - I think many of us have felt unheard at one point or another. As a social worker and therapist, my goal is to hold space for my clients and truly hear what they have to say, whether that is verbally or through art, music, or play. I believe in treating the health of a whole person — mind, body, and spirit — as one does not exist without the others. I work collaboratively with the client to determine the best roadmap for their therapy.
“People start to heal the moment they feel heard” - Cheryl Richardson - I think many of us have felt unheard at one point or another. As a social worker and therapist, my goal is to hold space for my clients and truly hear what they have to say, whether that is verbally or through art, music, or play. I believe in treating the health of a whole person — mind, body, and spirit — as one does not exist without the others. I work collaboratively with the client to determine the best roadmap for their therapy.
(419) 904-4153 View (419) 904-4153
Photo of Joshua Stanley, Licensed Professional Counselor in Wood County, OH
Joshua Stanley
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Perrysburg, OH 43551
My ideal client is an individual who is open to working as a team and benefiting from a therapeutic relationship in which honesty, accountability, and empathy are paramount. While a client’s concerns are unique and personal, there is nothing they cannot overcome through effective therapeutic interventions and a highly-trained and relatable clinician.
My ideal client is an individual who is open to working as a team and benefiting from a therapeutic relationship in which honesty, accountability, and empathy are paramount. While a client’s concerns are unique and personal, there is nothing they cannot overcome through effective therapeutic interventions and a highly-trained and relatable clinician.
(419) 370-3760 View (419) 370-3760
Photo of Mighty Oak Christian Counseling, Counselor in Wood County, OH
Mighty Oak Christian Counseling
Counselor, MA, LPCC-S, Owner
Verified Verified
Bowling Green, OH 43402
Life is hard. Relationships can be challenging. If you are looking for a safe and hope-filled place to talk and work through hard things, consider Mighty Oak. We have eight licensed mental health professionals ready to help you achieve your treatment goals. If you need a place to vent, or just an objective sounding board, consider Mighty Oak. I have a client centered practice that specializes in helping adults, adolescents and kids find strength, wisdom, courage, and comfort to thrive in spite of life's challenges.
Life is hard. Relationships can be challenging. If you are looking for a safe and hope-filled place to talk and work through hard things, consider Mighty Oak. We have eight licensed mental health professionals ready to help you achieve your treatment goals. If you need a place to vent, or just an objective sounding board, consider Mighty Oak. I have a client centered practice that specializes in helping adults, adolescents and kids find strength, wisdom, courage, and comfort to thrive in spite of life's challenges.
(419) 299-4960 View (419) 299-4960
Photo of Nannette Fader, Marriage & Family Therapist in Wood County, OH
Nannette Fader
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, IMFT, LICDC
Verified Verified
Perrysburg, OH 43551
Waitlist for new clients
**Accepting Most Insurance** Therapy can be an amazing experience that leads to strengthened relationships and personal growth. It can be difficult, but rewarding to take the first step toward making change. I offer guidance to individuals, couples, and families dealing with issues that affect their well-being. Whether you are taking steps toward recovery, managing a stressful work environment, coping with anxiety or depression, managing your personal relationship, or just feeling overwhelmed, I can help. I will be here to facilitate the process of helping you get from where you are to where you want to be.
**Accepting Most Insurance** Therapy can be an amazing experience that leads to strengthened relationships and personal growth. It can be difficult, but rewarding to take the first step toward making change. I offer guidance to individuals, couples, and families dealing with issues that affect their well-being. Whether you are taking steps toward recovery, managing a stressful work environment, coping with anxiety or depression, managing your personal relationship, or just feeling overwhelmed, I can help. I will be here to facilitate the process of helping you get from where you are to where you want to be.
(419) 556-6867 View (419) 556-6867

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Wood County, OH

200+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Wood County, OH who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
89% Depression
75% Self Esteem
73% Trauma and PTSD
69% Relationship Issues
69% Stress
67% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

79% Medical Mutual
75% Aetna
70% Paramount

How Therapists in Wood County, OH see their clients

84% In Person and Online
16% Online Only

Gender breakdown

83% Female
15% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Wood County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.