Therapists in Richfield, OH

Photo of Vladimir Mordashov, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Vladimir Mordashov
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor who specializes in trauma, anxiety, and depression with a trauma focused therapy certification. Rather than simply managing the symptoms, the therapy aims to solve the core causes that are often carried for many years. Due to this, most of my clients frequently see significant improvement within 3 to 6 sessions. As a trauma informed counselor, I do not ask my clients to share the details and re-experience their wounds.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor who specializes in trauma, anxiety, and depression with a trauma focused therapy certification. Rather than simply managing the symptoms, the therapy aims to solve the core causes that are often carried for many years. Due to this, most of my clients frequently see significant improvement within 3 to 6 sessions. As a trauma informed counselor, I do not ask my clients to share the details and re-experience their wounds.
(234) 742-4185 View (234) 742-4185
Photo of Esam Joshua Pietras, LPC, STS, PMP, Licensed Professional Counselor
Esam Joshua Pietras
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, STS, PMP
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor who treats a wide range of issues and has an expertise in: marital therapy, trauma, anxiety/depression, social anxiety, phobias, personality disorders and Christian counseling. I am trained as a Cognitive Behavioral Therapist as well as in EMDR with a focus on Trauma. Your treatment plan will be tailored to fit your individual needs while working in a non-judgemental empethetic setting where you will be encouraged and given the knowledge to heal. We also offer a social anxiety support group free to adults on Sat Mornings 8am-9am.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor who treats a wide range of issues and has an expertise in: marital therapy, trauma, anxiety/depression, social anxiety, phobias, personality disorders and Christian counseling. I am trained as a Cognitive Behavioral Therapist as well as in EMDR with a focus on Trauma. Your treatment plan will be tailored to fit your individual needs while working in a non-judgemental empethetic setting where you will be encouraged and given the knowledge to heal. We also offer a social anxiety support group free to adults on Sat Mornings 8am-9am.
(234) 222-4030 View (234) 222-4030
Photo of Angie McClenahan, LISW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Angie McClenahan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
Do you feel like your worry is taking over? Do you tend to think about everything? Does this sometimes lead you to spend inordinate amounts of time researching only to find yourself paralyzed by indecision or so exhausted you don't have the energy to implement what you learned. I help people manage anxiety because if it has a chance, it will take over! Relationships, kids, work, life can feel like too much even for the healthiest among us. You can find relief, you can get back to a place that feels more free.
Do you feel like your worry is taking over? Do you tend to think about everything? Does this sometimes lead you to spend inordinate amounts of time researching only to find yourself paralyzed by indecision or so exhausted you don't have the energy to implement what you learned. I help people manage anxiety because if it has a chance, it will take over! Relationships, kids, work, life can feel like too much even for the healthiest among us. You can find relief, you can get back to a place that feels more free.
(330) 946-5863 View (330) 946-5863
Photo of Patricia Shumay, LPC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Patricia Shumay
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor who treats a wide variety of issues and life changes, but I specialize in depression, anxiety, cutting, teens, couples and family therapy. I treat individuals ages 6 and older through Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, and Solution-Focused Therapy. I offer therapy tailored to fit your particular needs in a welcoming environment where you will be heard and encouraged while you heal. Therapy is centered around you, the individual, couple or family, at your pace and comfort level.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor who treats a wide variety of issues and life changes, but I specialize in depression, anxiety, cutting, teens, couples and family therapy. I treat individuals ages 6 and older through Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, and Solution-Focused Therapy. I offer therapy tailored to fit your particular needs in a welcoming environment where you will be heard and encouraged while you heal. Therapy is centered around you, the individual, couple or family, at your pace and comfort level.
(216) 455-5292 View (216) 455-5292
Photo of Matthew Jay McClenahan, LISW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Matthew Jay McClenahan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
Do you often feel unheard, under-appreciated, and misunderstood in your relationship? Are you and your partner having difficulty communicating, and you feel more like roommates than partners. Maybe you or your partner are dealing with depression or anxiety, and this impacts your relationship and satisfaction with life. If you find conversations with your partner don’t go as planned and would like a professional voice & guide – I’d be glad to serve & support you. Together we will develop communication skills and habits that bring relational closeness and contentment.
Do you often feel unheard, under-appreciated, and misunderstood in your relationship? Are you and your partner having difficulty communicating, and you feel more like roommates than partners. Maybe you or your partner are dealing with depression or anxiety, and this impacts your relationship and satisfaction with life. If you find conversations with your partner don’t go as planned and would like a professional voice & guide – I’d be glad to serve & support you. Together we will develop communication skills and habits that bring relational closeness and contentment.
(234) 204-3430 View (234) 204-3430
Photo of Melissa Seeley, LISW, SAP, CFRC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Melissa Seeley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW, SAP, CFRC
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
Many people come to a counselor not knowing what to expect. The hardest part about coming to counseling is being willing to open up to an outside person about your most significant struggles and stressors in life. Opening up to a counselor means getting unbiased support and feedback to empower you to make the best decisions for yourself and/or your family. I aim to foster your healing, grow your self-confidence, and improve your self-image.
Many people come to a counselor not knowing what to expect. The hardest part about coming to counseling is being willing to open up to an outside person about your most significant struggles and stressors in life. Opening up to a counselor means getting unbiased support and feedback to empower you to make the best decisions for yourself and/or your family. I aim to foster your healing, grow your self-confidence, and improve your self-image.
(440) 379-8361 View (440) 379-8361
Photo of Dr. Elizabeth Hritz, PhD, MA, Psychologist
Dr. Elizabeth Hritz
Psychologist, PhD, MA
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286  (Online Only)
I help clients reach the goals they value. Whether it's improving nutrition and self-care, quitting something unhealthy, or enjoying that new hobby or accomplishment, we can get going on feeling better. Together, we can better understand what roadblocks or patterns slowed progress. We might need to adjust expectations, set boundaries, or learn new strategies. Clients have reported improvements in chronic pain, energy, weight, relationships, enjoyment of life, and peacefulness.
I help clients reach the goals they value. Whether it's improving nutrition and self-care, quitting something unhealthy, or enjoying that new hobby or accomplishment, we can get going on feeling better. Together, we can better understand what roadblocks or patterns slowed progress. We might need to adjust expectations, set boundaries, or learn new strategies. Clients have reported improvements in chronic pain, energy, weight, relationships, enjoyment of life, and peacefulness.
(330) 621-5053 View (330) 621-5053
Photo of Rosanna Gustafson, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Rosanna Gustafson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
Yes, I would welcome your call … but am I right for you? I am a mother/grandmother and a two-time cancer survivor. I believe the relationship with ourself will determine our quality of relationship with others. We have intrinsic, untapped power to change thoughts and behaviors that rob us of the joy, peace and acceptance we so very much desire. I am a LCSW with more than 15 years of experience helping others with life transitions; health concerns, career challenges, marriage, divorce, childhood trauma, PTSD, anxiety & depression. If we are a good fit, I’d love to be your coach, educator, and counselor.
Yes, I would welcome your call … but am I right for you? I am a mother/grandmother and a two-time cancer survivor. I believe the relationship with ourself will determine our quality of relationship with others. We have intrinsic, untapped power to change thoughts and behaviors that rob us of the joy, peace and acceptance we so very much desire. I am a LCSW with more than 15 years of experience helping others with life transitions; health concerns, career challenges, marriage, divorce, childhood trauma, PTSD, anxiety & depression. If we are a good fit, I’d love to be your coach, educator, and counselor.
(909) 430-1420 View (909) 430-1420
Photo of undefined - Edward T Novak, LPCC, LPCC, Counselor
Edward T Novak, LPCC
Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
I am a certified psychoanalyst and I work exclusively with individuals wanting long-term treatment to address lifelong suffering usually due to abuse or trauma. I offer both contemporary psychoanalysis and embodied psychotherapy, as appropriate, to address mind, body, and emotional issues that continue impact your current life and relationships. This approach is designed to expand treatment beyond short-lived symptom relief into transforming the actual origins of your issues, symptoms, and daily suffering. You can learn more about me and the ways I practice by visiting my website: www.edwardnovak.com
I am a certified psychoanalyst and I work exclusively with individuals wanting long-term treatment to address lifelong suffering usually due to abuse or trauma. I offer both contemporary psychoanalysis and embodied psychotherapy, as appropriate, to address mind, body, and emotional issues that continue impact your current life and relationships. This approach is designed to expand treatment beyond short-lived symptom relief into transforming the actual origins of your issues, symptoms, and daily suffering. You can learn more about me and the ways I practice by visiting my website: www.edwardnovak.com
(330) 685-9391 View (330) 685-9391
Photo of Kimberly Fuller, PhD, MSW, MEd, LISW-S, CST, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kimberly Fuller
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, MSW, MEd, LISW-S, CST
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Richfield, OH 44286
What's your story? Each person has their own unique story filled with struggle, pain, triumph,and success. I find myself lucky enough to have people share their stories with me every day. I assist people in working through difficult experiences in their past and present, and create a new story for themselves in their future. I seek to help people create better relationships with others through individual, relationship, or sex therapy. I look forward to helping you understand and re-write your story to gain better relationships. I am also trained in EMDR, which can help us get at some of the deep rooted trauma affecting you today.
What's your story? Each person has their own unique story filled with struggle, pain, triumph,and success. I find myself lucky enough to have people share their stories with me every day. I assist people in working through difficult experiences in their past and present, and create a new story for themselves in their future. I seek to help people create better relationships with others through individual, relationship, or sex therapy. I look forward to helping you understand and re-write your story to gain better relationships. I am also trained in EMDR, which can help us get at some of the deep rooted trauma affecting you today.
(216) 609-3765 View (216) 609-3765
Photo of Carolyn Erbaugh, LPCC
Carolyn Erbaugh
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
A warm welcome to all courageous seekers. Do you struggle with anxiety/social anxiety, stage of life changes, grief, low self worth, confidence, assertiveness, boundaries, identity, or relationships? I would love to help you get unstuck, to heal, and reconnect to your wisdom in these areas and more. I truly believe there is a path to finding greater mental and emotional resilience, psychological flexibility and creative ways to find peace in the body and mind. I am a down to earth, direct/dynamic, experienced, holistic provider who will help you to help yourself cope, accept what is difficult, and reduce anxiety and depression.
A warm welcome to all courageous seekers. Do you struggle with anxiety/social anxiety, stage of life changes, grief, low self worth, confidence, assertiveness, boundaries, identity, or relationships? I would love to help you get unstuck, to heal, and reconnect to your wisdom in these areas and more. I truly believe there is a path to finding greater mental and emotional resilience, psychological flexibility and creative ways to find peace in the body and mind. I am a down to earth, direct/dynamic, experienced, holistic provider who will help you to help yourself cope, accept what is difficult, and reduce anxiety and depression.
(330) 510-4900 View (330) 510-4900
Photo of Christopher Daniel Matthews, MSW, LSW
Christopher Daniel Matthews
Licensed Social Worker, MSW, LSW
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
Accepting new clients evening and Saturdays telehealth and limited in person options. As a therapist I'm not someone who tells you what you "need to do", but a collabortive partner who is invested the journey of identifying goals and overcoming the concious or unconcious barriers in getting there. I have a passion for working one on one with men, adults over 50 and Caregivers of Aging Parents. I am open to walking with you on the road of grief and lossthat life's seasons may bring. Sometimes you might feel like you just need someone to talk to and "get it". I would be honored to hold non judgemental space and to be that support.
Accepting new clients evening and Saturdays telehealth and limited in person options. As a therapist I'm not someone who tells you what you "need to do", but a collabortive partner who is invested the journey of identifying goals and overcoming the concious or unconcious barriers in getting there. I have a passion for working one on one with men, adults over 50 and Caregivers of Aging Parents. I am open to walking with you on the road of grief and lossthat life's seasons may bring. Sometimes you might feel like you just need someone to talk to and "get it". I would be honored to hold non judgemental space and to be that support.
(440) 210-2999 View (440) 210-2999
Photo of Kara Klein, PCC, Counselor
Kara Klein
Counselor, PCC
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
In my practice I develop a trusting, professional relationship with the client. Many of the issues they present with include depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, grief, feelings of being overwhelmed, unhealthy coping skills and overall life dissatisfaction. I work best with a client ready to accept responsibility to feel better.
In my practice I develop a trusting, professional relationship with the client. Many of the issues they present with include depression, anxiety, relationship conflict, grief, feelings of being overwhelmed, unhealthy coping skills and overall life dissatisfaction. I work best with a client ready to accept responsibility to feel better.
(234) 407-0893 View (234) 407-0893
Photo of Desiree Untch, LISW-S, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Desiree Untch
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW-S
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
I am a clinical social worker with a specialized focus in the treatment of OCD, anxiety, and the related disorders. As a clinician, I recognize that OCD and anxiety can often consume our thoughts and force us to avoid people, places, and things while causing us to miss out on positive life experiences.
I am a clinical social worker with a specialized focus in the treatment of OCD, anxiety, and the related disorders. As a clinician, I recognize that OCD and anxiety can often consume our thoughts and force us to avoid people, places, and things while causing us to miss out on positive life experiences.
(330) 331-6296 View (330) 331-6296
Photo of Sarah Saunders, MA, LPCC, Counselor
Sarah Saunders
Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286
Have you noticed yourself or your marriage running on autopilot? Are you feeling overwhelmed or stressed with everything on your plate? Are you feeling lost or alone? Life, parenting, marriage – it can all be challenging, and none of it comes with a roadmap. When we’re faced with life’s tough issues, we often forget to take care of ourselves. But it is possible to break out of old patterns and find a better path to happiness.
Have you noticed yourself or your marriage running on autopilot? Are you feeling overwhelmed or stressed with everything on your plate? Are you feeling lost or alone? Life, parenting, marriage – it can all be challenging, and none of it comes with a roadmap. When we’re faced with life’s tough issues, we often forget to take care of ourselves. But it is possible to break out of old patterns and find a better path to happiness.
(440) 306-3667 View (440) 306-3667
Photo of Sara Booth, LISW-S, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sara Booth
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW-S
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286  (Online Only)
Feeling stuck and overwhelmed with life? I am dedicated to helping teens and adults in making positive changes in their lives. Life can be difficult and stressful but does not have to stay that way. In my client centered approach we will work together to find strength based solutions to create a healthier and happier lifestyle. I work closely with individuals to enhance their overall quality of life.
Feeling stuck and overwhelmed with life? I am dedicated to helping teens and adults in making positive changes in their lives. Life can be difficult and stressful but does not have to stay that way. In my client centered approach we will work together to find strength based solutions to create a healthier and happier lifestyle. I work closely with individuals to enhance their overall quality of life.
(440) 969-6439 View (440) 969-6439
Photo of Dr. B Relationship Marriage Recovery Anxiety Specialist, PhD, LMFT, Marriage & Family Therapist
Dr. B Relationship Marriage Recovery Anxiety Specialist
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, LMFT
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286  (Online Only)
Have you tried Everything? Nothing seems to work...Anxious Adults & Couples ready to overcome debilitating fears, panic attacks, unmanageable anxiety, arguments with partner &and heal past trauma & betrayal. I will teach you effective evidence based skills to achieve healthy relationships, & quickly resolve conflict! I believe in a world where everyone deserves a place to heal mind, body, spirit & soul! I choose to fully invest in my clients, with my wisdom as a trauma survivor, my experiences of healing pain & overcome any obstacle, Giving you Hope! Call TODAY!.
Have you tried Everything? Nothing seems to work...Anxious Adults & Couples ready to overcome debilitating fears, panic attacks, unmanageable anxiety, arguments with partner &and heal past trauma & betrayal. I will teach you effective evidence based skills to achieve healthy relationships, & quickly resolve conflict! I believe in a world where everyone deserves a place to heal mind, body, spirit & soul! I choose to fully invest in my clients, with my wisdom as a trauma survivor, my experiences of healing pain & overcome any obstacle, Giving you Hope! Call TODAY!.
(330) 574-7473 View (330) 574-7473
Photo of Lynne Cardilino, DDiv, MSSA, LISW-S, CIMHP, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lynne Cardilino
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, DDiv, MSSA, LISW-S, CIMHP
Verified Verified
Richfield, OH 44286  (Online Only)
Are you at a crossroads in your life, and feeling stuck, anxious or depressed? Or maybe you are struggling with issues like pregnancy/postpartum mood disorders, grief and loss, health issues or phase of life concerns? Do you have a desire for positive change, and are you open to looking at multiple aspects of your life? I am ready when you are! I work with the above niche populations, as well as general mental health issues for men and women ages 18 and up. Reach out and set up a free 15 minute consult to see if I am a good match for services.
Are you at a crossroads in your life, and feeling stuck, anxious or depressed? Or maybe you are struggling with issues like pregnancy/postpartum mood disorders, grief and loss, health issues or phase of life concerns? Do you have a desire for positive change, and are you open to looking at multiple aspects of your life? I am ready when you are! I work with the above niche populations, as well as general mental health issues for men and women ages 18 and up. Reach out and set up a free 15 minute consult to see if I am a good match for services.
(330) 921-0594 View (330) 921-0594

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Mary McKenzie-Nason, LPCC
Mary McKenzie-Nason
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Brecksville, OH 44141
Mary McKenzie-Nason is a cum laude graduate of Muskingum University, where she received her bachelor's degree in child and family studies, and Cleveland State University, where she earned her master's degree in community/agency counseling. She previously worked at a community agency on the west side of Cleveland in both outpatient and residential treatment services, also providing support services to children and families within the Parma City School District.
Mary McKenzie-Nason is a cum laude graduate of Muskingum University, where she received her bachelor's degree in child and family studies, and Cleveland State University, where she earned her master's degree in community/agency counseling. She previously worked at a community agency on the west side of Cleveland in both outpatient and residential treatment services, also providing support services to children and families within the Parma City School District.
(440) 762-6205 View (440) 762-6205
Photo of Nicole Piatak, LPCC, Licensed Professional Counselor
Nicole Piatak
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
Brecksville, OH 44141
Nicole Piatak is a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor specializing in Solution Focused and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, with expertise in Attention Deficit Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and family issues. She has supported numerous individuals in navigating life’s complexities, providing them with the tools for fulfillment and meaning. Nicole’s journey into mental health, fueled by a deep-seated desire to positively impact lives, was propelled by her personal journey through a challenging childhood experience, igniting a profound commitment to supporting others.
Nicole Piatak is a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor specializing in Solution Focused and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, with expertise in Attention Deficit Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and family issues. She has supported numerous individuals in navigating life’s complexities, providing them with the tools for fulfillment and meaning. Nicole’s journey into mental health, fueled by a deep-seated desire to positively impact lives, was propelled by her personal journey through a challenging childhood experience, igniting a profound commitment to supporting others.
(440) 745-7234 View (440) 745-7234

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Richfield, OH

10+

Average cost per session

$140

Therapists in Richfield, OH who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
78% Relationship Issues
78% Depression
78% Trauma and PTSD
72% Self Esteem
67% Grief
67% Divorce

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% Aetna
90% Cigna and Evernorth
80% Medical Mutual

How Therapists in Richfield, OH see their clients

78% In Person and Online
22% Online Only

Gender breakdown

73% Female
27% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Richfield?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.