Therapists in Mentor, OH

Photo of Jennifer Grayson, Pre-Licensed Professional in Mentor, OH
Jennifer Grayson
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified Verified
Mentor, OH 44060
Hello, I'm Jenn. My practice includes individual, group, and couples therapy, specializing in supporting athletes and those facing life's complex challenges. Drawing from my experiences as a former ice hockey goaltender, collegiate athlete, and a mother of youth athletes, I have a deep understanding of the distinctive pressures athletes encounter. My approach is rooted in the belief that everyone, regardless of age, deserves a supportive 'professional teammate' to navigate life’s pivotal questions and hurdles, both in the sporting arena and beyond.
Hello, I'm Jenn. My practice includes individual, group, and couples therapy, specializing in supporting athletes and those facing life's complex challenges. Drawing from my experiences as a former ice hockey goaltender, collegiate athlete, and a mother of youth athletes, I have a deep understanding of the distinctive pressures athletes encounter. My approach is rooted in the belief that everyone, regardless of age, deserves a supportive 'professional teammate' to navigate life’s pivotal questions and hurdles, both in the sporting arena and beyond.
(440) 261-5237 x426 View (440) 261-5237 x426
Photo of Jacob Rositano, Counselor in Mentor, OH
Jacob Rositano
Counselor
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060
Waitlist for new clients
No matter your age, race, gender, sexual orientation, or religion, I want to work with you. I have a special interest in working with anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD, life transitions, and interpersonal communication. If you have a desire to work and grow, I am here for you. Any goal you want to accomplish or obstacle you want to overcome can be tackled in counseling.
No matter your age, race, gender, sexual orientation, or religion, I want to work with you. I have a special interest in working with anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD, life transitions, and interpersonal communication. If you have a desire to work and grow, I am here for you. Any goal you want to accomplish or obstacle you want to overcome can be tackled in counseling.
(440) 693-2158 View (440) 693-2158
Photo of Sarah Jeppesen, Counselor in Mentor, OH
Sarah Jeppesen
Counselor, LPCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060
Not accepting new clients
We are our stories. Your story matters. Sometimes we feel we are no longer the author of our lives, our jobs, or our relationships. Or that past experiences have started writing our futures for us, making us feel out of control no matter what we do to break the cycle. Part of what I do is provide a safe, open, and nonjudgmental environment to explore your life experiences, unhelpful patterns, and difficulties in your relationships.
We are our stories. Your story matters. Sometimes we feel we are no longer the author of our lives, our jobs, or our relationships. Or that past experiences have started writing our futures for us, making us feel out of control no matter what we do to break the cycle. Part of what I do is provide a safe, open, and nonjudgmental environment to explore your life experiences, unhelpful patterns, and difficulties in your relationships.
(440) 271-8570 View (440) 271-8570
Photo of Abigail Mitchell, Marriage & Family Therapist in Mentor, OH
Abigail Mitchell
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, IMFT
Verified Verified
Mentor, OH 44060  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Do you find yourself feeling overwhelmed and rundown with daily life stressors? Are you struggling in your relationships with yourself your partner, children and other important people? When life feels out of control, it can be a relief to have someone you can count on to hear you and work through some of the pain that you have been carrying. It takes strength and courage to reach out to someone for help. I believe one of the bravest things you can do is to begin to understand your life's story. My goal is to help improve your relationships, increase your self-esteem and help you live a more balanced life.
Do you find yourself feeling overwhelmed and rundown with daily life stressors? Are you struggling in your relationships with yourself your partner, children and other important people? When life feels out of control, it can be a relief to have someone you can count on to hear you and work through some of the pain that you have been carrying. It takes strength and courage to reach out to someone for help. I believe one of the bravest things you can do is to begin to understand your life's story. My goal is to help improve your relationships, increase your self-esteem and help you live a more balanced life.
(440) 701-5839 View (440) 701-5839
Photo of Laura Burns, Psychologist in Mentor, OH
Laura Burns
Psychologist, PhD, PCC-S
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060
When people reach out for help in dealing with life stressors, I respond in a timely, compassionate, respectful manner and seek to form a therapeutic relationship built on acceptance and trust. I help patients to find new ways to use their existing strengths in areas they find stressful and difficult. I seek out and harness their motivation to change and to enhance coping skills to effectively manage ongoing difficulties and to construct a life worth living. Therapy is a partnership that assists in functioning effectively in the present.
When people reach out for help in dealing with life stressors, I respond in a timely, compassionate, respectful manner and seek to form a therapeutic relationship built on acceptance and trust. I help patients to find new ways to use their existing strengths in areas they find stressful and difficult. I seek out and harness their motivation to change and to enhance coping skills to effectively manage ongoing difficulties and to construct a life worth living. Therapy is a partnership that assists in functioning effectively in the present.
(440) 544-5040 View (440) 544-5040
Photo of Matthew Geraldi, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in Mentor, OH
Matthew Geraldi
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, LPCC-S, LICDC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Mental Health and substance use awareness is growing more and more each day. Anyone should be welcomed with open arms to work through issues that create a dark cloud over their happiness. Working as a team and at a pace where you are comfortable is the goal that we will work to progress towards. There is not a concrete formula to happiness or managing our inner demons, but we can create one and I would be honored to help you on your journey.
Mental Health and substance use awareness is growing more and more each day. Anyone should be welcomed with open arms to work through issues that create a dark cloud over their happiness. Working as a team and at a pace where you are comfortable is the goal that we will work to progress towards. There is not a concrete formula to happiness or managing our inner demons, but we can create one and I would be honored to help you on your journey.
(440) 683-6532 View (440) 683-6532
Photo of Jessica Wyant, Counselor in Mentor, OH
Jessica Wyant
Counselor, LPCC-S
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
What if all of those negative thoughts just didn’t bother you anymore? What if you could find a healthy way to not only process them, but let them go? Does it ever feel like you have a dark cloud hanging over yourself. Constant negative thoughts running through your mind. Maybe memories of trauma or negative experiences that creep up constantly. They may have happened years ago, but to you, it feels like yesterday. Life can be difficult enough without also having to fight negative thoughts and feelings in your own mind. It’s exhausting. And worst of all, it can stop you for accomplishing your goals and living your best life.
What if all of those negative thoughts just didn’t bother you anymore? What if you could find a healthy way to not only process them, but let them go? Does it ever feel like you have a dark cloud hanging over yourself. Constant negative thoughts running through your mind. Maybe memories of trauma or negative experiences that creep up constantly. They may have happened years ago, but to you, it feels like yesterday. Life can be difficult enough without also having to fight negative thoughts and feelings in your own mind. It’s exhausting. And worst of all, it can stop you for accomplishing your goals and living your best life.
(440) 578-9946 View (440) 578-9946
Photo of Jennifer Baker, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mentor, OH
Jennifer Baker
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSSA, LISW-S
Verified Verified
Mentor, OH 44060  (Online Only)
Hello, I’m Jennifer Baker, an early childhood mental health clinician specializing in how to foster positive relationships with young children, manage tough behaviors and support social-emotional growth and development. I have 20 plus years of experience working with young children and their families; 15 of it providing therapy to families of children under the age of 8. Together we can explore your family’s unique needs and talk about ways to achieve your goals through individual child and/or parent sessions. All my sessions are completed virtually and can be structured in a variety of ways to best fit what your family needs.
Hello, I’m Jennifer Baker, an early childhood mental health clinician specializing in how to foster positive relationships with young children, manage tough behaviors and support social-emotional growth and development. I have 20 plus years of experience working with young children and their families; 15 of it providing therapy to families of children under the age of 8. Together we can explore your family’s unique needs and talk about ways to achieve your goals through individual child and/or parent sessions. All my sessions are completed virtually and can be structured in a variety of ways to best fit what your family needs.
(440) 760-6508 View (440) 760-6508
Photo of Kayla Salomone, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mentor, OH
Kayla Salomone
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060  (Online Only)
Being able to live life fully while also tolerating feelings of discomfort and uncertainty is something we can all strive for. Often, these feelings lead us to avoid and disconnect which move us further away from what we truly value.
Being able to live life fully while also tolerating feelings of discomfort and uncertainty is something we can all strive for. Often, these feelings lead us to avoid and disconnect which move us further away from what we truly value.
(440) 294-8889 View (440) 294-8889
Photo of Amelia Logan, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mentor, OH
Amelia Logan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, BSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060
Do you find yourself struggling to cope with overwhelming emotions, stress, or anxiety? Do you feel like you're constantly striving but never reaching your goal? If so, you're not alone. Many people face similar challenges navigating teenage and young adulthood years. The good news is that you don't have to go through it alone. Counseling is a safe and welcoming place to discover coping skills and strategies to manage your emotions, improve self-esteem, and build the resilience you need to thrive.
Do you find yourself struggling to cope with overwhelming emotions, stress, or anxiety? Do you feel like you're constantly striving but never reaching your goal? If so, you're not alone. Many people face similar challenges navigating teenage and young adulthood years. The good news is that you don't have to go through it alone. Counseling is a safe and welcoming place to discover coping skills and strategies to manage your emotions, improve self-esteem, and build the resilience you need to thrive.
(440) 597-5871 View (440) 597-5871
Photo of Tony McMahon, Psychologist in Mentor, OH
Tony McMahon
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Mentor, OH 44060
I am a licensed clinical psychologist that values work with individuals, couples, and families. I have experience working with children, adolescents, and adults, and I have treated a wide variety of sensitive issues that include depression, anxiety/panic, trauma, suicidal thoughts, self-harm, partner/relational conflict, family discord, anger management, obsessive and/or compulsive behavior problems, psychotic symptoms, minority stress, inadequate self-esteem, and parent guidance/support.
I am a licensed clinical psychologist that values work with individuals, couples, and families. I have experience working with children, adolescents, and adults, and I have treated a wide variety of sensitive issues that include depression, anxiety/panic, trauma, suicidal thoughts, self-harm, partner/relational conflict, family discord, anger management, obsessive and/or compulsive behavior problems, psychotic symptoms, minority stress, inadequate self-esteem, and parent guidance/support.
(440) 252-4451 View (440) 252-4451
Photo of Alicia Thomas, M.Ed., LPCC, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in Mentor, OH
Alicia Thomas, M.Ed., LPCC
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MEd, LPCC-S
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060
Sometimes it feels like life is just too hard, or you aren't getting the most from it. Maybe you've been trying to change, but don't know how. That's where I come in! I provide a safe, non-judgmental space to tell your story, learn about yourself, and build upon strengths you already possess. Dealing with stress and sadness can get easier. I treat individuals and couples ages 16 and up using many treatment modalities. Overall, I use a person-centered or holistic style to develop a plan which best suits each of my clients.
Sometimes it feels like life is just too hard, or you aren't getting the most from it. Maybe you've been trying to change, but don't know how. That's where I come in! I provide a safe, non-judgmental space to tell your story, learn about yourself, and build upon strengths you already possess. Dealing with stress and sadness can get easier. I treat individuals and couples ages 16 and up using many treatment modalities. Overall, I use a person-centered or holistic style to develop a plan which best suits each of my clients.
(440) 424-4674 View (440) 424-4674
Photo of Chelsea Morinec, Counselor in Mentor, OH
Chelsea Morinec
Counselor, MEd, LPCC, CDCA
Verified Verified
Mentor, OH 44060
Not accepting new clients
I have experience working with presenting concerns such as anxiety, depression, identity/self-exploration, self-esteem, perfectionism, grief/loss, trauma, and interpersonal conflict. I have a unique background in addressing sexuality and intimacy topics ranging from identity exploration to problem sexual behaviors. I utilize a person centered and eclectic style that pulls from modalities like Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Mindfulness, Emotion Focused Therapy and Dialectical Behavioral Therapy to best fit each of my clients needs. I would be honored to be a part of your journey and provide a safe space for you.
I have experience working with presenting concerns such as anxiety, depression, identity/self-exploration, self-esteem, perfectionism, grief/loss, trauma, and interpersonal conflict. I have a unique background in addressing sexuality and intimacy topics ranging from identity exploration to problem sexual behaviors. I utilize a person centered and eclectic style that pulls from modalities like Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Mindfulness, Emotion Focused Therapy and Dialectical Behavioral Therapy to best fit each of my clients needs. I would be honored to be a part of your journey and provide a safe space for you.
(440) 218-8265 View (440) 218-8265
Photo of Carlene A. Crislip, Licensed Professional Counselor in Mentor, OH
Carlene A. Crislip
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPCC, ATR
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060
Not accepting new clients
Life can be challenging. Sometimes we find ourselves needing to adjust to a big and unexpected change. Sometimes we have difficulty navigating the ups and downs of daily life. Sometimes problems can seem unmanageable. It’s possible to find healing and balance for you or your child. Counseling work in a safe, nurturing space can provide the tools needed to improve peer relationships, develop effective coping skills, and improve self-esteem. You or your child will feel empowered to heal from past experiences, tackle life’s challenges, and build meaningful connections with others.
Life can be challenging. Sometimes we find ourselves needing to adjust to a big and unexpected change. Sometimes we have difficulty navigating the ups and downs of daily life. Sometimes problems can seem unmanageable. It’s possible to find healing and balance for you or your child. Counseling work in a safe, nurturing space can provide the tools needed to improve peer relationships, develop effective coping skills, and improve self-esteem. You or your child will feel empowered to heal from past experiences, tackle life’s challenges, and build meaningful connections with others.
(440) 701-5864 View (440) 701-5864
Photo of Nicole Crandell, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mentor, OH
Nicole Crandell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LISW, LICDC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060
**Morning and All Day SATURDAY Appointments AVAILABLE STARTING NOVEMBER 1, 2023 I have worked with all walks of life: children, adolescents, adults, elderly, juvenile delinquency, mental health, substance abuse...I have facilitated groups and have conducted individual and family sessions. What ever the issue or your specific goal, I am willing to help!
**Morning and All Day SATURDAY Appointments AVAILABLE STARTING NOVEMBER 1, 2023 I have worked with all walks of life: children, adolescents, adults, elderly, juvenile delinquency, mental health, substance abuse...I have facilitated groups and have conducted individual and family sessions. What ever the issue or your specific goal, I am willing to help!
(440) 553-8542 View (440) 553-8542
Photo of Hannah E Linville, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mentor, OH
Hannah E Linville
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LISW, LCDC II
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
My ideal client would be interested in bettering themselves. They would be looking for support and be willing to start with the basics including identifying and practicing coping skills. They would want to learn how to control their emotions better and learn about how to manage stress.
My ideal client would be interested in bettering themselves. They would be looking for support and be willing to start with the basics including identifying and practicing coping skills. They would want to learn how to control their emotions better and learn about how to manage stress.
(440) 613-4980 View (440) 613-4980
Photo of Christine Steele, Counselor in Mentor, OH
Christine Steele
Counselor, ATR, LPCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060
Not accepting new clients
When life gets dark, it is hard to see the light. All it takes is one step to begin to find your way again. At the core of my practice is support, trust, and the inherent worthiness of each individual. I walk beside you offering my encouragement, support and knowledge on your path to healing, connection and wellness. Though I work with many of life’s difficulties my focus is generally in working with adults who have trouble with stress, anxiety, fear, rejection, the feeling of "not enough", depression, sadness, life transitions, self-esteem, understanding and being understood.
When life gets dark, it is hard to see the light. All it takes is one step to begin to find your way again. At the core of my practice is support, trust, and the inherent worthiness of each individual. I walk beside you offering my encouragement, support and knowledge on your path to healing, connection and wellness. Though I work with many of life’s difficulties my focus is generally in working with adults who have trouble with stress, anxiety, fear, rejection, the feeling of "not enough", depression, sadness, life transitions, self-esteem, understanding and being understood.
(440) 294-5922 View (440) 294-5922
Photo of Christine Lowe, Licensed Professional Counselor in Mentor, OH
Christine Lowe
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC, C-DBT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor, a Nationally Certified Counselor with board certification, and certified in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy. I have four years of clinical experience helping children, teens, young adults, and adults cope with mental health and life stressors. I strive to create a safe, non-judgmental, trusting, and nurturing space, while meeting clients where they currently are with empathy and respect and working together to move towards your goals and establish resiliency throughout life.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor, a Nationally Certified Counselor with board certification, and certified in Dialectical Behavioral Therapy. I have four years of clinical experience helping children, teens, young adults, and adults cope with mental health and life stressors. I strive to create a safe, non-judgmental, trusting, and nurturing space, while meeting clients where they currently are with empathy and respect and working together to move towards your goals and establish resiliency throughout life.
(440) 553-8724 View (440) 553-8724
Photo of Ophira Dar, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Mentor, OH
Ophira Dar
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LSW
Verified Verified
Mentor, OH 44060
Finding a therapist can feel like staring at a blank Word document. You’re not sure you want to share your story, or even where to begin. Sharing your story is a vulnerable and scary process—and yet, something in you wants to express it. And that desire is telling, because your story is valuable and important. Stories inspire, open new worlds, and serve as a guide. Stories also connect us—we become closer through bridging the gap in our life experiences. As a therapist, I have the honor of sharing in your struggles, joys, frustrations, fears, and celebrations.
Finding a therapist can feel like staring at a blank Word document. You’re not sure you want to share your story, or even where to begin. Sharing your story is a vulnerable and scary process—and yet, something in you wants to express it. And that desire is telling, because your story is valuable and important. Stories inspire, open new worlds, and serve as a guide. Stories also connect us—we become closer through bridging the gap in our life experiences. As a therapist, I have the honor of sharing in your struggles, joys, frustrations, fears, and celebrations.
(440) 671-7810 View (440) 671-7810
Photo of Brianna Laquatra, Licensed Professional Counselor in Mentor, OH
Brianna Laquatra
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Mentor, OH 44060
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with a National Certified Counselor credential who provides individual counseling services to adults who present with a variety of mental health concerns. I have experience with individual therapy as well as group therapy. I utilize evidenced-based treatment approaches including Dialectical Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to best support you and guide you in meeting your treatment goals. I will help you to navigate challenging life changes through a collaborative and engaging therapeutic process by teaching coping skills to help you build a life worth living.
I am a Licensed Professional Counselor with a National Certified Counselor credential who provides individual counseling services to adults who present with a variety of mental health concerns. I have experience with individual therapy as well as group therapy. I utilize evidenced-based treatment approaches including Dialectical Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to best support you and guide you in meeting your treatment goals. I will help you to navigate challenging life changes through a collaborative and engaging therapeutic process by teaching coping skills to help you build a life worth living.
(440) 595-3695 View (440) 595-3695

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Mentor, OH

100+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in Mentor, OH who prioritize treating:

93% Depression
93% Anxiety
77% Self Esteem
73% Trauma and PTSD
70% Coping Skills
69% Relationship Issues
67% Stress

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

90% Aetna
86% Anthem | Elevance
80% Medical Mutual

How Therapists in Mentor, OH see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
20% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Mentor?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.