Adoption Therapists in New York, NY

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Photo of Heather Mauro, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Heather Mauro
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
New York, NY 10002
My name is Heather Mauro, and I’m a licensed clinical social worker with twenty-five years of clinical experience. I enjoy working with adults as they move through various life stages. I focus on issues such as Adoption, Anxiety, Depression, Grief, and Parenting. I utilize Attachment-based, Cognitive Behavioral (CBT), Family Systems, Narrative, and Strength-Based Therapies. I believe strongly in the power of connection, connecting to your authentic self, establishing meaningful relationships, and igniting your passion.
My name is Heather Mauro, and I’m a licensed clinical social worker with twenty-five years of clinical experience. I enjoy working with adults as they move through various life stages. I focus on issues such as Adoption, Anxiety, Depression, Grief, and Parenting. I utilize Attachment-based, Cognitive Behavioral (CBT), Family Systems, Narrative, and Strength-Based Therapies. I believe strongly in the power of connection, connecting to your authentic self, establishing meaningful relationships, and igniting your passion.
(315) 803-1518 View (315) 803-1518
Photo of Anne F Malave, Psychologist in New York, NY
Anne F Malave
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
New York, NY 10001
I help with all family building choices: fertility treatments, 3rd party reproduction (egg/sperm/embryo/ surrogacy), adoption, childfree & with parenting, working with donor conceived persons & people who have been adopted.
Are you feeling isolated, alone, overwhelmed by life's difficulties? Psychotherapy may help. I am a clinical psychologist-psychoanalyst with an interactive and pragmatic approach to life's problems and challenges. I help people develop strengths, cultivate relationships, and build resilience. I help people with anxiety, depression, mood and adjustment disorders, and relationship issues, etc. and I also specialize in (in)fertility, adoption, all areas of family building, eating disorders and addictions. I teach, supervise, consult, write, and actively participate in my professional communities. I am British, living in US since 1976.
I help with all family building choices: fertility treatments, 3rd party reproduction (egg/sperm/embryo/ surrogacy), adoption, childfree & with parenting, working with donor conceived persons & people who have been adopted.
Are you feeling isolated, alone, overwhelmed by life's difficulties? Psychotherapy may help. I am a clinical psychologist-psychoanalyst with an interactive and pragmatic approach to life's problems and challenges. I help people develop strengths, cultivate relationships, and build resilience. I help people with anxiety, depression, mood and adjustment disorders, and relationship issues, etc. and I also specialize in (in)fertility, adoption, all areas of family building, eating disorders and addictions. I teach, supervise, consult, write, and actively participate in my professional communities. I am British, living in US since 1976.
(646) 374-4085 View (646) 374-4085
Photo of Janet Goldmark, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Janet Goldmark
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MFA
Verified
New York, NY 10019
I have expertise in parenting issues, infertility, adoption and learning disabilities and mindfulness.
My practice focuses on the individual growth and creativity. I work with adults, teens and couples.
I have expertise in parenting issues, infertility, adoption and learning disabilities and mindfulness.
My practice focuses on the individual growth and creativity. I work with adults, teens and couples.
(347) 851-8468 View (347) 851-8468
Photo of Ciara McLaughlin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Ciara McLaughlin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
New York, NY 10016
If you or your child are dealing with anxiety, stress, relationship issues, school problems, life transitions, adoption or attachment related issues, impacts of trauma, or depression, I'm listening. There is hope and a way forward. I offer a safe, supportive space to deepen self-awareness, build empowerment, and identify and alleviate sources of distress or pain to create positive, lasting change. I welcome and work with clients from all backgrounds and enjoy working with students, adults, creative types, and people of color. I also specialize in working with adoptees and their families as I am personally connected to adoption.
If you or your child are dealing with anxiety, stress, relationship issues, school problems, life transitions, adoption or attachment related issues, impacts of trauma, or depression, I'm listening. There is hope and a way forward. I offer a safe, supportive space to deepen self-awareness, build empowerment, and identify and alleviate sources of distress or pain to create positive, lasting change. I welcome and work with clients from all backgrounds and enjoy working with students, adults, creative types, and people of color. I also specialize in working with adoptees and their families as I am personally connected to adoption.
(646) 762-9014 View (646) 762-9014
Photo of Sarah Frey, Counselor in New York, NY
Sarah Frey
Counselor, LMHC, NCC
Verified
2 Endorsed
New York, NY 10010  (Online Only)
Thank you for taking the time to check out my profile! Are you struggling with adoption or attachment related issues, relationship conflicts, grief, anxiety, work struggles or just general life things? I strive to create a warm, compassionate space where client's feel comfortable exploring and challenging their feelings and behavior patterns while facilitating growth and healing . We all need a space and a person to help us work through our concerns. Let me be that person.
Thank you for taking the time to check out my profile! Are you struggling with adoption or attachment related issues, relationship conflicts, grief, anxiety, work struggles or just general life things? I strive to create a warm, compassionate space where client's feel comfortable exploring and challenging their feelings and behavior patterns while facilitating growth and healing . We all need a space and a person to help us work through our concerns. Let me be that person.
(332) 239-2202 View (332) 239-2202
Photo of Beth M Kelley, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Beth M Kelley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified
New York, NY 10003  (Online Only)
I prepare domestic & international adoption home studies with attorneys who present clients cases in court for adoption approval.
My private practice include clients with anxiety, depression, bipolar, OCD and mental health challenges of all forms. I help couples and families with conflictual relationships and complicated bereavement. I work with professionals as well as family members who's loved ones have mental health challenges. I work with college students/emerging adults in acute distress, first break psychosis, suicide attempts, accidental overdoses and panic attacks. I have significant experience with eldercare planning and grief counseling.
I prepare domestic & international adoption home studies with attorneys who present clients cases in court for adoption approval.
My private practice include clients with anxiety, depression, bipolar, OCD and mental health challenges of all forms. I help couples and families with conflictual relationships and complicated bereavement. I work with professionals as well as family members who's loved ones have mental health challenges. I work with college students/emerging adults in acute distress, first break psychosis, suicide attempts, accidental overdoses and panic attacks. I have significant experience with eldercare planning and grief counseling.
(347) 801-7198 View (347) 801-7198
Photo of Shulamit Rishik, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Shulamit Rishik
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, MSW, LCSW
Verified
New York, NY 10025
I have expertise both professionally & personally with complex emotional issues surrounding Adoption (see bit.
Whether you are new to therapy or have worked with therapists before, I will create a safe space for you where we will identify, address, & resolve your issues. I have 34+ years of clinical experience. I have expertise working with patients ages 5 to 80. You will find me understanding & level-headed as we explore the origins of your distress. I am trained as an Adult, Child, & Adolescent psychotherapist. In addition, I am a certified psychoanalyst. My psychoanalytic training & specialization in psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy priorities getting to the roots of the conflict. The approach I offer produces lasting change.
I have expertise both professionally & personally with complex emotional issues surrounding Adoption (see bit.
Whether you are new to therapy or have worked with therapists before, I will create a safe space for you where we will identify, address, & resolve your issues. I have 34+ years of clinical experience. I have expertise working with patients ages 5 to 80. You will find me understanding & level-headed as we explore the origins of your distress. I am trained as an Adult, Child, & Adolescent psychotherapist. In addition, I am a certified psychoanalyst. My psychoanalytic training & specialization in psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy priorities getting to the roots of the conflict. The approach I offer produces lasting change.
(646) 699-3856 View (646) 699-3856
Photo of Elizabeth M. Studwell, Psychologist in New York, NY
Elizabeth M. Studwell
Psychologist, PsyD, MA
Verified
New York, NY 10003
I am personally connected to adoption and a Spanish speaker that understands the complexities of adoption.
I am a clinical psychologist with expertise providing individual and family psychotherapy from an attachment based lens. I love what I do and am passionate about supporting children, families, and adults as they traverse life's challenges. I believe everyone is unique and deserves highly attuned support when life's struggles present themselves. I consider therapy a positive outlet to discuss, explore, and foster new aspects of our lives. I utilize a powerful combination of evidence-based and attachment-focused interventions and work in a collaborative way helping empower individuals and families reach their goals.
I am personally connected to adoption and a Spanish speaker that understands the complexities of adoption.
I am a clinical psychologist with expertise providing individual and family psychotherapy from an attachment based lens. I love what I do and am passionate about supporting children, families, and adults as they traverse life's challenges. I believe everyone is unique and deserves highly attuned support when life's struggles present themselves. I consider therapy a positive outlet to discuss, explore, and foster new aspects of our lives. I utilize a powerful combination of evidence-based and attachment-focused interventions and work in a collaborative way helping empower individuals and families reach their goals.
(646) 307-1931 View (646) 307-1931
Photo of Barbara Freedgood, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Barbara Freedgood
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
New York, NY 10001
In addition to adoption support groups, I specialize in working with couples to resolve differences and move forward with their lives and relationships.
People enter therapy looking for results and relief. I like to identify issues quickly and focus on alleviating distress. In addition to couples counseling and general practice with individuals, I run support groups for adoptive parents. Parenting is a challenge. Adoptive parenting has additional challenges. My groups offer a safe space to explore issues and receive support. I take great pleasure in engaging people and offering an environment that allows people to arrive at unique solutions to their lives. I work with individuals, couples and groups.
In addition to adoption support groups, I specialize in working with couples to resolve differences and move forward with their lives and relationships.
People enter therapy looking for results and relief. I like to identify issues quickly and focus on alleviating distress. In addition to couples counseling and general practice with individuals, I run support groups for adoptive parents. Parenting is a challenge. Adoptive parenting has additional challenges. My groups offer a safe space to explore issues and receive support. I take great pleasure in engaging people and offering an environment that allows people to arrive at unique solutions to their lives. I work with individuals, couples and groups.
(646) 490-9946 View (646) 490-9946
Kimberly Chu
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, DCSW
Verified
New York, NY 10024
Specializations: anxiety, depression, parenting, divorce, body image, eating concerns, aggression, identity (gender, sexuality, race/ethnicity/culture), adoption, non-traditional families, childhood trauma and abuse, children and families living with chronic illness, transition from adolescence to adulthood, 12 step recovery.
Kimberly Chu has worked with adults, children and adolescents in individual, couples, family, and group therapies for over twenty years. She works both intensively (multiple sessions per week) and in weekly sessions. The issues bringing a person or family to treatment are never easy, nor simple. Curiosity, exploration, understanding, and change can be challenging and elusive at times. It is essential that your therapist respect you and the process you are beginning to change yourself and your life. Kimberly's approach to therapy is focused on respect for the individual and the difficulties that lead a person to seek help.
Specializations: anxiety, depression, parenting, divorce, body image, eating concerns, aggression, identity (gender, sexuality, race/ethnicity/culture), adoption, non-traditional families, childhood trauma and abuse, children and families living with chronic illness, transition from adolescence to adulthood, 12 step recovery.
Kimberly Chu has worked with adults, children and adolescents in individual, couples, family, and group therapies for over twenty years. She works both intensively (multiple sessions per week) and in weekly sessions. The issues bringing a person or family to treatment are never easy, nor simple. Curiosity, exploration, understanding, and change can be challenging and elusive at times. It is essential that your therapist respect you and the process you are beginning to change yourself and your life. Kimberly's approach to therapy is focused on respect for the individual and the difficulties that lead a person to seek help.
(646) 480-7432 View (646) 480-7432
Photo of Gail Kinn Psychotherapy, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Gail Kinn Psychotherapy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
New York, NY 10024  (Online Only)
I have special expertise in Adult ADHD and adoption (author, “Be My Baby: Talking About Adoption”).
Building our trusting relationship is the surest way I know to reduce your anxiety, depression, and quiet those punishing parts of yourself that seem to threaten your confidence and safety. We work together to make room to experience yourself in new ways, to feel the ground under your feet. Our relationship opens pathways to your life to feel your better self. Doubt, fear and depression will be lessened. Relationships will evolve, and options will open. We will talk and challenge automatic thoughts. We will also use your bodily experience to bypass the loops of stories stored in your critical mind.
I have special expertise in Adult ADHD and adoption (author, “Be My Baby: Talking About Adoption”).
Building our trusting relationship is the surest way I know to reduce your anxiety, depression, and quiet those punishing parts of yourself that seem to threaten your confidence and safety. We work together to make room to experience yourself in new ways, to feel the ground under your feet. Our relationship opens pathways to your life to feel your better self. Doubt, fear and depression will be lessened. Relationships will evolve, and options will open. We will talk and challenge automatic thoughts. We will also use your bodily experience to bypass the loops of stories stored in your critical mind.
(917) 970-7494 View (917) 970-7494
Photo of Amy Silverman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Amy Silverman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
New York, NY 10003
Are you looking for a therapist who understands the unique challenges inherent in family formation? Are you questioning how and whether to become parents? Are you in a foster or adoptive family and hope your therapist understands some of the issues specific to your situation? Are there missing pieces in your family history or have you learned new information via DNA testing? My practice is informed by my long-time focus on adoption. My focus is on understanding your story, connecting with you, recognizing your strengths, and helping you to determine how to tackle your challenges.
Are you looking for a therapist who understands the unique challenges inherent in family formation? Are you questioning how and whether to become parents? Are you in a foster or adoptive family and hope your therapist understands some of the issues specific to your situation? Are there missing pieces in your family history or have you learned new information via DNA testing? My practice is informed by my long-time focus on adoption. My focus is on understanding your story, connecting with you, recognizing your strengths, and helping you to determine how to tackle your challenges.
(914) 240-1127 View (914) 240-1127
Photo of Sara Lavner, Licensed Psychoanalyst in New York, NY
Sara Lavner
Licensed Psychoanalyst, MA, NCPsyA, LP
Verified
New York, NY 10011
I have been working for many years as a drama therapist and psychoanalyst and have helped people live more fulfilling lives. I work with individuals and couples in Greenwich Village. I am an expert on adoption issues but also work in all areas. I work well with couples and find all of my work interesting and exciting. Sometimes I use the drama therapy in combination with psychoanalysis and at other times, I just use the techniques of psychoanalysis. It will all depend on the patient.
I have been working for many years as a drama therapist and psychoanalyst and have helped people live more fulfilling lives. I work with individuals and couples in Greenwich Village. I am an expert on adoption issues but also work in all areas. I work well with couples and find all of my work interesting and exciting. Sometimes I use the drama therapy in combination with psychoanalysis and at other times, I just use the techniques of psychoanalysis. It will all depend on the patient.
(646) 576-7787 View (646) 576-7787
Photo of Silvia Fiammenghi, Psychologist in New York, NY
Silvia Fiammenghi
Psychologist, PsyD, RYT
Verified
3 Endorsed
New York, NY 10011
Thank you for your interest in my practice. I see therapy as a powerful two-person process of discovery and acceptance. In session we laugh, we cry, we understand and we grow. We read over the past, stay rooted in the present, and look forward to a more balanced and fulfilling future. My integrative approach to treatment is rooted in interpersonal psychodynamic theory, but also drives from other models to meet each person's unique needs. My areas of expertise include trauma work, college mental health, issues related to international relocation, cultural integration, study abroad, body-mind balance, and adoption.
Thank you for your interest in my practice. I see therapy as a powerful two-person process of discovery and acceptance. In session we laugh, we cry, we understand and we grow. We read over the past, stay rooted in the present, and look forward to a more balanced and fulfilling future. My integrative approach to treatment is rooted in interpersonal psychodynamic theory, but also drives from other models to meet each person's unique needs. My areas of expertise include trauma work, college mental health, issues related to international relocation, cultural integration, study abroad, body-mind balance, and adoption.
(718) 306-6510 View (718) 306-6510
Jill Plevan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LAC
Verified
New York, NY 10001
Making change takes intention and courage. Finding meaning in everyday life and living in a way that we yearn to is no small task! I work with adults who wish to create change and feel happier in their lives. This could mean issues surrounding transition into adulthood, dating and relationships, substance use, school and professional goals, life transitions, work/family balance, parenting, long term relationships with partners. I have expertise in supporting family members of a loved one struggling with addiction. I also have an interest in family members touched by adoption.
Making change takes intention and courage. Finding meaning in everyday life and living in a way that we yearn to is no small task! I work with adults who wish to create change and feel happier in their lives. This could mean issues surrounding transition into adulthood, dating and relationships, substance use, school and professional goals, life transitions, work/family balance, parenting, long term relationships with partners. I have expertise in supporting family members of a loved one struggling with addiction. I also have an interest in family members touched by adoption.
(332) 334-6836 View (332) 334-6836
Photo of Christine Tangel, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Christine Tangel
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
New York, NY 10003
Family life can be complicated. From deciding to become a parent or struggling with creating a family to losing relationships or loved ones, and all of the ups & downs in between; you need a place to process the complexities that arise. Do you or your child need support to address what is troubling you? I provide a warm and trusting space to work on those challenges. I specialize in addressing issues related to adoption, attachment, grief & loss and relationship conflict in children and adults. I understand the importance connection and safety have on healing.
Family life can be complicated. From deciding to become a parent or struggling with creating a family to losing relationships or loved ones, and all of the ups & downs in between; you need a place to process the complexities that arise. Do you or your child need support to address what is troubling you? I provide a warm and trusting space to work on those challenges. I specialize in addressing issues related to adoption, attachment, grief & loss and relationship conflict in children and adults. I understand the importance connection and safety have on healing.
(917) 383-0361 View (917) 383-0361
Photo of Lauren Kraver, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Lauren Kraver
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
New York, NY 10025
I also have extensive experience working with birth parents, adoptees, and adoptive parents throughout the adoption process and provide adoption counseling for individuals and couples.
Feeling overwhelmed or stressed and don’t know where to begin? Life changes are hard and you’re not alone. If you are stuck or there’s a pattern you can’t break, I’m only a phone call away. Whether you’re faced with a big life decision, struggling with anxiety or depression, or just need someone in your corner - I’m here to help. Or, maybe you are deciding if you want to add to your family and have questions on what that looks like. Reaching out is one of the hardest parts about starting therapy and you deserve to be heard. You deserve someone who will listen and help you consider your options in an open-minded way.
I also have extensive experience working with birth parents, adoptees, and adoptive parents throughout the adoption process and provide adoption counseling for individuals and couples.
Feeling overwhelmed or stressed and don’t know where to begin? Life changes are hard and you’re not alone. If you are stuck or there’s a pattern you can’t break, I’m only a phone call away. Whether you’re faced with a big life decision, struggling with anxiety or depression, or just need someone in your corner - I’m here to help. Or, maybe you are deciding if you want to add to your family and have questions on what that looks like. Reaching out is one of the hardest parts about starting therapy and you deserve to be heard. You deserve someone who will listen and help you consider your options in an open-minded way.
(914) 380-7920 View (914) 380-7920
Photo of Carolyn Berger, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Carolyn Berger
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
New York, NY 10016
Since my own family was created through both fertility treatment and adoption, I am empathic and compassionate as well as qualified to help you.
For many, the path to parenthood isn't easy. I have been helping couples and individuals create families for over 25 years. My practice is devoted to infertility, adoption and all forms of family building. I counsel couples and individuals coping with infertility, pregnancy loss, IVF and other family building options including donor egg/sperm/embryo and compassionate surrogacy. I educate people about adoption and offer support and guidance throughout the process. I coach parents on how to talk to their child about their beginnings. I also do assessments of egg donors and intended parents interviews for IVF centers.
Since my own family was created through both fertility treatment and adoption, I am empathic and compassionate as well as qualified to help you.
For many, the path to parenthood isn't easy. I have been helping couples and individuals create families for over 25 years. My practice is devoted to infertility, adoption and all forms of family building. I counsel couples and individuals coping with infertility, pregnancy loss, IVF and other family building options including donor egg/sperm/embryo and compassionate surrogacy. I educate people about adoption and offer support and guidance throughout the process. I coach parents on how to talk to their child about their beginnings. I also do assessments of egg donors and intended parents interviews for IVF centers.
(914) 359-2110 View (914) 359-2110
Photo of Gender Solutions NY, Counselor in New York, NY
Gender Solutions NY
Counselor, PhD
New York, NY 10028  (Online Only)
My name is Dr. Gennifer Herley and I am the President of Gender Solutions NY and I am a proud Transwoman as well!. I help Individuals, Couples and Families understand gender identity issues. Are you feeling alone and struggling with your Gender Identity? If you are looking for an experienced empathetic person to talk with about any issue surrounding your Gender Identity....Let's Talk! I have expertise in following areas: LGBTQ Counseling with a focus on the Transgender Issues, Hormone evaluation letters. Adoption/Infertility, Individual & Couples Counseling, , Gender Expression (Crossdressing) as well as Businesses Consulting.
My name is Dr. Gennifer Herley and I am the President of Gender Solutions NY and I am a proud Transwoman as well!. I help Individuals, Couples and Families understand gender identity issues. Are you feeling alone and struggling with your Gender Identity? If you are looking for an experienced empathetic person to talk with about any issue surrounding your Gender Identity....Let's Talk! I have expertise in following areas: LGBTQ Counseling with a focus on the Transgender Issues, Hormone evaluation letters. Adoption/Infertility, Individual & Couples Counseling, , Gender Expression (Crossdressing) as well as Businesses Consulting.
(516) 284-8342 View (516) 284-8342
Photo of Kaitlin Incorvia, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in New York, NY
Kaitlin Incorvia
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
New York, NY 10001
Waitlist for new clients
I specialize in foster care, adoption, childhood trauma, attachment, and dissociation.
Do seemingly simple things in your life cause you to react very strongly? Or have you ever felt stuck in a cycle of relationships that you are not proud of? Or maybe you just can’t let things go? Trauma therapy can help! Therapy is hard work, but the commitment to yourself and living a life you are proud of is life-changing!
I specialize in foster care, adoption, childhood trauma, attachment, and dissociation.
Do seemingly simple things in your life cause you to react very strongly? Or have you ever felt stuck in a cycle of relationships that you are not proud of? Or maybe you just can’t let things go? Trauma therapy can help! Therapy is hard work, but the commitment to yourself and living a life you are proud of is life-changing!
(716) 281-1623 View (716) 281-1623

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Adoption Therapists

Does my adopted child need therapy?

Not every adopted child needs therapy. However, many can benefit from seeing an adoption-informed therapist, especially if they were victims of abuse or neglect, appear withdrawn or disconnected, have behavioral or developmental issues (which may or may not be related to their adoption), are struggling with feelings of grief or loss surrounding their birth parents, or find it difficult to establish an identity, a challenge that often becomes most apparent during adolescence.

When should adoptive parents seek therapy?

Prospective parents can benefit from therapy even before an adoption—for example, to voice worries and fears; to reconcile infertility struggles, if relevant; or simply to prepare themselves for parenthood. After the adoption, parents who are struggling to bond with their child; are unsure how to talk about adoption or related issues, such as race; or whose child is dealing with developmental, behavioral, or psychiatric concerns can address these and other issues with the help of an adoption-competent therapist.

Is family therapy appropriate for adoptive families?

Family therapy can be invaluable for strengthening the bond between adoptive parents and children, helping the latter feel more secure in their place in the family. Family therapy can also help adoptive families navigate complex communication issues—for example, parents who feel uncomfortable discussing race with their child, who in turn feels invalidated by their silence, or a child who has questions about his birth parents but avoids asking them out of fear of hurting his adoptive parents’ feelings.

What therapy is not appropriate for adoption issues?

A discredited therapy known as “attachment therapy” (sometimes called “holding therapy” or “rebirthing therapy”) should not be used to treat adopted and foster children, though it was largely designed for this population. Attachment therapy involves restraining, coercing, and punishing the child in order for them to “release” negative emotions and attach to their new caregivers—techniques that are abusive and dangerous and have even proven fatal in some cases.