Therapists in Lenox Hill, New York, NY

Photo of Jordan Kuchta, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Jordan Kuchta
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10021  (Online Only)
If you ever feel overwhelmed by doubt or uncertainty, or like you can’t escape your own thoughts, you’re not alone. My goal is to help you work through these challenges in a way that makes you feel seen and understood. As a therapist, my approach is empathetic, relatable and non-judgmental. I offer my clients a safe and supportive space to explore and make concrete changes in their lives.
If you ever feel overwhelmed by doubt or uncertainty, or like you can’t escape your own thoughts, you’re not alone. My goal is to help you work through these challenges in a way that makes you feel seen and understood. As a therapist, my approach is empathetic, relatable and non-judgmental. I offer my clients a safe and supportive space to explore and make concrete changes in their lives.
(475) 253-3293 View (475) 253-3293
Photo of Kaelene Tomasulo, Counselor in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Kaelene Tomasulo
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10065
I work with individuals ages 22-38 who are struggling with racing thoughts, anxiety, feeling overwhelmed or stuck and relationship issues. I help clients disentangle their thoughts, learn to cope with their stressors, improve their self-esteem and make life transitions. Our work will teach you new coping skills, change your ways of thinking and relating to others, and resolve any past traumatic experiences that might be leaving you feeling stagnant, overwhelmed, or less connected to yourself or others.
I work with individuals ages 22-38 who are struggling with racing thoughts, anxiety, feeling overwhelmed or stuck and relationship issues. I help clients disentangle their thoughts, learn to cope with their stressors, improve their self-esteem and make life transitions. Our work will teach you new coping skills, change your ways of thinking and relating to others, and resolve any past traumatic experiences that might be leaving you feeling stagnant, overwhelmed, or less connected to yourself or others.
(646) 798-1851 View (646) 798-1851
Photo of Laurie Rudey, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Laurie Rudey
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10021
Are you feeling overwhelmed, disconnected, sad, anxious or angry? Are you dealing with the pain of past experiences that are impacting your life and relationships in the present? I can help. Together we can collaborate in an empathic, interactive environment to help you to manage difficult emotions and experiences. I can help you explore these challenges and compose the life you hope for.
Are you feeling overwhelmed, disconnected, sad, anxious or angry? Are you dealing with the pain of past experiences that are impacting your life and relationships in the present? I can help. Together we can collaborate in an empathic, interactive environment to help you to manage difficult emotions and experiences. I can help you explore these challenges and compose the life you hope for.
(917) 746-7796 View (917) 746-7796
Photo of Through the Looking Glass , Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Through the Looking Glass
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10021
Uncovering deep feelings and internalized anxiety can better help one to understand the motivations for problematic behaviors or interruptions to ones well being. In the search for more balanced personal and professional lives and long term harmony and self esteem, we will work together to uncover those deeper feelings and impulses in a safe, non judgmental space.
Uncovering deep feelings and internalized anxiety can better help one to understand the motivations for problematic behaviors or interruptions to ones well being. In the search for more balanced personal and professional lives and long term harmony and self esteem, we will work together to uncover those deeper feelings and impulses in a safe, non judgmental space.
(929) 238-8754 View (929) 238-8754
Photo of Mara Goldstein, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Mara Goldstein
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10021  (Online Only)
Deciding to start therapy can be overwhelming, and at the same time, a really exciting moment. Once you make that choice, it is important to find a therapist that makes you feel heard and understood. My name is Mara, I am a licensed clinical social worker, and I have experience working with people who are navigating many different struggles and changes in their lives. My goal is to understand your story and work together to identify and repair patterns that have left you feeling stuck or unfulfilled. You can expect a respectful, non-judgmental, and supportive space while in therapy with me.
Deciding to start therapy can be overwhelming, and at the same time, a really exciting moment. Once you make that choice, it is important to find a therapist that makes you feel heard and understood. My name is Mara, I am a licensed clinical social worker, and I have experience working with people who are navigating many different struggles and changes in their lives. My goal is to understand your story and work together to identify and repair patterns that have left you feeling stuck or unfulfilled. You can expect a respectful, non-judgmental, and supportive space while in therapy with me.
(347) 754-3947 View (347) 754-3947
Photo of Rob Dobrenski, Psychologist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Rob Dobrenski
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10016  (Online Only)
I am a licensed Clinicial Psychologist with specialized training in mood and anxiety conditions. I often treat individual and couples with a "here and now approach" to address their difficulties, as opposed to focusing on issues from childhood or subconscious conflicts. Short-term therapy (approximately 15 sessions or less) can be very helpful in many cases, and sometimes clients and I agree that more visits will be useful.
I am a licensed Clinicial Psychologist with specialized training in mood and anxiety conditions. I often treat individual and couples with a "here and now approach" to address their difficulties, as opposed to focusing on issues from childhood or subconscious conflicts. Short-term therapy (approximately 15 sessions or less) can be very helpful in many cases, and sometimes clients and I agree that more visits will be useful.
(914) 912-1780 View (914) 912-1780
Photo of Ellen Schweitzer Coaching in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Ellen Schweitzer Coaching
CDC
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10065
I encourage and support individuals to live authentically and embrace their individuality. In helping people create healthier habits and set SMART goals my clients are successful. I'm there to help them with the challenges they may come across in the process. As their accountability partner, we work as a team, it's a collaborative relationship that is free of judgement and my clients feel safe to explore their options.
I encourage and support individuals to live authentically and embrace their individuality. In helping people create healthier habits and set SMART goals my clients are successful. I'm there to help them with the challenges they may come across in the process. As their accountability partner, we work as a team, it's a collaborative relationship that is free of judgement and my clients feel safe to explore their options.
(201) 669-3538 View (201) 669-3538
Photo of Sydney Rae Leviton, Licensed Master Social Worker in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Sydney Rae Leviton
Licensed Master Social Worker, LMSW
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10022  (Online Only)
Sydney Rae Leviton, LMSW, is a psychotherapist who intends to meet her clients where they are. Working in collaboration with the Trifecta team, lead by Board Certified Psychiatrist, she utilizes the creation of an authentic therapeutic relationship to ensure the healing process leads to an improved quality of life for her clients, as well as a sense of empowerment to handle life’s future obstacles. Sydney has experience working with individuals living with depression, anxiety, and complex trauma, as well as, co-occurring substance use disorders, and focuses on a strengths-based therapeutic approach to promote self-love and growth.
Sydney Rae Leviton, LMSW, is a psychotherapist who intends to meet her clients where they are. Working in collaboration with the Trifecta team, lead by Board Certified Psychiatrist, she utilizes the creation of an authentic therapeutic relationship to ensure the healing process leads to an improved quality of life for her clients, as well as a sense of empowerment to handle life’s future obstacles. Sydney has experience working with individuals living with depression, anxiety, and complex trauma, as well as, co-occurring substance use disorders, and focuses on a strengths-based therapeutic approach to promote self-love and growth.
(914) 491-5216 View (914) 491-5216
Photo of Lesley Koeppel, Psychotherapist, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Lesley Koeppel, Psychotherapist
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10021
Waitlist for new clients
Lesley has been working in the field for more than 30 years. Graduating with a degree in Psychology from U of Michigan, and an MSW from NYU, she maintains a private psychotherapy practice in NYC. She does general individual counseling, as well as counseling for people dealing with cancer, serious illness, end-of-life and bereavement, helping to provide her patients with a unique compassion, understanding and direct approach. She began her career at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. She also runs support groups for patients dealing with cancer at the Bone Marrow & Cancer Foundation where she is Chair of the Social Work Board.
Lesley has been working in the field for more than 30 years. Graduating with a degree in Psychology from U of Michigan, and an MSW from NYU, she maintains a private psychotherapy practice in NYC. She does general individual counseling, as well as counseling for people dealing with cancer, serious illness, end-of-life and bereavement, helping to provide her patients with a unique compassion, understanding and direct approach. She began her career at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. She also runs support groups for patients dealing with cancer at the Bone Marrow & Cancer Foundation where she is Chair of the Social Work Board.
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Photo of Michael D Schwalberg, Psychologist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Michael D Schwalberg
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
1 Endorsed
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10065  (Online Only)
Trained at a world renowned Anxiety Disorders treatment and research center (The SUNY Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, now the Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders at Boston University), I have specialized in the treatment of anxiety, panic, phobias, OCD and related disorders for over 25 years. I treat adults, adolescents, and children. I have lectured, been a clinical and research consultant, and trained and supervised other mental health professionals in the treatment of these disorders.
Trained at a world renowned Anxiety Disorders treatment and research center (The SUNY Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, now the Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders at Boston University), I have specialized in the treatment of anxiety, panic, phobias, OCD and related disorders for over 25 years. I treat adults, adolescents, and children. I have lectured, been a clinical and research consultant, and trained and supervised other mental health professionals in the treatment of these disorders.
(646) 798-4154 View (646) 798-4154
Photo of Amanda Phillips, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Amanda Phillips
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10065  (Online Only)
I use empathy, humor and understanding to foster collaborative relationships with those I hold space for. I am commited to supporting individuals on their journey towards healing and personal growth. One of the key aspects of therapy that I like to focus on is emotional regulation, which is crucial for overall mental and physical well-being. I've helped numerous clients gain better control over their emotions, manage stress, and cope with difficult situations. By teaching practical strategies and providing a safe space for emotional expression, I empower clients to develop a healthier relationship with their emotions.
I use empathy, humor and understanding to foster collaborative relationships with those I hold space for. I am commited to supporting individuals on their journey towards healing and personal growth. One of the key aspects of therapy that I like to focus on is emotional regulation, which is crucial for overall mental and physical well-being. I've helped numerous clients gain better control over their emotions, manage stress, and cope with difficult situations. By teaching practical strategies and providing a safe space for emotional expression, I empower clients to develop a healthier relationship with their emotions.
(646) 969-3335 View (646) 969-3335
Photo of Mark Sichel, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Mark Sichel
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, BCD
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10021
Are you feeling depressed, anxious, worried about work, life, love and relationships? Do you want to learn new tools to solve chronic problems with your spouse, lover, teenager, boss, or other difficult people in your life? Are you tired of having the same old argument with the people you love most, and looking for new solutions for harmony and comfort in your close relationships?
Are you feeling depressed, anxious, worried about work, life, love and relationships? Do you want to learn new tools to solve chronic problems with your spouse, lover, teenager, boss, or other difficult people in your life? Are you tired of having the same old argument with the people you love most, and looking for new solutions for harmony and comfort in your close relationships?
(646) 351-1869 View (646) 351-1869
Photo of Dr. Elisa Monti - Coach in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Dr. Elisa Monti - Coach
PhD
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10021  (Online Only)
Is this type of coaching for me? It can be, if you: 1. Experience emotional blocks and/or overwhelming anxiety when expressing yourself and sharing your work (particularly creative or professional work) 2. Sense that - under stress - your body, your mind, and your voice react in ways that you wish you could “control”, but you can’t 3. Want to be seen and heard, and at the same time want to run and hide (or freeze) when you are actually visible and you sense eyes and ears on you. 4. Believe that these struggles come from previous painful and/or traumatic experiences.
Is this type of coaching for me? It can be, if you: 1. Experience emotional blocks and/or overwhelming anxiety when expressing yourself and sharing your work (particularly creative or professional work) 2. Sense that - under stress - your body, your mind, and your voice react in ways that you wish you could “control”, but you can’t 3. Want to be seen and heard, and at the same time want to run and hide (or freeze) when you are actually visible and you sense eyes and ears on you. 4. Believe that these struggles come from previous painful and/or traumatic experiences.
(646) 921-9085 View (646) 921-9085
Photo of Rebecca Nussbaum, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Rebecca Nussbaum
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10021  (Online Only)
I specialize in working with both individuals who are struggling to manage anxiety & looking to improve self esteem; and couples who with concerns and/or changes in their sexual relationship. As a therapist, I often explore how the messaging we receive, based on our gender, shapes the expectations we have of ourselves & impacts the relationship we have with our body, ideas of health, sex, and self worth.
I specialize in working with both individuals who are struggling to manage anxiety & looking to improve self esteem; and couples who with concerns and/or changes in their sexual relationship. As a therapist, I often explore how the messaging we receive, based on our gender, shapes the expectations we have of ourselves & impacts the relationship we have with our body, ideas of health, sex, and self worth.
(347) 801-0032 View (347) 801-0032
Photo of Chelsea Stack, Psychologist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Chelsea Stack
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10065  (Online Only)
I am a New York based licensed Clinical Psychologist. I provide child, adolescent and adult individual and family therapy sessions. My practice focuses on working with clients who may be struggling with difficulties stemming from trauma, depression, anxiety, family conflict, personality issues, school/work related stressors and every day difficulties that one may be facing.
I am a New York based licensed Clinical Psychologist. I provide child, adolescent and adult individual and family therapy sessions. My practice focuses on working with clients who may be struggling with difficulties stemming from trauma, depression, anxiety, family conflict, personality issues, school/work related stressors and every day difficulties that one may be facing.
(646) 722-6830 View (646) 722-6830
Photo of Raidys Rodriguez- Expansive Therapy in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Raidys Rodriguez- Expansive Therapy
MHC-LP
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10021
I am committed to helping clients achieve emotional well-being and personal growth. I strive to cultivate a collaborative and affirming therapeutic relationship where clients feel empowered to explore their experiences, overcome obstacles, and uncover their true potential. I also believe in building healthier coping strategies, enhancing self-awareness, and developing sustainable changes in their lives that bring fulfillment and meaning. I approach therapy through an integrative lens, where holistic and evidence-based interventions can co-exist.
I am committed to helping clients achieve emotional well-being and personal growth. I strive to cultivate a collaborative and affirming therapeutic relationship where clients feel empowered to explore their experiences, overcome obstacles, and uncover their true potential. I also believe in building healthier coping strategies, enhancing self-awareness, and developing sustainable changes in their lives that bring fulfillment and meaning. I approach therapy through an integrative lens, where holistic and evidence-based interventions can co-exist.
(646) 603-1876 View (646) 603-1876
Photo of Ariane Ernst, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Ariane Ernst
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LMSW, CASAC
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10021  (Online Only)
Every person who has arrived at the decision to seek therapy has had a unique path that has led to this point. Many struggle with the overwhelming demand of coping in a world with mounting pressures. Some may have noticed that their friends and family are commenting more often on their drinking habits. Others may be dealing with relationship problems that are stemming from unresolved issues from early in life. I believe that every person is trying the best they can in their unique circumstances, and everyone the potential to heal when given the right support. Therapy can be a tool that fuels self-reflection and fosters change.
Every person who has arrived at the decision to seek therapy has had a unique path that has led to this point. Many struggle with the overwhelming demand of coping in a world with mounting pressures. Some may have noticed that their friends and family are commenting more often on their drinking habits. Others may be dealing with relationship problems that are stemming from unresolved issues from early in life. I believe that every person is trying the best they can in their unique circumstances, and everyone the potential to heal when given the right support. Therapy can be a tool that fuels self-reflection and fosters change.
(646) 921-7666 View (646) 921-7666
Photo of Jesyca Vilensky, PsyD PLLC, Psychologist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Jesyca Vilensky, PsyD PLLC
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10022
People experience different challenges in their lives that are sometimes difficult to work through alone. But together we can make sense of it, and achieve a healthier, happier life. By providing a safe and empathic space, we can explore those challenges. My approach to each and every session is to be with you, through truly listening, providing a judgment-free environment, respectful challenge, and mutual participation throughout the therapeutic process. As a team, you and I will process the emotional, cognitive, physical, familial, and spiritual factors impacting your life, and preventing you from achieving your goals.
People experience different challenges in their lives that are sometimes difficult to work through alone. But together we can make sense of it, and achieve a healthier, happier life. By providing a safe and empathic space, we can explore those challenges. My approach to each and every session is to be with you, through truly listening, providing a judgment-free environment, respectful challenge, and mutual participation throughout the therapeutic process. As a team, you and I will process the emotional, cognitive, physical, familial, and spiritual factors impacting your life, and preventing you from achieving your goals.
(845) 521-7629 View (845) 521-7629
Photo of Llamar Walker, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Llamar Walker
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10037  (Online Only)
The willingness to help others is not only a quality that highlights someones strength to make an impact but it also showcases the strength of those seeking help for change. I have spent the last 13 years of my career helping clients navigate various obstacles. While they sought professional advice to cope with challenges, they're the ones who left me inspired by their vulnerability and the desire for a better life.
The willingness to help others is not only a quality that highlights someones strength to make an impact but it also showcases the strength of those seeking help for change. I have spent the last 13 years of my career helping clients navigate various obstacles. While they sought professional advice to cope with challenges, they're the ones who left me inspired by their vulnerability and the desire for a better life.
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Photo of Liz Yarock, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Lenox Hill, New York, NY
Liz Yarock
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Lenox Hill, New York, NY 10065  (Online Only)
If you're someone who's prone to anxiety, overthinking, worries, people pleasing, self-doubt, absorbs and feels a lot, identifies as an empath, or is the person that friends and family seek for support and guidance, you may find yourself especially overwhelmed, stressed, and anxious. I work primarily with women and young adults (18+) coping with anxiety, depression, life transitions, and relationship issues. My approach is integrative, in that I use various tools & therapeutic techniques to help you discover and build upon your unique strengths. I provide a safe and caring environment in which you feel truly accepted and supported.
If you're someone who's prone to anxiety, overthinking, worries, people pleasing, self-doubt, absorbs and feels a lot, identifies as an empath, or is the person that friends and family seek for support and guidance, you may find yourself especially overwhelmed, stressed, and anxious. I work primarily with women and young adults (18+) coping with anxiety, depression, life transitions, and relationship issues. My approach is integrative, in that I use various tools & therapeutic techniques to help you discover and build upon your unique strengths. I provide a safe and caring environment in which you feel truly accepted and supported.
(201) 298-8725 View (201) 298-8725

See more therapy options for Lenox Hill, New York

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Lenox Hill, New York, NY

900+

Average cost per session

$200

Therapists in Lenox Hill, New York, NY who prioritize treating:

95% Anxiety
90% Depression
86% Relationship Issues
80% Self Esteem
67% Coping Skills
66% Stress
63% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

73% Aetna
58% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
49% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Lenox Hill, New York, NY see their clients

63% In Person and Online
37% Online Only

Gender breakdown

82% Female
17% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Lenox Hill, New York?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.