Psychoanalytic Therapists in Kew Gardens, NY

Photo of Andres Goris, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Andres Goris
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Kew Gardens, NY 11415
I have over 30 years experience as a psychotherapist with a diverse age group and ethnicity. I have a certificate in child and adolescent psychoanalytic psychotherapy and currently enrolled in Object Relations psychotherapy training with adult. If you are experiencing anxiety, depression, or interpersonal problems I can help. My therapeutic style is warm, compassionate, and non-judgmental. I have experience in academia, supervision of clinicians and community mental health. Feel free to contact me for a free consultation. I speak Spanish/ Hablo español.
I have over 30 years experience as a psychotherapist with a diverse age group and ethnicity. I have a certificate in child and adolescent psychoanalytic psychotherapy and currently enrolled in Object Relations psychotherapy training with adult. If you are experiencing anxiety, depression, or interpersonal problems I can help. My therapeutic style is warm, compassionate, and non-judgmental. I have experience in academia, supervision of clinicians and community mental health. Feel free to contact me for a free consultation. I speak Spanish/ Hablo español.
(347) 281-6956 View (347) 281-6956
Photo of Jennifer Elaine Brandt, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Jennifer Elaine Brandt
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Kew Gardens, NY 11415
I have also had psychoanalytic training, and am a Kripalu Yoga Teacher - making me keenly aware of interplay between mind and body.
I aim to guide clients to uncover and understand their truths as they share their stories. Feelings around intimacy, loss, and shame which manifest as depression and anxiety are often central themes. Couples counseling, issues relating to sex and sexuality, co-parenting, divorce, and physical illness are some of my specialties. People become stuck in self-imposed limitations and self defeating actions and self talk. In our work, you will gain new perspectives that encourage your authentic self to express itself.
I have also had psychoanalytic training, and am a Kripalu Yoga Teacher - making me keenly aware of interplay between mind and body.
I aim to guide clients to uncover and understand their truths as they share their stories. Feelings around intimacy, loss, and shame which manifest as depression and anxiety are often central themes. Couples counseling, issues relating to sex and sexuality, co-parenting, divorce, and physical illness are some of my specialties. People become stuck in self-imposed limitations and self defeating actions and self talk. In our work, you will gain new perspectives that encourage your authentic self to express itself.
(347) 694-4219 View (347) 694-4219
Photo of Dr. Marisol Valencia-Payne, Psy D, M A, Psychologist
Dr. Marisol Valencia-Payne
Psychologist, Psy D, M A
Verified Verified
Kew Gardens, NY 11415  (Online Only)
My background is in psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapies; I have also trained in CBT, DBT, systems, and humanistic approaches and utilize an integrated approach.
Reaching out is often the toughest step and it is very important (and can be rewarding) to find the right fit! Each individual has their own unique story and experiences and therefore deserving of an individualized approach to therapy. The therapeutic relationship should foster one's personal journey to self exploration and growth. My goal is to help you find your best fit and support you in your personal growth, healing, and self-empowering journey. My approach is often described as supportive, warm, empowering, challenging (when you need it), and humorous.
My background is in psychodynamic and psychoanalytic therapies; I have also trained in CBT, DBT, systems, and humanistic approaches and utilize an integrated approach.
Reaching out is often the toughest step and it is very important (and can be rewarding) to find the right fit! Each individual has their own unique story and experiences and therefore deserving of an individualized approach to therapy. The therapeutic relationship should foster one's personal journey to self exploration and growth. My goal is to help you find your best fit and support you in your personal growth, healing, and self-empowering journey. My approach is often described as supportive, warm, empowering, challenging (when you need it), and humorous.
(585) 541-3285 View (585) 541-3285
Photo of Mary S Martin, LCSW-R, MBA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Mary S Martin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R, MBA
Verified Verified
Kew Gardens, NY 11415
I am an active, involved therapist. I have been in practice over fifteen years. My wide variety of experience working with children, families, individuals, couples and groups has given me insight on mental health issues and human behaviors. My therapeutic approach is an interactive, goal-oriented approach using cognitive behavior therapy. My goal is to help you develop and maintain healthy lifelong coping skills that are applicable to all aspects of your life.
I am an active, involved therapist. I have been in practice over fifteen years. My wide variety of experience working with children, families, individuals, couples and groups has given me insight on mental health issues and human behaviors. My therapeutic approach is an interactive, goal-oriented approach using cognitive behavior therapy. My goal is to help you develop and maintain healthy lifelong coping skills that are applicable to all aspects of your life.
(347) 284-6009 View (347) 284-6009
Photo of Inga Goldstein, LCSW-R, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Inga Goldstein
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
Kew Gardens, NY 11415
Optimal mental health is essential for overall Wellness. My approach is integrative and wholistic. I use evidence based treatment models to address specific challenges and struggles. I will help you identify obstacles that are holding you back from being your best self. You really do deserve to be happy, and I would love to guide you on your journey. My focus is on getting you feeling better quickly. Therapy does not need to take years and years -AND... can even be fun:) I am warm and easy to talk to, so why not take the first step and reach out to me. You won't regret it.
Optimal mental health is essential for overall Wellness. My approach is integrative and wholistic. I use evidence based treatment models to address specific challenges and struggles. I will help you identify obstacles that are holding you back from being your best self. You really do deserve to be happy, and I would love to guide you on your journey. My focus is on getting you feeling better quickly. Therapy does not need to take years and years -AND... can even be fun:) I am warm and easy to talk to, so why not take the first step and reach out to me. You won't regret it.
(347) 269-2702 View (347) 269-2702
Alice Garfinkel
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, PLLC
Verified Verified
Kew Gardens, NY 11415
It is important to have physical and mental well-being.Therapy is a process of self discovery and healing. I believe in the process and help people understand that we do it together. It takes time to work on one's issues but I believe in the process of growth and positive change. I help people recognize that you have to love oneself , feel you deserve to be happier and do the work to make that happen.I believe that people are survivors and can overcome obstacles. I look up insurance benefits for patients and do all billing to lessen patient worry over this. I provide telehealth therapy for those who work from home or are disabled
It is important to have physical and mental well-being.Therapy is a process of self discovery and healing. I believe in the process and help people understand that we do it together. It takes time to work on one's issues but I believe in the process of growth and positive change. I help people recognize that you have to love oneself , feel you deserve to be happier and do the work to make that happen.I believe that people are survivors and can overcome obstacles. I look up insurance benefits for patients and do all billing to lessen patient worry over this. I provide telehealth therapy for those who work from home or are disabled
(917) 688-2326 View (917) 688-2326
Photo of Ronald Villano - Family and Personal Counseling, LMHC, Counselor
Family and Personal Counseling
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Kew Gardens, NY 11415
We are by your side! No matter the issue that you are facing... anxiety, depression, life issues, family issues, grief, trauma, couples therapy, stress relief, etc... we are ready to help. In this widely acclaimed practice, Ron Villano, M.S., LMHC, ASAC, CCH has assembled an elite team of over 35 providers. Our decades of success in talk therapy comes from creating a customized approach designed to encourage you to face your challenges with new life skills and professional support. You are here looking for that fresh start... and we will answer your call TODAY.
We are by your side! No matter the issue that you are facing... anxiety, depression, life issues, family issues, grief, trauma, couples therapy, stress relief, etc... we are ready to help. In this widely acclaimed practice, Ron Villano, M.S., LMHC, ASAC, CCH has assembled an elite team of over 35 providers. Our decades of success in talk therapy comes from creating a customized approach designed to encourage you to face your challenges with new life skills and professional support. You are here looking for that fresh start... and we will answer your call TODAY.
(516) 774-4316 View (516) 774-4316
Photo of Gabriella Mastronardi, MA, LMHC, Counselor
Gabriella Mastronardi
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Kew Gardens, NY 11415
Hello! You deserve to live a life you are proud of and can feel good about. As a psychotherapist, I work with clients of diverse backgrounds and varying interests. I strive to provide an honest and compassionate space that encourages individuality. I work with clients suffering from a wide range of mental health issues, such as anxiety, depression, self-esteem, eating disorders, relationship issues, stress, mood disorders, emotional disturbances, behavioral issues, and life transitions.
Hello! You deserve to live a life you are proud of and can feel good about. As a psychotherapist, I work with clients of diverse backgrounds and varying interests. I strive to provide an honest and compassionate space that encourages individuality. I work with clients suffering from a wide range of mental health issues, such as anxiety, depression, self-esteem, eating disorders, relationship issues, stress, mood disorders, emotional disturbances, behavioral issues, and life transitions.
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Photo of Luisa Ospina, MA, LCSW, LP, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Luisa Ospina
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LCSW, LP
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kew Gardens, NY 11415  (Online Only)
I am a bilingual (Spanish/English) psychoanalyst and psychotherapist in NYC, with more than 30 years providing analytic treatment for adults. As we go through challenging situations in life, sometimes we find our selves needing additional support. I have special interest in helping individuals to navigate through life's changes and transitions, and identify effective and meaningful ways of coping with anxiety, depression, mood disorder, trauma, parenting.
I am a bilingual (Spanish/English) psychoanalyst and psychotherapist in NYC, with more than 30 years providing analytic treatment for adults. As we go through challenging situations in life, sometimes we find our selves needing additional support. I have special interest in helping individuals to navigate through life's changes and transitions, and identify effective and meaningful ways of coping with anxiety, depression, mood disorder, trauma, parenting.
(646) 512-8390 View (646) 512-8390
Photo of Dr. Michael Garbe, DSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Dr. Michael Garbe
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, DSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Kew Gardens, NY 11415  (Online Only)
I am a Doctor of Social Work and LCSW, specializing in the healing of trauma and the symptoms associated with it, such as: anxiety, depression, and "feeling stuck". I believe we can all break free from trauma and find a sense of peace in this challenging life. My doctoral studies focused on spirituality and trauma; I have authored a textbook chapter and presented at conferences on this topic. Besides my therapeutic work, I also enjoy teaching social work practice at a university level.
I am a Doctor of Social Work and LCSW, specializing in the healing of trauma and the symptoms associated with it, such as: anxiety, depression, and "feeling stuck". I believe we can all break free from trauma and find a sense of peace in this challenging life. My doctoral studies focused on spirituality and trauma; I have authored a textbook chapter and presented at conferences on this topic. Besides my therapeutic work, I also enjoy teaching social work practice at a university level.
(929) 298-7555 View (929) 298-7555
Photo of Natasha Fortune - Vitality: Mental Health Counseling, PLLC, LMHC, Counselor
Vitality: Mental Health Counseling, PLLC
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Kew Gardens, NY 11415
Life does not come with instructions and sometimes we need help mapping out where we want to be, and how to get there. Although you may feel lost and tied of “recalculating” we can help you can find your destination and reach your happy place. We will work together to give you the tools to start making the necessary changes to help you live life instead of existing.
Life does not come with instructions and sometimes we need help mapping out where we want to be, and how to get there. Although you may feel lost and tied of “recalculating” we can help you can find your destination and reach your happy place. We will work together to give you the tools to start making the necessary changes to help you live life instead of existing.
(917) 905-9462 View (917) 905-9462

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Charlene Chan, LCSWR, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Charlene Chan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSWR
Verified Verified
8 Endorsed
Forest Hills, NY 11375  (Online Only)
I've completed post-graduate psychoanalytic training and have a certificate in Emotionally Focused Therapy.
Are you struggling in your relationship with family, a partner, or friends? Are you noticing low self-esteem or self-confidence? Or are you, as a couple, finding yourselves in the same pattern of arguments, looking for relief? When faced with these challenges, some of the healing power comes from being able to voice it in a safe space with the support and compassion of a therapist. I'll work with you to explore what you're going through in a warm, non-judgmental way. Some of our work together will involve exploring your past experiences - perhaps with a harsh or critical parent, or the absence of emotional support you needed.
I've completed post-graduate psychoanalytic training and have a certificate in Emotionally Focused Therapy.
Are you struggling in your relationship with family, a partner, or friends? Are you noticing low self-esteem or self-confidence? Or are you, as a couple, finding yourselves in the same pattern of arguments, looking for relief? When faced with these challenges, some of the healing power comes from being able to voice it in a safe space with the support and compassion of a therapist. I'll work with you to explore what you're going through in a warm, non-judgmental way. Some of our work together will involve exploring your past experiences - perhaps with a harsh or critical parent, or the absence of emotional support you needed.
(347) 836-5784 View (347) 836-5784
Photo of Chardonnay Badchkam, LMHC, NBCC, CASAC, Counselor
Chardonnay Badchkam
Counselor, LMHC, NBCC, CASAC
Verified Verified
Flushing, NY 11367  (Online Only)
I use a Psychoanalytic approach which basically means a kind of talk therapy that explores things you may be doing unconsciously, which may have a significant impact on the way you feel and behave.
The most meaningful thing that you can do for someone, is to genuinely listen. My goal for all who seek counseling, is to help you to be in the driver's seat to your emotions, guiding you towards your true potential, and helping you build true connections with healthy fulfilling relationships. I want you to know that it is okay to feel angry, sad, depressed, embarrassed, unintelligent, needy, and every other emotion; because, when you acknowledge and have control of these emotions, they can guide you to discovering who you are, ask for what you need, and identifying your path in life.
I use a Psychoanalytic approach which basically means a kind of talk therapy that explores things you may be doing unconsciously, which may have a significant impact on the way you feel and behave.
The most meaningful thing that you can do for someone, is to genuinely listen. My goal for all who seek counseling, is to help you to be in the driver's seat to your emotions, guiding you towards your true potential, and helping you build true connections with healthy fulfilling relationships. I want you to know that it is okay to feel angry, sad, depressed, embarrassed, unintelligent, needy, and every other emotion; because, when you acknowledge and have control of these emotions, they can guide you to discovering who you are, ask for what you need, and identifying your path in life.
(718) 808-8742 View (718) 808-8742
Photo of Marc Rosenberg, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Marc Rosenberg
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Flushing, NY 11366
I am a Licensed Certified Social Worker who has over 30 years of clinical experience. I am a graduate of a Fellowship Training Institute in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. I maintain a private clinical practice in a relaxed casual environment.
I am a Licensed Certified Social Worker who has over 30 years of clinical experience. I am a graduate of a Fellowship Training Institute in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. I maintain a private clinical practice in a relaxed casual environment.
(347) 380-8321 View (347) 380-8321
Photo of Nino Tevdorashvili - Psychotherapy and Counseling services, LMHC, CASAC, Counselor
Psychotherapy and Counseling services
Counselor, LMHC, CASAC
Verified Verified
Forest Hills, NY 11375
We use psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, cognitive/behavioral and solution focused work.
You might experience anxiety, depression, anger, health problems, anger, substance use and other painful difficulties. We have successfully helped our client develop healthier coping skills and master the challenges that impact and affect their current emotional health. Whether working with individuals or couples, the particular intervention we use may vary according to individual or family needs. We work with you in gaining a deeper insight that fosters growth, improves your emotional health, develops the capacity to engage in healthy relationships and provide the tools and skills necessary to live an authentic and satisfying life.
We use psychoanalytic/psychodynamic, cognitive/behavioral and solution focused work.
You might experience anxiety, depression, anger, health problems, anger, substance use and other painful difficulties. We have successfully helped our client develop healthier coping skills and master the challenges that impact and affect their current emotional health. Whether working with individuals or couples, the particular intervention we use may vary according to individual or family needs. We work with you in gaining a deeper insight that fosters growth, improves your emotional health, develops the capacity to engage in healthy relationships and provide the tools and skills necessary to live an authentic and satisfying life.
(917) 267-0786 View (917) 267-0786
Photo of Tracy M Norris - Sirron Psychodynamic Wellness, LLC, DSW, LCSW-R, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Sirron Psychodynamic Wellness, LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, DSW, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Forest Hills, NY 11375  (Online Only)
I earned my Masters of Social Work (M.S.W.) from the Columbia University School of Social Work at Columbia University, and my Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) from the Rutgers University School of Social Work. I am currently undergoing advanced training at the National Institute for the Psychotherapies (NIP), a progressive psychoanalytic training institute. I have worked in community mental health centers, inpatient psychiatric units, and jails. I have extensive experience with trauma, depression, LGBTQIA+, race/cultural identity, anxiety, couples, CPTSD, substance use, life transitions, codependency, and personality disorders.
I earned my Masters of Social Work (M.S.W.) from the Columbia University School of Social Work at Columbia University, and my Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) from the Rutgers University School of Social Work. I am currently undergoing advanced training at the National Institute for the Psychotherapies (NIP), a progressive psychoanalytic training institute. I have worked in community mental health centers, inpatient psychiatric units, and jails. I have extensive experience with trauma, depression, LGBTQIA+, race/cultural identity, anxiety, couples, CPTSD, substance use, life transitions, codependency, and personality disorders.
(347) 652-1969 View (347) 652-1969
Photo of Kevin Taylor - Kevin Taylor LCSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kevin Taylor LCSW
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Forest Hills, NY 11375  (Online Only)
My treatment approaches consist of: Psychodynamic, Psychoanalytic, CBT and Motivational Interviewing treatment intervention.
I work with individuals, families and couples. the majority of clients i work with are adults between ages 20 and 65. I have assisted patients in achieving successfully treatment outcomes related to Trauma, Depression, Anxiety, Grief, Socioeconomic issues, & Sexual/Gender identity issues. I believe in the importance of assisting you with improving upon your self esteem in order to help you succeed, realize your potential and maximize your quality of life.
My treatment approaches consist of: Psychodynamic, Psychoanalytic, CBT and Motivational Interviewing treatment intervention.
I work with individuals, families and couples. the majority of clients i work with are adults between ages 20 and 65. I have assisted patients in achieving successfully treatment outcomes related to Trauma, Depression, Anxiety, Grief, Socioeconomic issues, & Sexual/Gender identity issues. I believe in the importance of assisting you with improving upon your self esteem in order to help you succeed, realize your potential and maximize your quality of life.
(929) 493-4948 View (929) 493-4948
Photo of Dr. Stephanie Tacopina, PhD, Psychologist
Dr. Stephanie Tacopina
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Forest Hills, NY 11375  (Online Only)
I have over 10 years of clinical and research experience, with specialized training in psychodynamic therapy from New York Psychoanalytic Institute, Mt Sinai hospitals, NYPD, and the APA accredited internship at Kings County Hospital in Brooklyn.
Welcome! I am a licensed Clinical Psychologist with expertise in general mental health concerns such as anxiety, depression, relationships, career and identity struggles. I also work with varying levels of trauma (physical/emotional injury, witnessing trauma, complex grief, breakups), postpartum issues, and frontline/essential workers. In working with me, you can expect a collaborative and non-judgmental environment, while exploring the causes for how you are feeling. We will work through uncomfortable feelings, examine new ways of being with yourself and others, and learn skills to achieve meaningful change and peace.
I have over 10 years of clinical and research experience, with specialized training in psychodynamic therapy from New York Psychoanalytic Institute, Mt Sinai hospitals, NYPD, and the APA accredited internship at Kings County Hospital in Brooklyn.
Welcome! I am a licensed Clinical Psychologist with expertise in general mental health concerns such as anxiety, depression, relationships, career and identity struggles. I also work with varying levels of trauma (physical/emotional injury, witnessing trauma, complex grief, breakups), postpartum issues, and frontline/essential workers. In working with me, you can expect a collaborative and non-judgmental environment, while exploring the causes for how you are feeling. We will work through uncomfortable feelings, examine new ways of being with yourself and others, and learn skills to achieve meaningful change and peace.
(929) 298-7587 View (929) 298-7587
Photo of Dr. Diana Carrillo, PhD, Pre-Licensed Professional
Dr. Diana Carrillo
Pre-Licensed Professional, PhD
Verified Verified
Rego Park, NY 11374  (Online Only)
Are you feeling overwhelmed with life? Sometimes we just need a listening ear to talk to. Attachment histories may have impacted us in ways that make it difficult to trust. We will overcome obstacles through a relational and psychoanalytic lens to uncover what is beneath our frustration with daily life struggles. My interests lie in helping uncover what is beneath the pain, frustration, guilt, and shame.
Are you feeling overwhelmed with life? Sometimes we just need a listening ear to talk to. Attachment histories may have impacted us in ways that make it difficult to trust. We will overcome obstacles through a relational and psychoanalytic lens to uncover what is beneath our frustration with daily life struggles. My interests lie in helping uncover what is beneath the pain, frustration, guilt, and shame.
(929) 205-5449 View (929) 205-5449
Photo of Matthew Cordova Frankel, PhD, MA, MSSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Matthew Cordova Frankel
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, MA, MSSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Forest Hills, NY 11375
My training includes various modes of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), focus in dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), decades of familiarly with mindfulness practices, and multiple certifications in psychoanalytic psychotherapy with specializations in the intensive treatment of adults, adolescents, and children.
Perhaps this is the first time you have searched for a therapist and are simply not sure where to start; or perhaps you have met with therapists in the past yet still find yourself wrestling with such stubborn difficulties as depression, anxiety, relationship conflicts, or self-sabotaging behavior. No matter your history with psychotherapy, current predicament, age, race, or gender, you can feel confident that I will welcome you into treatment with basic compassion, professional competence, and a deep sensitivity to the specific circumstances motivating you to seek help at this time.
My training includes various modes of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), focus in dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), decades of familiarly with mindfulness practices, and multiple certifications in psychoanalytic psychotherapy with specializations in the intensive treatment of adults, adolescents, and children.
Perhaps this is the first time you have searched for a therapist and are simply not sure where to start; or perhaps you have met with therapists in the past yet still find yourself wrestling with such stubborn difficulties as depression, anxiety, relationship conflicts, or self-sabotaging behavior. No matter your history with psychotherapy, current predicament, age, race, or gender, you can feel confident that I will welcome you into treatment with basic compassion, professional competence, and a deep sensitivity to the specific circumstances motivating you to seek help at this time.
(718) 612-7358 View (718) 612-7358

Psychoanalytic Therapists

Does psychoanalytic therapy work?

Psychoanalytic therapy derives from the work of Sigmund Freud. In this type of therapy, discovering buried thoughts and emotions from the unconscious will help a person work through their difficulties and negative behaviors. Research shows that psychoanalytic therapy can be highly effective, with patients reporting improvement in mood, quality of life, and overall well-being.

How long are people typically in psychoanalytic therapy?

Traditional psychoanalysis is in-depth and is conducted in five sessions every week. Today, modern psychoanalytic therapy is less intense and normally incorporates as few as one or two sessions a week. In some cases, positive change can occur quickly. However, if the condition, difficulty, or behavior is deep-seated, improvement may require many months or years of therapy.

Is psychoanalytic therapy suitable for young people?

Children and adolescents can benefit from this type of therapy. Many kids and teens are often unable to form and communicate their thoughts and emotions. Psychoanalytic therapy uses specific techniques such as dream analysis, symbolism, and free association or word association; all of which can be useful tools for less-communicative young people. Through this therapy, a patient will hopefully make connections between what they feel inside and how the world works outside.

Can psychoanalytic therapy be done online?

Modern-day psychoanalytic therapy is very different from traditional psychoanalysis. While an individual can sit face-to-face with the psychoanalyst for multiple sessions a week, they do not have to. Today, psychoanalytic therapy can be effectively conducted online or by phone. The key is that the individual confronts what is repressed and avoided, and this can be done whether in person or over online video.