Therapists in Groton, NY

Photo of Adrienne Marquis, LCSW, AAPT, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Adrienne Marquis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, AAPT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Groton, NY 13073
Each one of us has a desire within to be our truest, best selves. Sometimes our circumstances can hinder our thoughts and emotions in feeling the success of this ability. We can feel as though we are walking through a fog, unable to unlock this potential. Whether you are coping with sadness, anxiety, life stressors, life changes, or trauma, I am a firm believer that everyone has the ability to hit the pause button, take a deep breath, catch their second wind and begin again. Sometimes it just takes that first step, recognizing that the more you take, the closer you are to exiting the fog and beginning the life you imagine.
Each one of us has a desire within to be our truest, best selves. Sometimes our circumstances can hinder our thoughts and emotions in feeling the success of this ability. We can feel as though we are walking through a fog, unable to unlock this potential. Whether you are coping with sadness, anxiety, life stressors, life changes, or trauma, I am a firm believer that everyone has the ability to hit the pause button, take a deep breath, catch their second wind and begin again. Sometimes it just takes that first step, recognizing that the more you take, the closer you are to exiting the fog and beginning the life you imagine.
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Photo of Gregory G Moss, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Gregory G Moss
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Groton, NY 13073
Waitlist for new clients
I provide counseling to people who have a history of anxiety, depression, painful or abusive relationships, as well as those with past traumas or PTSD due to abuse or tragedy. I also work with people struggling with recent life or relationship problems or who are dealing with a relationship break-up. Although I provide therapy to a wide variety of people, what they have in common is that they want help to feel better and enjoy their lives more. They recognize that counseling is something that can help get them there faster than they could on their own.
I provide counseling to people who have a history of anxiety, depression, painful or abusive relationships, as well as those with past traumas or PTSD due to abuse or tragedy. I also work with people struggling with recent life or relationship problems or who are dealing with a relationship break-up. Although I provide therapy to a wide variety of people, what they have in common is that they want help to feel better and enjoy their lives more. They recognize that counseling is something that can help get them there faster than they could on their own.
(607) 533-2977 View (607) 533-2977
Maureen A Kiely
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
Groton, NY 13073
Not accepting new clients
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with years of experience in providing counseling to individuals, couples and families. My practice serves adults. A collaborative approach is utilized to address issues including depression, anxiety, family relationships, occupational stress, interpersonal problems and self concept. Trauma treatment including EMDR is available.
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with years of experience in providing counseling to individuals, couples and families. My practice serves adults. A collaborative approach is utilized to address issues including depression, anxiety, family relationships, occupational stress, interpersonal problems and self concept. Trauma treatment including EMDR is available.
(607) 643-4029 View (607) 643-4029

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Deborah K Lewis, LCSW, MEd, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Deborah K Lewis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MEd
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
My job is to facilitate the process of change with individuals and families. I am experienced in helping people with problems in personal relationships and at work. Many of my clients are feeling stuck or unsure about something of importance. They may be struggling with parenting, addiction, or feelings of anxiety, irritability, and deep sadness. Often, the people I work with are associated with colleges and universities. My 20+ years of experience in higher education is a resource in my work as a therapist.
My job is to facilitate the process of change with individuals and families. I am experienced in helping people with problems in personal relationships and at work. Many of my clients are feeling stuck or unsure about something of importance. They may be struggling with parenting, addiction, or feelings of anxiety, irritability, and deep sadness. Often, the people I work with are associated with colleges and universities. My 20+ years of experience in higher education is a resource in my work as a therapist.
(607) 228-8344 View (607) 228-8344
Photo of Jane Ruoff, PhD, Psychologist
Jane Ruoff
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Lansing, NY 14882
Welcome! As a clinical psychologist, I help adults who are struggling with anxiety, social anxiety, insomnia, low self-esteem, and interpersonal difficulties. I also work with people who are experiencing significant loss or life transitions. I provide a confidential, safe, and compassionate setting where you can feel understood on your own terms. My eclectic approach to treatment includes psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and mindfulness perspectives, and I tailor my approach to meet the individual needs of each client.
Welcome! As a clinical psychologist, I help adults who are struggling with anxiety, social anxiety, insomnia, low self-esteem, and interpersonal difficulties. I also work with people who are experiencing significant loss or life transitions. I provide a confidential, safe, and compassionate setting where you can feel understood on your own terms. My eclectic approach to treatment includes psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and mindfulness perspectives, and I tailor my approach to meet the individual needs of each client.
(585) 502-1498 View (585) 502-1498
Photo of undefined - Whole Wellness Counseling , DSW, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Whole Wellness Counseling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, DSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Ithaca, NY 14850
Have you ever felt so desperate to talk that you started to overshare with colleagues and strangers, or adopted a pet? How many times have you written that pros and cons list only to be still unsure of your next move? Are you carrying so much stress that everyone around you is walking on eggshells? Whole Wellness Counseling offers a listening ear and evidence-based strategies to improve your sense of well-being. Whole Wellness offers psychological and behavioral health assessments for young children, teens, and adults in Ithaca, Binghamton, Orchard Park, and Saratoga Springs, as well as via telehealth all across New York State.
Have you ever felt so desperate to talk that you started to overshare with colleagues and strangers, or adopted a pet? How many times have you written that pros and cons list only to be still unsure of your next move? Are you carrying so much stress that everyone around you is walking on eggshells? Whole Wellness Counseling offers a listening ear and evidence-based strategies to improve your sense of well-being. Whole Wellness offers psychological and behavioral health assessments for young children, teens, and adults in Ithaca, Binghamton, Orchard Park, and Saratoga Springs, as well as via telehealth all across New York State.
(607) 695-5821 View (607) 695-5821
Photo of Ester Edelman, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Ester Edelman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Etna, NY 13062
Thank you for visiting my page. I am a licensed clinical social worker. I was also trained in psychodynamic therapy in Brighton, UK, and I love integrating this modality in my work. I have 19 years of extensive experience working in the community and in college counseling with people who struggle with a wide range of difficulties, including mental health, stress, loneliness, grief, isolation, irritability, relationships, trauma and PTSD, childhood adversities, family entanglements, racial and cultural concerns, unhealthy boundaries, life transitions and decisions making, sleep difficulties, eating and body image and low self esteem.
Thank you for visiting my page. I am a licensed clinical social worker. I was also trained in psychodynamic therapy in Brighton, UK, and I love integrating this modality in my work. I have 19 years of extensive experience working in the community and in college counseling with people who struggle with a wide range of difficulties, including mental health, stress, loneliness, grief, isolation, irritability, relationships, trauma and PTSD, childhood adversities, family entanglements, racial and cultural concerns, unhealthy boundaries, life transitions and decisions making, sleep difficulties, eating and body image and low self esteem.
(607) 603-7110 View (607) 603-7110
Photo of Esther Ivy Herkowitz, MS, LMHC, MFLC, Counselor
Esther Ivy Herkowitz
Counselor, MS, LMHC, MFLC
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Our thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, relationships and experiences shape us emotionally, physically and energetically. By gently and compassionately exploring these, both healthy and undermining, new choices become possible. I offer principles from Behavioral Cognitive Therapy including guided meditation, diaphragmatic breathing, cognitive restructuring, progressive relaxation, and mindfulness. When reinforced with practice, these techniques help to increase wellness and reduce suffering and anxiety. You don't need to know the problem or the solution to begin. You only need to want something to change.
Our thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, relationships and experiences shape us emotionally, physically and energetically. By gently and compassionately exploring these, both healthy and undermining, new choices become possible. I offer principles from Behavioral Cognitive Therapy including guided meditation, diaphragmatic breathing, cognitive restructuring, progressive relaxation, and mindfulness. When reinforced with practice, these techniques help to increase wellness and reduce suffering and anxiety. You don't need to know the problem or the solution to begin. You only need to want something to change.
(607) 216-9165 View (607) 216-9165
Photo of Celeste Froehlich, MA, LCSW-R, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Celeste Froehlich
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Lansing, NY 14882
Not accepting new clients
No openings at this time- please check back in a month or so! We work with individual adult and adolescent clients of all ages, races, cultures, LGBTQ, etc., to rediscover genuine strength, vitality, and empowerment. Are you struggling with work, relationships, or past trauma? I offer a safe, nonjudgemental, compassionate atmosphere, and listen deeply. I use relational/experiential and mindfulness-based modalities. I believe therapy sessions shouldn't be just talking about feelings, but instead having a new experience, so you leave each session feeling different, better. Together, we forge new pathways for lasting healing.
No openings at this time- please check back in a month or so! We work with individual adult and adolescent clients of all ages, races, cultures, LGBTQ, etc., to rediscover genuine strength, vitality, and empowerment. Are you struggling with work, relationships, or past trauma? I offer a safe, nonjudgemental, compassionate atmosphere, and listen deeply. I use relational/experiential and mindfulness-based modalities. I believe therapy sessions shouldn't be just talking about feelings, but instead having a new experience, so you leave each session feeling different, better. Together, we forge new pathways for lasting healing.
(607) 305-4528 View (607) 305-4528
Photo of Judy Lynch, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Judy Lynch
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cortland, NY 13045
Not accepting new clients
Taking that first step to reach out for therapy can be a challenge; I understand the struggle. I can offer over 25 years of experience in my field as a licensed social worker/counselor. We will establish goals for your work in therapy and I'll help you find healing, develop coping skills and resolve conflicts. I have worked with adults of all ages, adolescents, and college students struggling to manage depression, anxiety, ADHD, loss, trauma, and stress, as well as relationship concerns and more. I hope you will reach out to arrange a phone call for a consultation.
Taking that first step to reach out for therapy can be a challenge; I understand the struggle. I can offer over 25 years of experience in my field as a licensed social worker/counselor. We will establish goals for your work in therapy and I'll help you find healing, develop coping skills and resolve conflicts. I have worked with adults of all ages, adolescents, and college students struggling to manage depression, anxiety, ADHD, loss, trauma, and stress, as well as relationship concerns and more. I hope you will reach out to arrange a phone call for a consultation.
(607) 233-4474 View (607) 233-4474
Photo of Melinda McCullough, LCSW-R, MSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Melinda McCullough
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R, MSW
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
Not accepting new clients
Not accepting clients at this time. A strong connection to your therapist is the cornerstone of good therapy and is more likely to lead towards personal growth and achievement of your life goals. I want you to feel heard, understood and successful in your healing journey. I use an approach that is warm, welcoming and real with my clients. I specialize my work with adults who have experienced relational trauma, depression, anxiety and victims of narcissistic abuse. I am certified in trauma therapies such as TF-CBT, IFS, and Tapping (EFT). I also pull from an eclectic approach of therapies such as CBT, DBT, ACT and family systems.
Not accepting clients at this time. A strong connection to your therapist is the cornerstone of good therapy and is more likely to lead towards personal growth and achievement of your life goals. I want you to feel heard, understood and successful in your healing journey. I use an approach that is warm, welcoming and real with my clients. I specialize my work with adults who have experienced relational trauma, depression, anxiety and victims of narcissistic abuse. I am certified in trauma therapies such as TF-CBT, IFS, and Tapping (EFT). I also pull from an eclectic approach of therapies such as CBT, DBT, ACT and family systems.
Photo of Kristen M Haddad, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Kristen M Haddad
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cortland, NY 13045  (Online Only)
My primary therapeutic focus is to help teenagers and adults to develop a stronger sense of self and to develop the coping skills they will need to address issues of anxiety, self esteem and self worth. I use a non-judgmental, trauma informed and holistic approach to help clients develop their ability to self soothe, including using body/movement and grounding techniques. I focus on both personal autonomy and understanding ourselves in relationships, with the goal of moving out of stuck feelings and thoughts to embody a more curious stance of your experiences and the world around you.
My primary therapeutic focus is to help teenagers and adults to develop a stronger sense of self and to develop the coping skills they will need to address issues of anxiety, self esteem and self worth. I use a non-judgmental, trauma informed and holistic approach to help clients develop their ability to self soothe, including using body/movement and grounding techniques. I focus on both personal autonomy and understanding ourselves in relationships, with the goal of moving out of stuck feelings and thoughts to embody a more curious stance of your experiences and the world around you.
(607) 367-6648 View (607) 367-6648
Photo of Heather Sanford, LMSW, MPA, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Heather Sanford
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, MPA
Verified Verified
Dryden, NY 13053
*I am not able to accept new clients at this time for individual treatment. However, I am accepting people for group therapy. * I enjoy building relationships that facilitate the healing process - moving from just coping everyday to overcoming barriers in relationships, work, school and overall well-being through connection. I have experience working with adults and adolescents with persistent anxiety, depression and difficulty in attachment, often this is due to trauma. Additionally, I enjoy working with adolescents and their families to create relationships that work for all family members.
*I am not able to accept new clients at this time for individual treatment. However, I am accepting people for group therapy. * I enjoy building relationships that facilitate the healing process - moving from just coping everyday to overcoming barriers in relationships, work, school and overall well-being through connection. I have experience working with adults and adolescents with persistent anxiety, depression and difficulty in attachment, often this is due to trauma. Additionally, I enjoy working with adolescents and their families to create relationships that work for all family members.
(607) 391-2540 View (607) 391-2540
Photo of Katey Kingra, LMHC-P
Katey Kingra
LMHC-P
Verified Verified
Ithaca, NY 14850  (Online Only)
I work with individuals ages 15-105 handling any of the following: anxiety, depression, life-transitions, family relationships, overwhelm as well as issues associated with achievement and purpose.
I work with individuals ages 15-105 handling any of the following: anxiety, depression, life-transitions, family relationships, overwhelm as well as issues associated with achievement and purpose.
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Photo of Lezlie Namaste, LCSW-R, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Lezlie Namaste
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Lansing, NY 14882
I'd like to support you to discover your strengths, resiliency and feel empowered in your life, schooling and relationships. Together, in a warm, safe, collaborative environment, we create a positive path towards your well-being to deal with anxiety, depression, procrastination and stress. Utilizing your inherent strengths and coping strategies with new successful skills and approaches, we will uncover negative thought patterns or behaviors, stuck places, and create new pathways. Reconnecting with your healthy self, we will navigate through present transitions, pain or loss to transform your connection with yourself and others.
I'd like to support you to discover your strengths, resiliency and feel empowered in your life, schooling and relationships. Together, in a warm, safe, collaborative environment, we create a positive path towards your well-being to deal with anxiety, depression, procrastination and stress. Utilizing your inherent strengths and coping strategies with new successful skills and approaches, we will uncover negative thought patterns or behaviors, stuck places, and create new pathways. Reconnecting with your healthy self, we will navigate through present transitions, pain or loss to transform your connection with yourself and others.
(607) 354-3063 View (607) 354-3063
Photo of Ellen Peterson, LCSW, CHT, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Ellen Peterson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CHT
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
Are you ready to live your life fully? I use a variety of approaches to support and empower you to move forward in your life. As a self-help author, I offer services that restore hope and inspire you to move beyond obstacles on your way to a life of unlimited possibilities. As a certified hypnotherapist, I can help you quickly reach the core levels of issues and transform the familiar patterns that sabotage living (i.e. depression, anxiety). My gentle and caring approach will undoubtedly move you into deeper levels of healing and connect you fully with life.
Are you ready to live your life fully? I use a variety of approaches to support and empower you to move forward in your life. As a self-help author, I offer services that restore hope and inspire you to move beyond obstacles on your way to a life of unlimited possibilities. As a certified hypnotherapist, I can help you quickly reach the core levels of issues and transform the familiar patterns that sabotage living (i.e. depression, anxiety). My gentle and caring approach will undoubtedly move you into deeper levels of healing and connect you fully with life.
(607) 208-7836 View (607) 208-7836
Photo of Montgomery Lyons, PsyD, Psychologist
Montgomery Lyons
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cortland, NY 13045
My ideal client is a client that is motivated for change, and willing to be vulnerable, open, and honest. They are willing to put in the work and trust in the therapy process. It is my goal to assist the client in any way that I can and meet their needs in order to help them achieve their goals, gain a better balanced self, and improve their overall mental health.
My ideal client is a client that is motivated for change, and willing to be vulnerable, open, and honest. They are willing to put in the work and trust in the therapy process. It is my goal to assist the client in any way that I can and meet their needs in order to help them achieve their goals, gain a better balanced self, and improve their overall mental health.
(607) 208-9416 View (607) 208-9416
Photo of Adam R. Krantweiss, PhD, Psychologist
Adam R. Krantweiss
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Ithaca, NY 14850
I have worked as a clinical psychologist since 2004. Originally from the NYC metropolitan area, I have lived in upstate NY for many years. My approach to psychotherapy is tailored to both presenting problems and clients’ interest in exploring questions. Sometimes, short-term and goal-directed psychotherapy is the best path, while at other times, a longer self-exploration is more helpful for self-seeing. I will meet you at your starting point and try to help you gain clarity and understanding into your questions, with the goal of helping you overcome the obstacles that keep you stuck in a situation or mindset.
I have worked as a clinical psychologist since 2004. Originally from the NYC metropolitan area, I have lived in upstate NY for many years. My approach to psychotherapy is tailored to both presenting problems and clients’ interest in exploring questions. Sometimes, short-term and goal-directed psychotherapy is the best path, while at other times, a longer self-exploration is more helpful for self-seeing. I will meet you at your starting point and try to help you gain clarity and understanding into your questions, with the goal of helping you overcome the obstacles that keep you stuck in a situation or mindset.
(607) 275-5232 View (607) 275-5232
Photo of Carmen Munson, LCSW, BCC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Carmen Munson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, BCC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Cortland, NY 13045  (Online Only)
Welcoming teletherapy clients. Have you been feeling stuck, overwhelmed, depressed, anxious or stressed? Let's talk! Reaching out for help is the first step to feeling better. I welcome hearing from you, and I offer a complimentary brief chat.
Welcoming teletherapy clients. Have you been feeling stuck, overwhelmed, depressed, anxious or stressed? Let's talk! Reaching out for help is the first step to feeling better. I welcome hearing from you, and I offer a complimentary brief chat.
(607) 279-3379 View (607) 279-3379
Photo of Betty J Gloss, LCSW, Clinical Social Work/Therapist
Betty J Gloss
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Cortland, NY 13045
Not accepting new clients
Are you feeling stuck, confused, overwhelmed, or discouraged? These feelings can prevent you from moving on and accomplishing your goals. Events from your past and present can affect your ability to cope and to concentrate on the present and future that you want for yourself. Talking to a trusted, objective therapist can help you sort this out and learn skills to cope and move on to the life you want. Many people are relieved to learn what their symptoms mean and to understand that there is hope. I can offer support, guidance, and information on coping skills to help you move on.
Are you feeling stuck, confused, overwhelmed, or discouraged? These feelings can prevent you from moving on and accomplishing your goals. Events from your past and present can affect your ability to cope and to concentrate on the present and future that you want for yourself. Talking to a trusted, objective therapist can help you sort this out and learn skills to cope and move on to the life you want. Many people are relieved to learn what their symptoms mean and to understand that there is hope. I can offer support, guidance, and information on coping skills to help you move on.
(607) 275-5174 View (607) 275-5174

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Groton, NY

< 10

Therapists in Groton, NY who prioritize treating:

67% Depression
67% Anxiety
33% Relationship Issues
33% Child
33% ADHD
33% Trauma and PTSD
33% Other

Average years in practice

7 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% Aetna
67% BlueCross and BlueShield
67% Magellan

How Therapists in Groton, NY see their clients

100% In Person and Online

Gender breakdown

67% Female
33% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Groton?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.