Therapists in East Greenbush, NY

Photo of Janice Wieczorek, Counselor in East Greenbush, NY
Janice Wieczorek
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
East Greenbush, NY 12061  (Online Only)
The goal in therapy is to create a compassionate and trusting space for clients to get through difficult periods in their lives and support healing. I work towards empowering clients with new tools to break old cycles and to help change what is not working in their lives. To begin counseling, clients describe goals and needs. Then we work together to create a new model of living integrating the Holistic Model of treating the mind, body and spirit as a whole.
The goal in therapy is to create a compassionate and trusting space for clients to get through difficult periods in their lives and support healing. I work towards empowering clients with new tools to break old cycles and to help change what is not working in their lives. To begin counseling, clients describe goals and needs. Then we work together to create a new model of living integrating the Holistic Model of treating the mind, body and spirit as a whole.
(518) 319-1085 View (518) 319-1085
Photo of Joe Korzelius, Licensed Professional Counselor in East Greenbush, NY
Joe Korzelius
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
East Greenbush, NY 12061
My desire is to provide a non-judgmental environment that allows you to express yourself freely and openly. I am genuine and supportive, but can be direct and challenge you to adapt your thinking when necessary. I strive for my clients to feel more focused, emotionally regulated, and confident. My approach emphasizes cognitive-behavioral techniques focusing on improving coping skills, habits to manage stress, anger, & depression. I am a believer in the client's power to heal themselves from an outdated belief system as well as their own mental, emotional and spiritual challenges. I will be a guide on your journey to better health.
My desire is to provide a non-judgmental environment that allows you to express yourself freely and openly. I am genuine and supportive, but can be direct and challenge you to adapt your thinking when necessary. I strive for my clients to feel more focused, emotionally regulated, and confident. My approach emphasizes cognitive-behavioral techniques focusing on improving coping skills, habits to manage stress, anger, & depression. I am a believer in the client's power to heal themselves from an outdated belief system as well as their own mental, emotional and spiritual challenges. I will be a guide on your journey to better health.
(864) 383-8897 View (864) 383-8897
Photo of Julie Kash, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in East Greenbush, NY
Julie Kash
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
East Greenbush, NY 12061  (Online Only)
I am most passionate about working with both couples and individuals who feel uneasy about their relationship dynamics and want to move toward creating healthy relationships. We can work together to better understand your patterns and help you gain a greater sense of control. I also enjoy working with those going through major life transitions, struggling with all the normal questions of “what parts of myself am I leaving behind?” and “how do I know I’m on the right track?”
I am most passionate about working with both couples and individuals who feel uneasy about their relationship dynamics and want to move toward creating healthy relationships. We can work together to better understand your patterns and help you gain a greater sense of control. I also enjoy working with those going through major life transitions, struggling with all the normal questions of “what parts of myself am I leaving behind?” and “how do I know I’m on the right track?”
(347) 941-1127 View (347) 941-1127
Photo of Susan Price, Counselor in East Greenbush, NY
Susan Price
Counselor, MS, LMHC, NCC
Verified Verified
East Greenbush, NY 12061
I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor and Nationally Certified Counselor with experience treating substance abuse and mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, and OCD. I have extensive knowledge and training in Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors (BFRBs) such as hair pulling (trichotillomania) and skin picking (excoriation disorder). Whatever your reason for seeking counseling, I will work with you to create a collaborative and supportive environment. My approach includes Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, and the Comprehensive Behavioral (ComB) model for treating BFRBs.
I am a Licensed Mental Health Counselor and Nationally Certified Counselor with experience treating substance abuse and mental health disorders including depression, anxiety, and OCD. I have extensive knowledge and training in Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors (BFRBs) such as hair pulling (trichotillomania) and skin picking (excoriation disorder). Whatever your reason for seeking counseling, I will work with you to create a collaborative and supportive environment. My approach includes Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy, and the Comprehensive Behavioral (ComB) model for treating BFRBs.
(518) 631-3224 View (518) 631-3224
Photo of 1st Step Counseling PLLC, Counselor in East Greenbush, NY
1st Step Counseling PLLC
Counselor, EdD, LMHC, CASAC 2, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
East Greenbush, NY 12061
Waitlist for new clients
Our Village Services LLC., because it takes a village. We aim to promote supportive healing for individuals and families affected by Mental health and substance use disorders. No one should have to face life challenges alone. Mental health and substance use create life-changing conditions impacting the lives of everyone: the individuals with the disorders, friends, and the community.
Our Village Services LLC., because it takes a village. We aim to promote supportive healing for individuals and families affected by Mental health and substance use disorders. No one should have to face life challenges alone. Mental health and substance use create life-changing conditions impacting the lives of everyone: the individuals with the disorders, friends, and the community.
(518) 512-0164 View (518) 512-0164
Photo of Rachel Lewis Care Path Counseling Services, Counselor in East Greenbush, NY
Rachel Lewis Care Path Counseling Services
Counselor, LMHC, CASAC, NCC
Verified Verified
East Greenbush, NY 12061
With over 20 years of clinical experience working in behavioral health, I believe that people are resilient, and that resilience becomes our beacon to self-discovery and emotional healing. I believe that everyone has the power to live the life they want, and I tailor my counseling and support to help foster the healing and empowerment process. I love to help clients explore their potential with evidenced based techniques that can help increase life satisfaction and promote healing. Everyone's journey in life is personal. If you find yourself questioning your journey, please call or email me today. It would be my honor to help.
With over 20 years of clinical experience working in behavioral health, I believe that people are resilient, and that resilience becomes our beacon to self-discovery and emotional healing. I believe that everyone has the power to live the life they want, and I tailor my counseling and support to help foster the healing and empowerment process. I love to help clients explore their potential with evidenced based techniques that can help increase life satisfaction and promote healing. Everyone's journey in life is personal. If you find yourself questioning your journey, please call or email me today. It would be my honor to help.
(518) 302-2435 View (518) 302-2435
Photo of Amber Kline, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in East Greenbush, NY
Amber Kline
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
East Greenbush, NY 12061
Do you feel overwhelmed by trying to do it all and balancing the responsibilities of work, family & friendships? Do you feel constant pressure to be the one that always holds everything together and if you don’t, everything around you will fall apart? Do you find that you spend so much of your time taking care of everyone and everything else that you don’t know who you are anymore? Do you struggle with maintaining healthy relationships and wonder, “when will I ever get it right?” If you answered yes to any of these questions, you are not alone!
Do you feel overwhelmed by trying to do it all and balancing the responsibilities of work, family & friendships? Do you feel constant pressure to be the one that always holds everything together and if you don’t, everything around you will fall apart? Do you find that you spend so much of your time taking care of everyone and everything else that you don’t know who you are anymore? Do you struggle with maintaining healthy relationships and wonder, “when will I ever get it right?” If you answered yes to any of these questions, you are not alone!
(518) 351-2943 View (518) 351-2943
Photo of Libertas Mind Ketamine Neurohealth and Infusion in East Greenbush, NY
Libertas Mind Ketamine Neurohealth and Infusion
DO
Verified Verified
East Greenbush, NY 12061
With an unprecedented increase in patient's suffering depression, pain and PTSD, new treatment options are desperately needed. Libertas Mind is a medical clinic created to offer hope. We provide Ketamine infusions, Spravato and Stellate ganglion blocks in a safe space with board certified experts. Founded by Dr. Jason Steindler, an assistant professor and double board certified physician in Anesthesiology and Pain medicine, Libertas Mind also offer health coaching, psychotherapy and psychiatry as well.
With an unprecedented increase in patient's suffering depression, pain and PTSD, new treatment options are desperately needed. Libertas Mind is a medical clinic created to offer hope. We provide Ketamine infusions, Spravato and Stellate ganglion blocks in a safe space with board certified experts. Founded by Dr. Jason Steindler, an assistant professor and double board certified physician in Anesthesiology and Pain medicine, Libertas Mind also offer health coaching, psychotherapy and psychiatry as well.
(518) 240-3806 View (518) 240-3806
Photo of Teresa D'Arcangelis, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in East Greenbush, NY
Teresa D'Arcangelis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
East Greenbush, NY 12061
Whatever you are struggling with, it is my priority to help you cope, heal and develop skills to make you a healthier, stronger person. Life presents us with so many challenges- and opportunities for growth, all without a rulebook. New situations can be difficult. Old traumas and triggers are too. Maybe you think you've figured things out; then everything shifts. Parents and teens/tweens sometimes stop seeing things the same way. Adolescents struggle and can act out their pain in self-destructive ways and lash out at people they love. If life seems like a source of stress and pain, therapy may be an answer.
Whatever you are struggling with, it is my priority to help you cope, heal and develop skills to make you a healthier, stronger person. Life presents us with so many challenges- and opportunities for growth, all without a rulebook. New situations can be difficult. Old traumas and triggers are too. Maybe you think you've figured things out; then everything shifts. Parents and teens/tweens sometimes stop seeing things the same way. Adolescents struggle and can act out their pain in self-destructive ways and lash out at people they love. If life seems like a source of stress and pain, therapy may be an answer.
(518) 625-8719 View (518) 625-8719

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Briana Kreamer, Counselor in East Greenbush, NY
Briana Kreamer
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Troy, NY 12180
Hi, I am Briana Kreamer, a Licensed Mental Health Counselor with over 4 years of clinical experience. I am comfortable meeting with all types of clients, focusing on depression, anxiety, life stressors, life transitions, and interpersonal concerns. I have worked with various clients with diagnoses, most frequently depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and substance misuse. I pull from different types of therapy that include Cognitive Behavioral, SFBT, Narrative, Motivational Interviewing, and Strength-Based. I believe in approaching each client openly and with empathy to help find the best way to help the client meet their goals.
Hi, I am Briana Kreamer, a Licensed Mental Health Counselor with over 4 years of clinical experience. I am comfortable meeting with all types of clients, focusing on depression, anxiety, life stressors, life transitions, and interpersonal concerns. I have worked with various clients with diagnoses, most frequently depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and substance misuse. I pull from different types of therapy that include Cognitive Behavioral, SFBT, Narrative, Motivational Interviewing, and Strength-Based. I believe in approaching each client openly and with empathy to help find the best way to help the client meet their goals.
(518) 990-7789 View (518) 990-7789
Photo of Adena Worona, Park West Wellness , Clinical Social Work/Therapist in East Greenbush, NY
Adena Worona, Park West Wellness
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Nassau, NY 12123  (Online Only)
I founded Park West Wellness with the commitment to help people overcome life’s challenges, both big and small. Seeking therapy can be intimidating and my passion is to help make it easier by ensuring you feel comfortable, heard and accepted. I am dedicated to bringing empathy and warmth to my work. I am an experienced therapist who values creativity and individual expression. I believe therapy to be a collaborative effort, that can lead to a better self view and to obtaining more enjoyment - both individually and through one's relationships.
I founded Park West Wellness with the commitment to help people overcome life’s challenges, both big and small. Seeking therapy can be intimidating and my passion is to help make it easier by ensuring you feel comfortable, heard and accepted. I am dedicated to bringing empathy and warmth to my work. I am an experienced therapist who values creativity and individual expression. I believe therapy to be a collaborative effort, that can lead to a better self view and to obtaining more enjoyment - both individually and through one's relationships.
(646) 687-7352 View (646) 687-7352
Photo of Kimberley Mathias, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in East Greenbush, NY
Kimberley Mathias
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Delmar, NY 12054
I believe that we all have the power to heal from trauma, change negative thinking patterns, and make positive changes in our lives when we feel supported in a safe and nurturing space. My goal is to help my clients develop deeper insight and awareness of themselves to better understand the barriers that prevent their healing and growth. I work with clients of all ages to process trauma and address difficulties in social, work, and relationship functioning. These problems can include depression, anxiety, loss, low self-esteem, emotional/behavioral dysregulation and major life transitions.
I believe that we all have the power to heal from trauma, change negative thinking patterns, and make positive changes in our lives when we feel supported in a safe and nurturing space. My goal is to help my clients develop deeper insight and awareness of themselves to better understand the barriers that prevent their healing and growth. I work with clients of all ages to process trauma and address difficulties in social, work, and relationship functioning. These problems can include depression, anxiety, loss, low self-esteem, emotional/behavioral dysregulation and major life transitions.
(518) 849-8419 View (518) 849-8419
Photo of Jackie Sanchez, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in East Greenbush, NY
Jackie Sanchez
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, PMP
Verified Verified
Troy, NY 12180
Waitlist for new clients
I have been in private practice for 20+ years and have learned the joy and pain of finding purpose in the human condition with and through my clients. I have vast experience in coping/healing from various traumas, PTSD, separation, shame, a strong background in trust issues, and all types of relationships, as well as a forte for LGBTQIA relationships and parenting.
I have been in private practice for 20+ years and have learned the joy and pain of finding purpose in the human condition with and through my clients. I have vast experience in coping/healing from various traumas, PTSD, separation, shame, a strong background in trust issues, and all types of relationships, as well as a forte for LGBTQIA relationships and parenting.
View
Photo of Shaelynn Kelly, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in East Greenbush, NY
Shaelynn Kelly
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Troy, NY 12180
Navigating through life’s ups and downs may seem impossible at times. Whether it be working through relationship issues, regulating our emotions, or coping with change, it can be helpful to have someone on your side. I hope to be that person for you. I have experience working with children, adolescents, and their families in schools, residential care, and community-based counseling. I have helped individuals process through traumatic experiences, learn and practice healthier coping strategies, and implement positive communication and social skills all in order to improve their lives and relationships with others.
Navigating through life’s ups and downs may seem impossible at times. Whether it be working through relationship issues, regulating our emotions, or coping with change, it can be helpful to have someone on your side. I hope to be that person for you. I have experience working with children, adolescents, and their families in schools, residential care, and community-based counseling. I have helped individuals process through traumatic experiences, learn and practice healthier coping strategies, and implement positive communication and social skills all in order to improve their lives and relationships with others.
(518) 940-4893 View (518) 940-4893
Photo of Jenny Love, Pre-Licensed Professional in East Greenbush, NY
Jenny Love
Pre-Licensed Professional, MHC-LP
Verified Verified
Rensselaer, NY 12144
I am now accepting clients for EMDR! Please contact me for information. Are you an individual struggling with anxiety, depression, self-esteem or unresolved trauma? Are you a couple who has drifted apart over time, or are you facing separation? Are you a family that struggles to communicate effectively, and you are looking to rebuild your relationships? If so, I can help! I am a limited permit holder in Mental Health Counseling providing counseling to couples, families and individuals from pre-teen to adult by utilizing an integrative approach that is tailored to your needs.
I am now accepting clients for EMDR! Please contact me for information. Are you an individual struggling with anxiety, depression, self-esteem or unresolved trauma? Are you a couple who has drifted apart over time, or are you facing separation? Are you a family that struggles to communicate effectively, and you are looking to rebuild your relationships? If so, I can help! I am a limited permit holder in Mental Health Counseling providing counseling to couples, families and individuals from pre-teen to adult by utilizing an integrative approach that is tailored to your needs.
(518) 333-9705 View (518) 333-9705
Photo of Michael S Slik, Counselor in East Greenbush, NY
Michael S Slik
Counselor, LMHC, CRC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Castleton On Hudson, NY 12033  (Online Only)
I practice solution-based therapy. During our first meeting, we will discuss your goals and determine if I am the right therapist to assist you in meeting them. If so, I will work with you in a safe, collaborative, confidential space to solve the issues that bring us together. We assess our progress as we go to make sure that I am hearing and understanding you, and that you are getting what you need from our work together.
I practice solution-based therapy. During our first meeting, we will discuss your goals and determine if I am the right therapist to assist you in meeting them. If so, I will work with you in a safe, collaborative, confidential space to solve the issues that bring us together. We assess our progress as we go to make sure that I am hearing and understanding you, and that you are getting what you need from our work together.
(518) 730-4559 View (518) 730-4559
Photo of Yi Zhou, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in East Greenbush, NY
Yi Zhou
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Troy, NY 12180
Serving the Capital Region, I provide Telehealth and in-person sessions. My clients and I work together to navigate through mental health challenges and transitions in life. I specialize in working with people with gender dysphoria and those in the process of transition. Furthermore, I help my clients navigate issues related to racial identity and minority experiences. I work with various relationship types and forms, non-monogamy included. I enjoy helping couples, partners and families achieve a greater sense of unity and satisfaction in their lives. Counseling can also be provided through Mandarin upon request.
Serving the Capital Region, I provide Telehealth and in-person sessions. My clients and I work together to navigate through mental health challenges and transitions in life. I specialize in working with people with gender dysphoria and those in the process of transition. Furthermore, I help my clients navigate issues related to racial identity and minority experiences. I work with various relationship types and forms, non-monogamy included. I enjoy helping couples, partners and families achieve a greater sense of unity and satisfaction in their lives. Counseling can also be provided through Mandarin upon request.
(518) 832-5343 View (518) 832-5343
Photo of Dr. Brian T. Clemente, Psychologist in East Greenbush, NY
Dr. Brian T. Clemente
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Troy, NY 12180
Not accepting new clients
I grew up in the Capital Region but moved to the west coast to pursue my graduate education and ended up staying for twenty years. Now I am back in the area with an office space in downtown Troy where I offer therapy services and also conduct psychological evaluations and other consultation services. I can conduct online sessions utilizing a HIPPA compliant video platform. Lastly, I do still offer, when possible, a free consultation to answer any questions and/or determine if you feel we would be a good fit.
I grew up in the Capital Region but moved to the west coast to pursue my graduate education and ended up staying for twenty years. Now I am back in the area with an office space in downtown Troy where I offer therapy services and also conduct psychological evaluations and other consultation services. I can conduct online sessions utilizing a HIPPA compliant video platform. Lastly, I do still offer, when possible, a free consultation to answer any questions and/or determine if you feel we would be a good fit.
(518) 201-1892 View (518) 201-1892
Photo of Frank DiBennardo, Psychologist in East Greenbush, NY
Frank DiBennardo
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Nassau, NY 12123
I have a deep understanding of the forces helping to shape who we are and there emotional correlates and behaviors. I have been very successful in helping liberating the part of the self, not determined by hereditary or environmental factors and giving individuals back the power to make changes they wish to see in their lives.
I have a deep understanding of the forces helping to shape who we are and there emotional correlates and behaviors. I have been very successful in helping liberating the part of the self, not determined by hereditary or environmental factors and giving individuals back the power to make changes they wish to see in their lives.
(718) 569-8091 View (718) 569-8091
Photo of Jessica Doerr, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in East Greenbush, NY
Jessica Doerr
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Albany, NY 12201  (Online Only)
I am honored to help clients of all ages heal from trauma, and develop habits of self-care. I also have experience helping people work through grief and loss, depression and anxiety. I see therapy as a sacred space to express and process feelings, and develop new, adaptive skills. I love watching clients build the lives they want from the inside out.
I am honored to help clients of all ages heal from trauma, and develop habits of self-care. I also have experience helping people work through grief and loss, depression and anxiety. I see therapy as a sacred space to express and process feelings, and develop new, adaptive skills. I love watching clients build the lives they want from the inside out.
(518) 707-1448 View (518) 707-1448

See more therapy options for East Greenbush

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in East Greenbush, NY

< 10

Therapists in East Greenbush, NY who prioritize treating:

78% Relationship Issues
78% Depression
78% Anxiety
67% Addiction
67% Trauma and PTSD
67% Coping Skills
67% Self Esteem

Average years in practice

23 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

80% CDPHP
60% Aetna
60% Optum

How Therapists in East Greenbush, NY see their clients

78% In Person and Online
22% Online Only

Gender breakdown

86% Female
14% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in East Greenbush?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.