Therapists in Cortland, NY

Photo of Cindy Horn, Counselor in Cortland, NY
Cindy Horn
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045  (Online Only)
Do you wake up with your heart pounding, stomach in knots, feeling overwhelmed, anxious, depressed? Does it feel like you are struggling to cope and not enjoying life the way you wish you could? Sometimes it's so easy to get trapped in the endless whirlwind of negative thoughts and emotions. It can feel so isolating and discouraging. It seems like nothing you try works out, and it impacts every area of your life.
Do you wake up with your heart pounding, stomach in knots, feeling overwhelmed, anxious, depressed? Does it feel like you are struggling to cope and not enjoying life the way you wish you could? Sometimes it's so easy to get trapped in the endless whirlwind of negative thoughts and emotions. It can feel so isolating and discouraging. It seems like nothing you try works out, and it impacts every area of your life.
(607) 536-9774 View (607) 536-9774
Photo of Gregory G Moss, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cortland, NY
Gregory G Moss
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
I provide counseling to people who have a history of anxiety, depression, painful or abusive relationships, as well as those with past traumas or PTSD due to abuse or tragedy. I also work with people struggling with recent life or relationship problems or who are dealing with a relationship break-up. Although I provide therapy to a wide variety of people, what they have in common is that they want help to feel better and enjoy their lives more. They recognize that counseling is something that can help get them there faster than they could on their own.
I provide counseling to people who have a history of anxiety, depression, painful or abusive relationships, as well as those with past traumas or PTSD due to abuse or tragedy. I also work with people struggling with recent life or relationship problems or who are dealing with a relationship break-up. Although I provide therapy to a wide variety of people, what they have in common is that they want help to feel better and enjoy their lives more. They recognize that counseling is something that can help get them there faster than they could on their own.
(607) 533-2977 View (607) 533-2977
Maureen A Kiely
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
Not accepting new clients
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with years of experience in providing counseling to individuals, couples and families. My practice serves adults. A collaborative approach is utilized to address issues including depression, anxiety, family relationships, occupational stress, interpersonal problems and self concept. Trauma treatment including EMDR is available.
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with years of experience in providing counseling to individuals, couples and families. My practice serves adults. A collaborative approach is utilized to address issues including depression, anxiety, family relationships, occupational stress, interpersonal problems and self concept. Trauma treatment including EMDR is available.
(607) 643-4029 View (607) 643-4029
Photo of Angela Contento, Counselor in Cortland, NY
Angela Contento
Counselor, LMHC, NCC
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045  (Online Only)
I'm here to support clients who are looking to strengthen their mental health, relationships, and adaptability. Every day we face challenges and stress; whether it is neurobiologically based, interpersonal, a trauma response, or the result of systemic stressors of an unjust society. While I use a variety of approaches and techniques based on client needs, my foundation is person centered. You deserve a safe, nonjudgmental space to break down or build back up. I believe my clients have all the answers within them and are capable of great things. My role is to use my education, training, and empathy to help you reach your goals.
I'm here to support clients who are looking to strengthen their mental health, relationships, and adaptability. Every day we face challenges and stress; whether it is neurobiologically based, interpersonal, a trauma response, or the result of systemic stressors of an unjust society. While I use a variety of approaches and techniques based on client needs, my foundation is person centered. You deserve a safe, nonjudgmental space to break down or build back up. I believe my clients have all the answers within them and are capable of great things. My role is to use my education, training, and empathy to help you reach your goals.
(607) 600-9502 View (607) 600-9502
Photo of Amanda S. Hartman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cortland, NY
Amanda S. Hartman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045  (Online Only)
Having happiness and peace in your life again can be possible. Exploring new options for self care and wellness can help you attain your goal of feeling better. By discovering the possibilities for change, therapy will help you be who you want to be and gain control back in your life. My approach to therapy is patient and caring. I will listen to your needs and work collaboratively to help you build new coping skills and strengthen those you already posess.
Having happiness and peace in your life again can be possible. Exploring new options for self care and wellness can help you attain your goal of feeling better. By discovering the possibilities for change, therapy will help you be who you want to be and gain control back in your life. My approach to therapy is patient and caring. I will listen to your needs and work collaboratively to help you build new coping skills and strengthen those you already posess.
(315) 254-2182 View (315) 254-2182
Photo of Serenity Counseling, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cortland, NY
Serenity Counseling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cortland, NY 13045
Life can be tricky sometimes leaving us feeling stuck, alone, and confused. Taking the first step toward change can seem overwhelming and scary. I appreciate the strength it takes to even consider the possibility of making a change. I provide counseling support to individuals with a wide range of emotional and behavioral challenges. As a therapist, I offer a safe, supportive, and comfortable environment with an individualized approach to each client to promote personal growth. I encourage recognition and development of inner strengths and self-compassion to facilitate the process of change as well as resolve challenging issues.
Life can be tricky sometimes leaving us feeling stuck, alone, and confused. Taking the first step toward change can seem overwhelming and scary. I appreciate the strength it takes to even consider the possibility of making a change. I provide counseling support to individuals with a wide range of emotional and behavioral challenges. As a therapist, I offer a safe, supportive, and comfortable environment with an individualized approach to each client to promote personal growth. I encourage recognition and development of inner strengths and self-compassion to facilitate the process of change as well as resolve challenging issues.
(607) 208-9007 View (607) 208-9007
Photo of Kurt Warner, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cortland, NY
Kurt Warner
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
Waitlist for new clients
Life is hard. There are so many challenges that can get us off track. Most challenges can be diminished if not overcome by closely examining them and seeing them from a different vantage point. We can work together to pinpoint what makes meaning in your life and use what motivates you to overcome or better traverse whatever problem may be that you are experiencing. With good communication and a solid understanding and grasp of who you are and what you want out of life, I don't believe there is any issue in life that we cannot work together to mitigate or overcome. I have flexible hours that include days and nights.
Life is hard. There are so many challenges that can get us off track. Most challenges can be diminished if not overcome by closely examining them and seeing them from a different vantage point. We can work together to pinpoint what makes meaning in your life and use what motivates you to overcome or better traverse whatever problem may be that you are experiencing. With good communication and a solid understanding and grasp of who you are and what you want out of life, I don't believe there is any issue in life that we cannot work together to mitigate or overcome. I have flexible hours that include days and nights.
(607) 246-2334 View (607) 246-2334
Photo of Melinda McCullough, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cortland, NY
Melinda McCullough
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R, MSW
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
Not accepting new clients
Not accepting clients at this time. A strong connection to your therapist is the cornerstone of good therapy and is more likely to lead towards personal growth and achievement of your life goals. I want you to feel heard, understood and successful in your healing journey. I use an approach that is warm, welcoming and real with my clients. I specialize my work with adults who have experienced relational trauma, depression, anxiety and victims of narcissistic abuse. I am certified in trauma therapist such as TF-CBT, EMDR and Tapping (EFT). I also pull from an eclectic approach of therapies such as CBT, DBT, ACT and family systems.
Not accepting clients at this time. A strong connection to your therapist is the cornerstone of good therapy and is more likely to lead towards personal growth and achievement of your life goals. I want you to feel heard, understood and successful in your healing journey. I use an approach that is warm, welcoming and real with my clients. I specialize my work with adults who have experienced relational trauma, depression, anxiety and victims of narcissistic abuse. I am certified in trauma therapist such as TF-CBT, EMDR and Tapping (EFT). I also pull from an eclectic approach of therapies such as CBT, DBT, ACT and family systems.
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Photo of B Beth Cohen, Psychologist in Cortland, NY
B Beth Cohen
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cortland, NY 13045
Not accepting new clients
Whether you're really hurting or simply seeking personal growth, I'm happy to help. How I practice is mainly cognitive-behavioral, but I also draw from nonviolent communication, feminist therapy, and anti-racist multicultural counseling. I work with people who have a fairly broad range of concerns (see list to the right). I work with adults and older teens; individuals, couples, and groups. I especially enjoy helping clients with a stigmatized identity overcome both internalized and external oppression. I welcome transgender and other queer folk; Muslims, immigrants, and racial and ethnic "minority" members; and activists for social and environmental justice.
Whether you're really hurting or simply seeking personal growth, I'm happy to help. How I practice is mainly cognitive-behavioral, but I also draw from nonviolent communication, feminist therapy, and anti-racist multicultural counseling. I work with people who have a fairly broad range of concerns (see list to the right). I work with adults and older teens; individuals, couples, and groups. I especially enjoy helping clients with a stigmatized identity overcome both internalized and external oppression. I welcome transgender and other queer folk; Muslims, immigrants, and racial and ethnic "minority" members; and activists for social and environmental justice.
(607) 953-5991 View (607) 953-5991
Photo of Esther Ivy Herkowitz, Counselor in Cortland, NY
Esther Ivy Herkowitz
Counselor, MS, LMHC, MFLC
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Our thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, relationships and experiences shape us emotionally, physically and energetically. By gently and compassionately exploring these, both healthy and undermining, new choices become possible. I offer principles from Behavioral Cognitive Therapy including guided meditation, diaphragmatic breathing, cognitive restructuring, progressive relaxation, and mindfulness. When reinforced with practice, these techniques help to increase wellness and reduce suffering and anxiety. You don't need to know the problem or the solution to begin. You only need to want something to change.
Our thoughts, beliefs, behaviors, relationships and experiences shape us emotionally, physically and energetically. By gently and compassionately exploring these, both healthy and undermining, new choices become possible. I offer principles from Behavioral Cognitive Therapy including guided meditation, diaphragmatic breathing, cognitive restructuring, progressive relaxation, and mindfulness. When reinforced with practice, these techniques help to increase wellness and reduce suffering and anxiety. You don't need to know the problem or the solution to begin. You only need to want something to change.
(607) 216-9165 View (607) 216-9165
Photo of Ellen Peterson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cortland, NY
Ellen Peterson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CHT
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
Are you ready to live your life fully? I use a variety of approaches to support and empower you to move forward in your life. As a self-help author, I offer services that restore hope and inspire you to move beyond obstacles on your way to a life of unlimited possibilities. As a certified hypnotherapist, I can help you quickly reach the core levels of issues and transform the familiar patterns that sabotage living (i.e. depression, anxiety). My gentle and caring approach will undoubtedly move you into deeper levels of healing and connect you fully with life.
Are you ready to live your life fully? I use a variety of approaches to support and empower you to move forward in your life. As a self-help author, I offer services that restore hope and inspire you to move beyond obstacles on your way to a life of unlimited possibilities. As a certified hypnotherapist, I can help you quickly reach the core levels of issues and transform the familiar patterns that sabotage living (i.e. depression, anxiety). My gentle and caring approach will undoubtedly move you into deeper levels of healing and connect you fully with life.
(607) 208-7836 View (607) 208-7836
Photo of Barbara Lantz, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cortland, NY
Barbara Lantz
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
If you're on this website reading therapists' profiles, you or someone you care about are probably wrestling with unpleasant feelings or difficult life circumstances. I can help you figure out what is working in your life, what is not working, what can change, and how to make change. I listen carefully and ask thoughtful questions to explore where you've been, where you are now, and where you need to go next, working through the tough stuff along the way in a spirit of respect and caring.
If you're on this website reading therapists' profiles, you or someone you care about are probably wrestling with unpleasant feelings or difficult life circumstances. I can help you figure out what is working in your life, what is not working, what can change, and how to make change. I listen carefully and ask thoughtful questions to explore where you've been, where you are now, and where you need to go next, working through the tough stuff along the way in a spirit of respect and caring.
(607) 269-4466 View (607) 269-4466
Photo of Max Malikow, Counselor in Cortland, NY
Max Malikow
Counselor, LMHC
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
2,500 years ago Socrates said, "The unexamined life is not worth living." He believed a good life requires an understanding of why we think, act, and feel as we do. Since relationship is part of psychotherapy, the personalities and philosophies of life of the client and therapist must be compatible. I am well-suited for clients who are curious about human behavior - their own as well as that of others. Before there were psychologists, the issues of life were addressed by philosophers. Thoroughly examining life includes considering ancient wisdom and spiritual reality as well as psychology (the science of mind and behavior).
2,500 years ago Socrates said, "The unexamined life is not worth living." He believed a good life requires an understanding of why we think, act, and feel as we do. Since relationship is part of psychotherapy, the personalities and philosophies of life of the client and therapist must be compatible. I am well-suited for clients who are curious about human behavior - their own as well as that of others. Before there were psychologists, the issues of life were addressed by philosophers. Thoroughly examining life includes considering ancient wisdom and spiritual reality as well as psychology (the science of mind and behavior).
(315) 474-4357 View (315) 474-4357
Photo of Joanne Zager, Psychologist in Cortland, NY
Joanne Zager
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
Are you experiencing anxiety, depression or confusion? Are you a veteran/and or a military spouse who are experiencing symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD)? Do you have feelings and /or behaviors that may be a result of trauma, relationship problems, work or school stress? Collaboratively, we work to identify and resolve your concerns. I work with adults, families, students and the LGBT community - who you are adds dimension to our work together! I am a NY state licensed psychologist in private practice. My cognitive behavioral approach is supplemented with guided imagery, EMDR and/or hypnosis.
Are you experiencing anxiety, depression or confusion? Are you a veteran/and or a military spouse who are experiencing symptoms of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD)? Do you have feelings and /or behaviors that may be a result of trauma, relationship problems, work or school stress? Collaboratively, we work to identify and resolve your concerns. I work with adults, families, students and the LGBT community - who you are adds dimension to our work together! I am a NY state licensed psychologist in private practice. My cognitive behavioral approach is supplemented with guided imagery, EMDR and/or hypnosis.
(607) 431-8928 View (607) 431-8928
Photo of Mary Kate Lenihan, Marriage & Family Therapist in Cortland, NY
Mary Kate Lenihan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Any individual, couple, or family making the decision to embark on therapy has made a brave step toward growth and change. Once rapport and safety is established, giving the self permission to be raw and vulnerable is what I strive for with clients. Feeling safe to explore discomfort and navigating different means of communication is at the heart of my work. The approach of curious exploration and demystification helps the individuals, couples and families that I work with resolve stressors related to anxiety, depression, grief, relational issues, work and academic influences, family dynamics, and LGBTQ issues.
Any individual, couple, or family making the decision to embark on therapy has made a brave step toward growth and change. Once rapport and safety is established, giving the self permission to be raw and vulnerable is what I strive for with clients. Feeling safe to explore discomfort and navigating different means of communication is at the heart of my work. The approach of curious exploration and demystification helps the individuals, couples and families that I work with resolve stressors related to anxiety, depression, grief, relational issues, work and academic influences, family dynamics, and LGBTQ issues.
(855) 286-2210 View (855) 286-2210
Photo of Paul Mikowski, Psychologist PLLC, Psychologist in Cortland, NY
Paul Mikowski, Psychologist PLLC
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Cortland, NY 13045
Not accepting new clients
I believe I can help you feel better if you experience overwhelming stress, sadness, or addictions. I focus on your individual needs and use the techniques that work, including psychotherapy, meditation, or short- term change strategies. You can feel better.
I believe I can help you feel better if you experience overwhelming stress, sadness, or addictions. I focus on your individual needs and use the techniques that work, including psychotherapy, meditation, or short- term change strategies. You can feel better.
(607) 289-2101 View (607) 289-2101
Photo of Carmen Munson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cortland, NY
Carmen Munson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, BCC
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Cortland, NY 13045  (Online Only)
Are you feeling stuck, overwhelmed, discouraged or anxious? Using an individualized approach, I incorporate Motivational Interviewing, CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy), ACT, and emotion-based therapies. ( I’m happy to explain what they each mean! ) Please email me: carmen at ithacatherapy.com “ Reaching out for help is the first step to feeling better”.
Are you feeling stuck, overwhelmed, discouraged or anxious? Using an individualized approach, I incorporate Motivational Interviewing, CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy), ACT, and emotion-based therapies. ( I’m happy to explain what they each mean! ) Please email me: carmen at ithacatherapy.com “ Reaching out for help is the first step to feeling better”.
(607) 279-3379 View (607) 279-3379
Photo of Becky Bordlemay Schafer, Counselor in Cortland, NY
Becky Bordlemay Schafer
Counselor, MS, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cortland, NY 13045
10-20-23 Currently accepting new clients. As a licensed mental health counselor (LMHC) with 15+ years of experience, I value the connection and collaborative nature of the therapeutic relationship. I provide straightforward, non-judgemental support and gently challenge you to explore, grow, and transform. As a team, we will work together to explore your stresses and life's challenges and develop strategies to help you lead a full and successful life.
10-20-23 Currently accepting new clients. As a licensed mental health counselor (LMHC) with 15+ years of experience, I value the connection and collaborative nature of the therapeutic relationship. I provide straightforward, non-judgemental support and gently challenge you to explore, grow, and transform. As a team, we will work together to explore your stresses and life's challenges and develop strategies to help you lead a full and successful life.
(607) 436-7058 View (607) 436-7058
Mary M Capocefalo
Licensed Master Social Worker, LMSW
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
The psychiatrist Scott Peck wrote "Life is difficult. ...but once it is accepted, the fact that life is difficult no longer matters." One of the guiding principles of my work is the reality that life presents challenges to all of us. Those challenges often require us to examine views we have held for many years, and work to gain a new perspective. My experience with clients has shown me that for those who seek to grow and learn more about themselves, their relationships, and their lives, there are always answers.
The psychiatrist Scott Peck wrote "Life is difficult. ...but once it is accepted, the fact that life is difficult no longer matters." One of the guiding principles of my work is the reality that life presents challenges to all of us. Those challenges often require us to examine views we have held for many years, and work to gain a new perspective. My experience with clients has shown me that for those who seek to grow and learn more about themselves, their relationships, and their lives, there are always answers.
(315) 679-4838 View (315) 679-4838
Photo of Karen Tranter, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cortland, NY
Karen Tranter
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW-R
Verified Verified
Cortland, NY 13045
Not accepting new clients
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with over 30 years of experience providing psychotherapy and coaching to individuals, couples, families and businesses. Everyone has special strengths to deal with life's challenges, relationship troubles and stressors. Psychotherapy can help with these dilemmas. I believe that a genuine client/therapist relationship is vital for counseling to be effective and meaningful. I will help you feel comfortable by providing a safe, compassionate and nonjudgmental atmosphere. In this way, we will work together to help you make the necessary changes to successfully solve problems, strengthen relationships and improve your quality of life.
I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker with over 30 years of experience providing psychotherapy and coaching to individuals, couples, families and businesses. Everyone has special strengths to deal with life's challenges, relationship troubles and stressors. Psychotherapy can help with these dilemmas. I believe that a genuine client/therapist relationship is vital for counseling to be effective and meaningful. I will help you feel comfortable by providing a safe, compassionate and nonjudgmental atmosphere. In this way, we will work together to help you make the necessary changes to successfully solve problems, strengthen relationships and improve your quality of life.
(607) 545-4606 View (607) 545-4606

See more therapy options for Cortland

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Cortland, NY

40+

Average cost per session

$140

Therapists in Cortland, NY who prioritize treating:

95% Anxiety
88% Depression
86% Relationship Issues
81% Trauma and PTSD
76% Coping Skills
76% Self Esteem
71% Stress

Average years in practice

17 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

86% Aetna
41% Excellus BlueCross BlueShield
38% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Cortland, NY see their clients

55% In Person and Online
45% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
17% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Cortland?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.