Therapists in Buffalo, NY

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Photo of Deborah Fiore, Marriage & Family Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Deborah Fiore
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Buffalo, NY 14218
Hello. If you are reading this, chances are very good that you are seeking to make changes in your relationship. I know how difficult it can be to share personal details with a stranger. It is my belief that every couple who seeks assistance is unique. Methods of treatment honor the individual and couple relationship. Couples therapy is not about right or wrong, but about perspective and patterns that may not be working. When we gain insight and develop communication skills that serve us we have healthier relationships. Relationship counseling is an investment in current relationships and complete health of the family.
Hello. If you are reading this, chances are very good that you are seeking to make changes in your relationship. I know how difficult it can be to share personal details with a stranger. It is my belief that every couple who seeks assistance is unique. Methods of treatment honor the individual and couple relationship. Couples therapy is not about right or wrong, but about perspective and patterns that may not be working. When we gain insight and develop communication skills that serve us we have healthier relationships. Relationship counseling is an investment in current relationships and complete health of the family.
(716) 259-0108 View (716) 259-0108
Photo of Kahla Taylor, Counselor in Buffalo, NY
Kahla Taylor
Counselor, MS, LMHC
Verified
Buffalo, NY 14221
Not accepting new clients
Navigating seasons of hardship and change can feel overwhelming, however, these moments where we feel the most uncomfortable also give us the opportunity to grow. The progress you're craving and the feelings you're struggling with do have a purpose. Discomfort is our cue that something needs to change. Committing to therapy will not only teach you how to persevere, it will help you better understand the thoughts, feelings, and beliefs that may be holding you back.
Navigating seasons of hardship and change can feel overwhelming, however, these moments where we feel the most uncomfortable also give us the opportunity to grow. The progress you're craving and the feelings you're struggling with do have a purpose. Discomfort is our cue that something needs to change. Committing to therapy will not only teach you how to persevere, it will help you better understand the thoughts, feelings, and beliefs that may be holding you back.
(716) 309-5918 View (716) 309-5918
Photo of Michael Guerin, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Michael Guerin
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
3 Endorsed
Buffalo, NY 14223
We view the world through a lens based on our experiences, circumstances, and expectations. Sometimes, this lens can become clouded or distorted by life’s many challenges. It is my belief that we have an innate ability to be resilient at times in which our lens may become scratched, foggy, or even cracked. I utilize a multi-faceted approach to therapy to take a look at ways in which you have navigated and are currently navigating your worldview. Together, we can work on finding, building, and establishing ways in which you find clarity and understanding as it relates to your holistic health.
We view the world through a lens based on our experiences, circumstances, and expectations. Sometimes, this lens can become clouded or distorted by life’s many challenges. It is my belief that we have an innate ability to be resilient at times in which our lens may become scratched, foggy, or even cracked. I utilize a multi-faceted approach to therapy to take a look at ways in which you have navigated and are currently navigating your worldview. Together, we can work on finding, building, and establishing ways in which you find clarity and understanding as it relates to your holistic health.
(716) 320-9240 View (716) 320-9240
Photo of Kendal Vaarwerk in Buffalo, NY
Kendal Vaarwerk
PsyD
Verified
Buffalo, NY 14228
I know the difficulty of embarking on the first step of meeting with a therapist and applaud your strength. Change is never easy, often necessary, and sometimes unpredictable. I will meet you where you are in a non-judgmental and empathic perspective creating a safe space for meaningful change to occur. Utilizing my authentic self to create a collaborative environment that highlights your strengths to promote your desired change and outcome.
I know the difficulty of embarking on the first step of meeting with a therapist and applaud your strength. Change is never easy, often necessary, and sometimes unpredictable. I will meet you where you are in a non-judgmental and empathic perspective creating a safe space for meaningful change to occur. Utilizing my authentic self to create a collaborative environment that highlights your strengths to promote your desired change and outcome.
(716) 354-1614 View (716) 354-1614
Photo of Allison Murphy, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Allison Murphy
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
2 Endorsed
Buffalo, NY 14221
Congratulations on taking an important step in your mental health journey— finding the right therapist! I work with a wide array of individuals, who are seeking help for a specific problem(s) or, who are simply looking to expand upon their understanding of themselves & their life experiences. In sessions, I aim to provide a comfortable, safe, and unbiased space where you feel inspired to communicate and empowered to collaborate on your goals.
Congratulations on taking an important step in your mental health journey— finding the right therapist! I work with a wide array of individuals, who are seeking help for a specific problem(s) or, who are simply looking to expand upon their understanding of themselves & their life experiences. In sessions, I aim to provide a comfortable, safe, and unbiased space where you feel inspired to communicate and empowered to collaborate on your goals.
(716) 466-9723 View (716) 466-9723
Photo of Lisa Lutz, Marriage & Family Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Lisa Lutz
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Buffalo, NY 14223
Do you and your partner struggle to communicate with each other? Do you find yourself wishing that your partner truly heard you? Relationship therapy may provide the answers you seek. I offer an environment that is supportive to recovering the relationship that you and your partner desire. My goal is to work with you in a way that feels respectful, challenging and nurturing. I already believe that you have what it takes to bring positive change to your relationship.
Do you and your partner struggle to communicate with each other? Do you find yourself wishing that your partner truly heard you? Relationship therapy may provide the answers you seek. I offer an environment that is supportive to recovering the relationship that you and your partner desire. My goal is to work with you in a way that feels respectful, challenging and nurturing. I already believe that you have what it takes to bring positive change to your relationship.
(716) 204-7990 View (716) 204-7990
Photo of Stephen Finn Miller, Marriage & Family Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Stephen Finn Miller
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Buffalo, NY 14203
Waitlist for new clients
In my work as a therapist, I have helped children, families, parents, and adults cope with and overcome a wide range of challenges such as PTSD, grief, depression, anxiety, anger and stress management, parenting and relationship challenges, and life transitions. In the process of doing so, I have learned that we all possess a tremendous capacity for healing and growth.
In my work as a therapist, I have helped children, families, parents, and adults cope with and overcome a wide range of challenges such as PTSD, grief, depression, anxiety, anger and stress management, parenting and relationship challenges, and life transitions. In the process of doing so, I have learned that we all possess a tremendous capacity for healing and growth.
(716) 265-4733 View (716) 265-4733
Photo of Mind Journey Therapy, PLLC , Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Mind Journey Therapy, PLLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LCSW-R
Verified
1 Endorsed
Buffalo, NY 14217
We are accepting new clients! All individuals face obstacles and hurdles to overcome at some point in their life. Whether you are dealing with anxiety, past trauma, depression, self-esteem issues or any other problem, don’t lose hope as a better tomorrow is possible. Seeking help and support for personal matters may seem daunting at first, but once you take the first step, you will feel more confident about moving forward towards a better place and becoming a better version of yourself.
We are accepting new clients! All individuals face obstacles and hurdles to overcome at some point in their life. Whether you are dealing with anxiety, past trauma, depression, self-esteem issues or any other problem, don’t lose hope as a better tomorrow is possible. Seeking help and support for personal matters may seem daunting at first, but once you take the first step, you will feel more confident about moving forward towards a better place and becoming a better version of yourself.
(585) 684-8044 View (585) 684-8044
Photo of Consult with Rana Ryan LLC., Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Consult with Rana Ryan LLC.
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCMSW, CCTP, CAMF, C-DBT, CGIP
Verified
Buffalo, NY 14202
Rana Ryan provides families with key tools to make gains in every aspect of life. Be it personal or professional, my service help others find a path that leads to happiness, success, and a fruitful life. I love to help families feel secure in their marriages, relationships, secure in their parenting and solve problems in their lives. With my tools families learn how to respond to family conflict in an healthy way so each family member can enjoy each other’s love. For more than a decade I have facilitated change and helped people from across the nation reshape their lives and turn their family dreams into reality.
Rana Ryan provides families with key tools to make gains in every aspect of life. Be it personal or professional, my service help others find a path that leads to happiness, success, and a fruitful life. I love to help families feel secure in their marriages, relationships, secure in their parenting and solve problems in their lives. With my tools families learn how to respond to family conflict in an healthy way so each family member can enjoy each other’s love. For more than a decade I have facilitated change and helped people from across the nation reshape their lives and turn their family dreams into reality.
(716) 206-9867 View (716) 206-9867
Photo of Kokoro Psychology, PLLC - Drs. LaLonde & Hama, Psychologist in Buffalo, NY
Kokoro Psychology, PLLC - Drs. LaLonde & Hama
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
2 Endorsed
Buffalo, NY 14213  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
We specialize in Interpersonal Therapy, Anxiety, Depression, Family Trauma, College and Work Adjustments, and Coping Skills/Habit formation. As we navigate the complex landscapes of our hearts and relationships in an ever-changing world around us, our clients come to therapy for a variety of reasons. Some are responding to curiosity or calling about themselves; some are feeling disconnected, lost, or stuck. Others are working through chaotic or transitional times of their lives. Kokoro’s compassionate attention and care, seek to provide our clients a safe space to reflect, explore, and invest in themselves and relationships.
We specialize in Interpersonal Therapy, Anxiety, Depression, Family Trauma, College and Work Adjustments, and Coping Skills/Habit formation. As we navigate the complex landscapes of our hearts and relationships in an ever-changing world around us, our clients come to therapy for a variety of reasons. Some are responding to curiosity or calling about themselves; some are feeling disconnected, lost, or stuck. Others are working through chaotic or transitional times of their lives. Kokoro’s compassionate attention and care, seek to provide our clients a safe space to reflect, explore, and invest in themselves and relationships.
(716) 304-2320 View (716) 304-2320
Photo of Sara Kathleen Lis, Counselor in Buffalo, NY
Sara Kathleen Lis
Counselor, MS, LMHC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Buffalo, NY 14223
Sigmund Freud once said, “Out of your vulnerabilities will come your strength.” For me, this quote has always encapsulated one of the most important aspects of mental health. I believe that our ability to grow comes from our ability to heal; and for us to heal we need to be able to cope with our deepest struggles. It is in the act of opening up that we make our day-to-day existence an opportunity to develop as people; it’s how we become more resilient, and in the process of being vulnerable with others, we learn to love ourselves.
Sigmund Freud once said, “Out of your vulnerabilities will come your strength.” For me, this quote has always encapsulated one of the most important aspects of mental health. I believe that our ability to grow comes from our ability to heal; and for us to heal we need to be able to cope with our deepest struggles. It is in the act of opening up that we make our day-to-day existence an opportunity to develop as people; it’s how we become more resilient, and in the process of being vulnerable with others, we learn to love ourselves.
(716) 271-9628 View (716) 271-9628
Photo of Denis Matthew Kitchen, Counselor in Buffalo, NY
Denis Matthew Kitchen
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Buffalo, NY 14220
You've caught a glimpse of yourself unfolding the fullness of your capacities back into the universe. Sometimes you dare to believe this person could really be you. But how exactly are you moving forward into such a reality? Your attempts thus far have met with resistance, uncertainty, and excruciating pain. Some days, the very reasons to keep going seem to evaporate.
You've caught a glimpse of yourself unfolding the fullness of your capacities back into the universe. Sometimes you dare to believe this person could really be you. But how exactly are you moving forward into such a reality? Your attempts thus far have met with resistance, uncertainty, and excruciating pain. Some days, the very reasons to keep going seem to evaporate.
(716) 222-8773 View (716) 222-8773
Photo of Mary-Lucinda Palmieri, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Mary-Lucinda Palmieri
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Buffalo, NY 14225
Not accepting new clients
Hello! I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW). I have worked with individuals with anxiety, depression, low-self esteem, borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and over all life stressors. I like to call myself an eclectic therapist in the sense that I incorporate multiple models during our time together. I am open to working with clients and families who are ready and willing to do the work! Although it may be hard, it will soon be worth it.
Hello! I am a Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW). I have worked with individuals with anxiety, depression, low-self esteem, borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and over all life stressors. I like to call myself an eclectic therapist in the sense that I incorporate multiple models during our time together. I am open to working with clients and families who are ready and willing to do the work! Although it may be hard, it will soon be worth it.
(716) 296-4313 View (716) 296-4313
Photo of Caryn Domzalski, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Caryn Domzalski
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-R
Verified
1 Endorsed
Buffalo, NY 14226  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Are you not living the life you want to? Are certain thoughts, feelings, or behaviors impacting you achieving your goals in life? Do you need someone to talk to who can offer validation, understanding, and empathy? If you are struggling with depression, anxiety, difficulty managing your emotions, relationship issues, self-destructive behaviors, or just feel that learning more effective coping skills to handle day to day life could be helpful, I would be honored to help you on your journey.
Are you not living the life you want to? Are certain thoughts, feelings, or behaviors impacting you achieving your goals in life? Do you need someone to talk to who can offer validation, understanding, and empathy? If you are struggling with depression, anxiety, difficulty managing your emotions, relationship issues, self-destructive behaviors, or just feel that learning more effective coping skills to handle day to day life could be helpful, I would be honored to help you on your journey.
(716) 272-0921 View (716) 272-0921
Photo of Aaron Reslink, Counselor in Buffalo, NY
Aaron Reslink
Counselor, LMHC
Verified
Buffalo, NY 14201
Research suggests that people can get most of what they need from counseling in as short as 4 sessions (Strohsal et al., 2012). Brevity is never at the cost of superficiality or hastiness. The planned end date of 9 weekly sessions with Aaron creates a special target for you to focus deeply and explore with purpose. Instead of getting lost in "what-if's," rumination, and fears, Aaron draws you toward the question of "What do I need to do to make life meaningful for me now?
Research suggests that people can get most of what they need from counseling in as short as 4 sessions (Strohsal et al., 2012). Brevity is never at the cost of superficiality or hastiness. The planned end date of 9 weekly sessions with Aaron creates a special target for you to focus deeply and explore with purpose. Instead of getting lost in "what-if's," rumination, and fears, Aaron draws you toward the question of "What do I need to do to make life meaningful for me now?
(716) 265-4731 View (716) 265-4731
Photo of Emily Tyler, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Emily Tyler
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Buffalo, NY 14226  (Online Only)
Our human emotional experience is complicated and can sometimes get in the way of our goals or our relationships. We often judge our reactions or ourselves for having them because they can lead to impulsivity or emotional suffering, and of course we would prefer to avoid this. If we can learn to experience our thoughts, feelings, and actions in the moment without judgment or assumption, we can learn to work with our emotions, accept things we wish were different and more effectively enact change. This allows us to focus on what we can control to work towards your goals for yourself, relationships, and life.
Our human emotional experience is complicated and can sometimes get in the way of our goals or our relationships. We often judge our reactions or ourselves for having them because they can lead to impulsivity or emotional suffering, and of course we would prefer to avoid this. If we can learn to experience our thoughts, feelings, and actions in the moment without judgment or assumption, we can learn to work with our emotions, accept things we wish were different and more effectively enact change. This allows us to focus on what we can control to work towards your goals for yourself, relationships, and life.
(716) 257-4095 View (716) 257-4095
Photo of Meghan Scott, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Meghan Scott
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
Buffalo, NY 14221  (Online Only)
In this moment you are doing the best you can, even if you aren’t feeling that way. Often we find ourselves wanting to improve our life and not sure where to begin. Making the decision to start therapy and finding the right therapist you feel safe enough to be vulnerable with can feel overwhelming, leading to avoidance of going after the support you deserve. If you are feeling overwhelmed by your emotions, replaying back past disappointments, worried about the future, struggling to build meaningful relationships, regretting decisions, or struggling to navigate a life transition, I may be the right therapist for you.
In this moment you are doing the best you can, even if you aren’t feeling that way. Often we find ourselves wanting to improve our life and not sure where to begin. Making the decision to start therapy and finding the right therapist you feel safe enough to be vulnerable with can feel overwhelming, leading to avoidance of going after the support you deserve. If you are feeling overwhelmed by your emotions, replaying back past disappointments, worried about the future, struggling to build meaningful relationships, regretting decisions, or struggling to navigate a life transition, I may be the right therapist for you.
(716) 249-4063 x44 View (716) 249-4063 x44
Photo of Sherrell McLean, Licensed Master Social Worker in Buffalo, NY
Sherrell McLean
Licensed Master Social Worker, LMSW, PMH-C, CLC
Verified
Buffalo, NY 14202
Hi! I’m Sherrell. I'm a Licensed Social Worker committed to helping people unlearn hurtful habits and navigate difficult times and situations with healthy coping strategies. My work emphasizes the importance of self-love and self-care while identifying strengths, recognizing ineffective behaviors and beliefs, increasing self-awareness. I believe in taking a collaborative approach to helping clients reach their goals and holding them accountable to do so.
Hi! I’m Sherrell. I'm a Licensed Social Worker committed to helping people unlearn hurtful habits and navigate difficult times and situations with healthy coping strategies. My work emphasizes the importance of self-love and self-care while identifying strengths, recognizing ineffective behaviors and beliefs, increasing self-awareness. I believe in taking a collaborative approach to helping clients reach their goals and holding them accountable to do so.
(716) 354-3025 View (716) 354-3025
Photo of Katie Jean Mcdonald, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Katie Jean Mcdonald
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Buffalo, NY 14214
Walking through this journal called life is difficult and there lies an extra layer of challenges when one is struggling with their mental health specifically related to past or current traumatic events. In fact, without awareness, we often make decisions and behave based upon how our past experiences have made us feel. I am here to help you explore the root of these issues, which in turn, will lead to the discovery of your true identity and self worth. My therapeutic approach is holistic in nature and this is why I specialize in the use of EMDR along with other third-wave psychotherapy interventions.
Walking through this journal called life is difficult and there lies an extra layer of challenges when one is struggling with their mental health specifically related to past or current traumatic events. In fact, without awareness, we often make decisions and behave based upon how our past experiences have made us feel. I am here to help you explore the root of these issues, which in turn, will lead to the discovery of your true identity and self worth. My therapeutic approach is holistic in nature and this is why I specialize in the use of EMDR along with other third-wave psychotherapy interventions.
(716) 466-9175 View (716) 466-9175
Photo of Stacy Wilson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Buffalo, NY
Stacy Wilson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Buffalo, NY 14203  (Online Only)
Are you seeking a supportive environment for personal growth? The therapy space is here to challenge you into becoming the best version of yourself. If you're tired of feeling overwhelmed and burnt out on life, therapy can give you the support you need to make lasting improvements. Are you done being impacted by the toxic people around you? A therapist can help you set boundaries and remain effective in all of your relationships. Stop suffering emotionally and give yourself the chance to decrease pain and increase joy. I assure you - you already have what it takes to thrive.
Are you seeking a supportive environment for personal growth? The therapy space is here to challenge you into becoming the best version of yourself. If you're tired of feeling overwhelmed and burnt out on life, therapy can give you the support you need to make lasting improvements. Are you done being impacted by the toxic people around you? A therapist can help you set boundaries and remain effective in all of your relationships. Stop suffering emotionally and give yourself the chance to decrease pain and increase joy. I assure you - you already have what it takes to thrive.
(803) 573-4863 View (803) 573-4863

See more therapy options for Buffalo

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Buffalo, NY

600+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in Buffalo, NY who prioritize treating:

93% Anxiety
87% Depression
79% Self Esteem
78% Relationship Issues
74% Trauma and PTSD
74% Stress
73% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

64% Aetna
60% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
55% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Buffalo, NY see their clients

63% In Person and Online
37% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
19% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Buffalo?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.