Therapists in Storey County, NV

Photo of Alice L Caldwell, Psychologist in Storey County, NV
Alice L Caldwell
Psychologist, PhD, LBP
Not Verified Not Verified
Virginia City, NV 89440
Non-judgement, mindful, and confidential are key in foundational work for individual, family, and group treatment. Outpatient Care is HIPPA compliant face-to-face or telehealth Services. After assessment process, a plan of care utilizing specific modalities are development along with needs listed and goals, both long-term and short-term. Treatment can include family upon request. With Individualized care, patients have an opportunity to build positive coping skills. You can reach out by Email, Call/leave a message or text message. Please leave a name, number and reason for your contact. Give 24 hours for response. Let's Talk Soon.
Non-judgement, mindful, and confidential are key in foundational work for individual, family, and group treatment. Outpatient Care is HIPPA compliant face-to-face or telehealth Services. After assessment process, a plan of care utilizing specific modalities are development along with needs listed and goals, both long-term and short-term. Treatment can include family upon request. With Individualized care, patients have an opportunity to build positive coping skills. You can reach out by Email, Call/leave a message or text message. Please leave a name, number and reason for your contact. Give 24 hours for response. Let's Talk Soon.
(775) 254-1580 View (775) 254-1580
Photo of Katherine Souza, Marriage & Family Therapist in Storey County, NV
Katherine Souza
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, LMFT
Verified Verified
Virginia City, NV 89440
Dr. Souza brings 27 years of experience as a therapist and 16 of these years in behavioral health leadership. Schedule an appt online now at her website listed here. She has taught at several universities and trained new therapists. She has worked at every level of care in behavioral health. She earned her PhD from Oregon State University and her Master’s degree from the University of Nevada Reno. She has expertise in working with a variety of anxiety concerns, depression, and grief. She also works with alcohol addiction and substance abuse issues, communication issues, divorce and separation, family issues, panic, and PTSD.
Dr. Souza brings 27 years of experience as a therapist and 16 of these years in behavioral health leadership. Schedule an appt online now at her website listed here. She has taught at several universities and trained new therapists. She has worked at every level of care in behavioral health. She earned her PhD from Oregon State University and her Master’s degree from the University of Nevada Reno. She has expertise in working with a variety of anxiety concerns, depression, and grief. She also works with alcohol addiction and substance abuse issues, communication issues, divorce and separation, family issues, panic, and PTSD.
(775) 842-2689 View (775) 842-2689
Photo of Alice L Caldwell in Storey County, NV
Alice L Caldwell
PhD, LBP
Verified Verified
Virginia City, NV 89440
Non-judgement, mindful, and confidential are key in foundational work for individual, family, and group treatment. Outpatient Care is HIPPA compliant face-to-face or telehealth Services. After assessment process, a plan of care utilizing specific modalities are development along with needs listed and goals, both long-term and short-term. Treatment can include family upon request. With Individualized care, patients have an opportunity to build positive coping skills. You can reach out by Email, Call/leave a message or text message. Please leave a name, number and reason for your contact. Give 24 hours for response. Let's Talk Soon.
Non-judgement, mindful, and confidential are key in foundational work for individual, family, and group treatment. Outpatient Care is HIPPA compliant face-to-face or telehealth Services. After assessment process, a plan of care utilizing specific modalities are development along with needs listed and goals, both long-term and short-term. Treatment can include family upon request. With Individualized care, patients have an opportunity to build positive coping skills. You can reach out by Email, Call/leave a message or text message. Please leave a name, number and reason for your contact. Give 24 hours for response. Let's Talk Soon.
(539) 209-4145 View (539) 209-4145
Photo of Katelyn Lopez, Marriage & Family Therapist in Storey County, NV
Katelyn Lopez
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Virginia City, NV 89440  (Online Only)
Katelyn Lopez is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with 7 years of experience as a practicing clinician and 10 years of experience working in mental health care. She works with adults, adolescents, and couples, and works to create a safe and comfortable space where clients can address their unique challenges without the fear of being judged. She believes therapy is a collaborative process where each person meets their own specific goals. Katelyn specializes in addiction, depression, anxiety, trauma, self-esteem, relationship issues, and major life transitions. She earned her Master’s at the University of Phoenix.
Katelyn Lopez is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist with 7 years of experience as a practicing clinician and 10 years of experience working in mental health care. She works with adults, adolescents, and couples, and works to create a safe and comfortable space where clients can address their unique challenges without the fear of being judged. She believes therapy is a collaborative process where each person meets their own specific goals. Katelyn specializes in addiction, depression, anxiety, trauma, self-esteem, relationship issues, and major life transitions. She earned her Master’s at the University of Phoenix.
(775) 535-6585 View (775) 535-6585
Photo of Thalia Maya, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Storey County, NV
Thalia Maya
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Virginia City, NV 89440
Thalia is a Certified Trauma Clinical Social Worker with a range of clinical experience working with children, adolescents, and adults with acute anxiety, grief, LGBTQ+ issues, gender dysphoria, co-occurring disorders, mood disorders, complex trauma, and life transitions. Thalia utilizes a somatic and attachment focus to facilitate the most safe and efficient evidenced-based treatment. Thalia is passionate about creating equitable, inclusive healing spaces to help advance social justice through valuing the dignity and worth of a person. Thalia earned her Master of Social Work at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Thalia is a Certified Trauma Clinical Social Worker with a range of clinical experience working with children, adolescents, and adults with acute anxiety, grief, LGBTQ+ issues, gender dysphoria, co-occurring disorders, mood disorders, complex trauma, and life transitions. Thalia utilizes a somatic and attachment focus to facilitate the most safe and efficient evidenced-based treatment. Thalia is passionate about creating equitable, inclusive healing spaces to help advance social justice through valuing the dignity and worth of a person. Thalia earned her Master of Social Work at University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
(775) 257-9932 View (775) 257-9932

Online Therapists

Photo of Molly Cole, Marriage & Family Therapist in Storey County, NV
Molly Cole
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Reno, NV 89511
My ideal client would be prepared to incorporate new ideas and habits into their lives in order to create movement where they might feel stuck. They may have difficulty with self-confidence, self-efficacy, communication, anxiety or depression. They know they need a change but don't quite know, or trust, how to get there on their own. Their needs might be having a space to encounter their true identity and begin to accept themselves wholly. Their goal might be to be more accepting and forgiving, to let go of what or who they have been in the past that is incongruent with their visualized identity.
My ideal client would be prepared to incorporate new ideas and habits into their lives in order to create movement where they might feel stuck. They may have difficulty with self-confidence, self-efficacy, communication, anxiety or depression. They know they need a change but don't quite know, or trust, how to get there on their own. Their needs might be having a space to encounter their true identity and begin to accept themselves wholly. Their goal might be to be more accepting and forgiving, to let go of what or who they have been in the past that is incongruent with their visualized identity.
(775) 227-7540 View (775) 227-7540
Photo of Kelli Grock, Marriage & Family Therapist in Storey County, NV
Kelli Grock
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT, LCADC
Verified Verified
Reno, NV 89509
Do you find it exhausting to wear a mask that conceals the pain you're going through due to various challenges in your daily life? My services are dedicated to assisting individuals, couples, and families of all ages who are facing issues such as depression, anxiety, addiction, or feelings of inadequacy. I adapt my approach to cater to the unique needs of each person, helping them to explore their own emotional and somatic processes. With a deep understanding of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic medicine I am trained to assist in the integration of such therapies in my practice.
Do you find it exhausting to wear a mask that conceals the pain you're going through due to various challenges in your daily life? My services are dedicated to assisting individuals, couples, and families of all ages who are facing issues such as depression, anxiety, addiction, or feelings of inadequacy. I adapt my approach to cater to the unique needs of each person, helping them to explore their own emotional and somatic processes. With a deep understanding of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic medicine I am trained to assist in the integration of such therapies in my practice.
(530) 331-9549 View (530) 331-9549
Photo of Ellie Holbrook, Counselor in Storey County, NV
Ellie Holbrook
Counselor, MA, LPCC, LCPC, RYT500
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Reno, NV 89509
As a Licensed Professional Counselor in the states of Minnesota and Nevada, Ellie strives to help individuals feel balanced and fulfilled by assisting clients as they identify personal goals and objectives, develop practical and blended solutions, and implement strategies that will enhance performance, awareness, and life satisfaction. Ellie also encourages and facilitates self-discovery and awareness, insight, intrapersonal growth, and increased personal and relational fulfillment, while supporting her clients and helping them evaluate their individual experiences and progression.
As a Licensed Professional Counselor in the states of Minnesota and Nevada, Ellie strives to help individuals feel balanced and fulfilled by assisting clients as they identify personal goals and objectives, develop practical and blended solutions, and implement strategies that will enhance performance, awareness, and life satisfaction. Ellie also encourages and facilitates self-discovery and awareness, insight, intrapersonal growth, and increased personal and relational fulfillment, while supporting her clients and helping them evaluate their individual experiences and progression.
(320) 227-3529 View (320) 227-3529
Photo of David G Reid, Marriage & Family Therapist in Storey County, NV
David G Reid
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFTI, MDiv
Verified Verified
Reno, NV 89502
Our attachments with people and our spiritual health form the bedrock of healthy functioning. Attachments are what give us meaning in life, adaptability in tough circumstances, creativity, courage and self-worth. To the degree our attachments are unsafe, inflexible or uncertain, to that degree we unravel emotionally. Our spiritual values put life in perspective and display the big picture of life and love. When attachments are safe and healthy, distressed relationships heal, anxieties fade, and loss/disappointments can give way to a new attractive future.
Our attachments with people and our spiritual health form the bedrock of healthy functioning. Attachments are what give us meaning in life, adaptability in tough circumstances, creativity, courage and self-worth. To the degree our attachments are unsafe, inflexible or uncertain, to that degree we unravel emotionally. Our spiritual values put life in perspective and display the big picture of life and love. When attachments are safe and healthy, distressed relationships heal, anxieties fade, and loss/disappointments can give way to a new attractive future.
(775) 507-7222 View (775) 507-7222
Photo of Lisa F Almada, Marriage & Family Therapist in Storey County, NV
Lisa F Almada
Marriage & Family Therapist, MSc, MFT
Verified Verified
Fernley, NV 89408
It is my experience that "Life Happens" and sometimes we just don't have the tools to help us through the difficult times. Regardless of whether problems are small or large or even huge, they can add additional stress and anxiety to our already busy lives. When issues affect our relationships, our work and/or our health, it is time to seek help and support.
It is my experience that "Life Happens" and sometimes we just don't have the tools to help us through the difficult times. Regardless of whether problems are small or large or even huge, they can add additional stress and anxiety to our already busy lives. When issues affect our relationships, our work and/or our health, it is time to seek help and support.
(775) 773-4033 View (775) 773-4033
Photo of Philip Jones, Licensed Professional Counselor in Storey County, NV
Philip Jones
Licensed Professional Counselor, EdS, MEd, LPC, LCPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Carson City, NV 89701  (Online Only)
Are you tired of being on edge? Are you all too quick to anger? Are you suffering from insomnia or nightmares? Are you plagued by flashbacks or unsettling thoughts? Are you unable to experience enjoyment and contentment in your life? Do you find difficulty recognizing yourself and your behaviors? Have you talked about your experiences only to spend more time explaining your language or meaning than being understood? If this describes you, please read on because help is most definitely available.
Are you tired of being on edge? Are you all too quick to anger? Are you suffering from insomnia or nightmares? Are you plagued by flashbacks or unsettling thoughts? Are you unable to experience enjoyment and contentment in your life? Do you find difficulty recognizing yourself and your behaviors? Have you talked about your experiences only to spend more time explaining your language or meaning than being understood? If this describes you, please read on because help is most definitely available.
(775) 535-7202 View (775) 535-7202
Photo of Lynn L Dyas, Marriage & Family Therapist in Storey County, NV
Lynn L Dyas
Marriage & Family Therapist, MFT, LCADC, NCC
Verified Verified
Reno, NV 89503
As a highly trained and experienced Psychotherapist, I focus on treatment that addresses blocks to living a full and productive life. My goals are to help clients understand self-defeating patterns or dynamics that may be sabotaging their lives, heal attachment ruptures, provide support while practicing new behaviors, work through challenging situations or life crises, and learn to identify existing while teaching new strengths and skills. Our objective as a team will be to enhance your quality of life by helping you reach your fullest personal and professional potential.
As a highly trained and experienced Psychotherapist, I focus on treatment that addresses blocks to living a full and productive life. My goals are to help clients understand self-defeating patterns or dynamics that may be sabotaging their lives, heal attachment ruptures, provide support while practicing new behaviors, work through challenging situations or life crises, and learn to identify existing while teaching new strengths and skills. Our objective as a team will be to enhance your quality of life by helping you reach your fullest personal and professional potential.
(775) 589-2017 View (775) 589-2017
Allan R Mandell
Marriage & Family Therapist, PhD, MFT
Verified Verified
Sparks, NV 89431  (Online Only)
Life is a journey with many opportunities for personal growth. How each experience affects us is as individual as we are human beings. When significant problems arise, recognizing your need for help is the first step. Finding a professional to trust is the second. Therapy is an opportunity to explore new ideas and learn new ways to navigate life's path with confidence and self-awareness. I welcome the opportunity to travel that path with you for a short time, and help you discover new directions toward greater peace and happiness.
Life is a journey with many opportunities for personal growth. How each experience affects us is as individual as we are human beings. When significant problems arise, recognizing your need for help is the first step. Finding a professional to trust is the second. Therapy is an opportunity to explore new ideas and learn new ways to navigate life's path with confidence and self-awareness. I welcome the opportunity to travel that path with you for a short time, and help you discover new directions toward greater peace and happiness.
(775) 273-6083 View (775) 273-6083
Photo of Kimber Last, Clinical Professional Counselor Intern in Storey County, NV
Kimber Last
Clinical Professional Counselor Intern, MA, CPCI
Verified Verified
Reno, NV 89511  (Online Only)
Want an actionable, goal-oriented plan for healing? As a therapist, I am committed to helping you heal and understand the underlying causes of your stress.
Want an actionable, goal-oriented plan for healing? As a therapist, I am committed to helping you heal and understand the underlying causes of your stress.
(775) 587-2342 View (775) 587-2342
Photo of Erika Cole Gillette in Storey County, NV
Erika Cole Gillette
ACAC, MA, MFA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Reno, NV 89506
I coach entrepreneurs, writers, and job-seekers to design and achieve goals that lead them to their most extraordinary lives. Whether you are launching a book or business, or learning to succeed with ADHD, big dreams can also be overwhelming. We start with identifying what matters most to you, so you can make decisions that will get you where you really want to go. You want an exceptional life, and you need clarity to make good decisions and set exciting goals that inspire you.
I coach entrepreneurs, writers, and job-seekers to design and achieve goals that lead them to their most extraordinary lives. Whether you are launching a book or business, or learning to succeed with ADHD, big dreams can also be overwhelming. We start with identifying what matters most to you, so you can make decisions that will get you where you really want to go. You want an exceptional life, and you need clarity to make good decisions and set exciting goals that inspire you.
(775) 204-2547 View (775) 204-2547
Photo of Sydney Oren, Pre-Licensed Professional in Storey County, NV
Sydney Oren
Pre-Licensed Professional, LMSW, CSW-I
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Reno, NV 89509
Waitlist for new clients
Welcome! I’m so happy you’re here. Acknowledging and accepting that you don’t always have to go it alone can be the first step on a healthier and more fulfilling road. It has been my great privilege to work with clients from many different backgrounds, all with one thing in common: a desire to achieve some form of growth and forward movement in their lives. I look forward to exploring what “growth” means to you and working together as a team to achieve the positive change you seek and deserve.
Welcome! I’m so happy you’re here. Acknowledging and accepting that you don’t always have to go it alone can be the first step on a healthier and more fulfilling road. It has been my great privilege to work with clients from many different backgrounds, all with one thing in common: a desire to achieve some form of growth and forward movement in their lives. I look forward to exploring what “growth” means to you and working together as a team to achieve the positive change you seek and deserve.
(775) 542-4828 View (775) 542-4828
Photo of Sha-Vonn Collins, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Storey County, NV
Sha-Vonn Collins
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Reno, NV 89521
I believe that healing is a collaborative endeavor that requires honesty and caring without judgment.
I believe that healing is a collaborative endeavor that requires honesty and caring without judgment.
(775) 542-9841 View (775) 542-9841
Photo of Sharon Amelung, Counselor in Storey County, NV
Sharon Amelung
Counselor, MC, LCPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Fernley, NV 89408
We all have our own unique gifts and talents. Are you living yours? Do you know how to access them and put them to use in your personal life, work, and relationships? Many of us sense that there is more to life than what we have been living, more than what we have been capable of in the past, yet there is something lacking...... If this sounds familiar, some professional counseling, coaching or energy healing may be just the ticket to unlock your fullest potential. Many people don't realize how truly possible it is to heal!
We all have our own unique gifts and talents. Are you living yours? Do you know how to access them and put them to use in your personal life, work, and relationships? Many of us sense that there is more to life than what we have been living, more than what we have been capable of in the past, yet there is something lacking...... If this sounds familiar, some professional counseling, coaching or energy healing may be just the ticket to unlock your fullest potential. Many people don't realize how truly possible it is to heal!
(833) 915-5373 View (833) 915-5373
Photo of Dana R. Anderson Psyd, Psychologist in Storey County, NV
Dana R. Anderson Psyd
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Carson City, NV 89703
Dr. Dana Anderson is a renowned Forensic Psychologist, providing comprehensive psycho-legal evaluations within the court justice system. Guided by court orders and penal codes, she delivers precise assessments for specific legal queries. Her expert insights and recommendations assist in fair judicial decision-making. Whether privately retained or court-appointed, Dr. Anderson upholds professionalism and integrity in every case. Dr. Anderson specializes in clinical forensic psychological evaluations and provides annual contracts for law firms and government agencies.
Dr. Dana Anderson is a renowned Forensic Psychologist, providing comprehensive psycho-legal evaluations within the court justice system. Guided by court orders and penal codes, she delivers precise assessments for specific legal queries. Her expert insights and recommendations assist in fair judicial decision-making. Whether privately retained or court-appointed, Dr. Anderson upholds professionalism and integrity in every case. Dr. Anderson specializes in clinical forensic psychological evaluations and provides annual contracts for law firms and government agencies.
(530) 451-0679 View (530) 451-0679
Photo of Dr. Tracy S. Kelly, The Strategic Psychotherapist, Marriage & Family Therapist in Storey County, NV
Dr. Tracy S. Kelly, The Strategic Psychotherapist
Marriage & Family Therapist, EdD, LMFT, NCC
Verified Verified
Reno, NV 89511
Journey toward a life free from the things that have held you back. I'm Dr. Tracy Kelly, a strategic psychotherapist who specializes in helping adolescents, adults, couples, and families toward wellness, and healing. If you're seeking new ways to change behaviors, thoughts, and actions, with new tools, you're in the right place. I work with clients to help them heal from a variety of issues including anxiety, depression, low-self esteem, fear, doubt, abuse, grief, loss, ADD/ADHD, infidelity, divorce, blended families, mood disorders, hopelessness, stress, communication, and more. Check out my website for even more about what I do!
Journey toward a life free from the things that have held you back. I'm Dr. Tracy Kelly, a strategic psychotherapist who specializes in helping adolescents, adults, couples, and families toward wellness, and healing. If you're seeking new ways to change behaviors, thoughts, and actions, with new tools, you're in the right place. I work with clients to help them heal from a variety of issues including anxiety, depression, low-self esteem, fear, doubt, abuse, grief, loss, ADD/ADHD, infidelity, divorce, blended families, mood disorders, hopelessness, stress, communication, and more. Check out my website for even more about what I do!
(775) 581-4082 View (775) 581-4082

See more therapy options for Storey County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Storey County, NV

< 10

Therapists in Storey County, NV who prioritize treating:

100% Depression
100% Anxiety
100% Stress
80% Grief
80% Trauma and PTSD
80% Divorce
60% Relationship Issues

Average years in practice

28 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

75% Aetna
75% Cigna and Evernorth
50% BlueCross and BlueShield

How Therapists in Storey County, NV see their clients

80% In Person and Online
20% Online Only

Gender breakdown

100% Female

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Storey County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.