Therapists in Chaves County, NM

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Photo of Ann Anderson Counseling & Consulting, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chaves County, NM
Ann Anderson Counseling & Consulting
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LADAC, LPCC
Verified
Roswell, NM 88201
Waitlist for new clients
There may be times in your life when you experience difficulties, conflicts, issues, or losses which challenge your capacity to cope effectively. For over 30 years, I have worked with individuals, couples, and families, to help them successfully navigate challenging times and make the changes they need to order to achieve greater fulfillment and happiness in their lives. The most difficult situations, can be launching pads for growth and healing. I have found a number of paths helpful in that journey. I would be honored to partner with you to reach workable solutions. I am currently providing Video Telehealth or phone sessions
There may be times in your life when you experience difficulties, conflicts, issues, or losses which challenge your capacity to cope effectively. For over 30 years, I have worked with individuals, couples, and families, to help them successfully navigate challenging times and make the changes they need to order to achieve greater fulfillment and happiness in their lives. The most difficult situations, can be launching pads for growth and healing. I have found a number of paths helpful in that journey. I would be honored to partner with you to reach workable solutions. I am currently providing Video Telehealth or phone sessions
(575) 613-1582 View (575) 613-1582
Photo of Leslie Fitzwater, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chaves County, NM
Leslie Fitzwater
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
Roswell, NM 88201
As a therapist, I'm dedicated to fostering growth and healing in those I serve. With empathy and expertise, I provide a safe space for exploration and transformation. Guided by a commitment to compassion and understanding, I work collaboratively with clients to navigate life's challenges and empower them to live authentically. Together, we embark on a journey of self-discovery, resilience, and hope.
As a therapist, I'm dedicated to fostering growth and healing in those I serve. With empathy and expertise, I provide a safe space for exploration and transformation. Guided by a commitment to compassion and understanding, I work collaboratively with clients to navigate life's challenges and empower them to live authentically. Together, we embark on a journey of self-discovery, resilience, and hope.
(575) 213-1703 View (575) 213-1703
Photo of Open Access Video Counseling, Counselor in Chaves County, NM
Open Access Video Counseling
Counselor, LPCC, LMFT
Verified
Roswell, NM 88201  (Online Only)
In session, we will look at what you are hoping to get from the counseling experience and collaboratively discover what will work for your situation toward getting unstuck from emotional, behavioral and relationship issues. I commonly see people with concerns such as depression, anxiety, relationship issues, financial difficulties, anger management, addictions, and grief. I also specialize in couples counseling issues such as communication, trust, and infidelity, and guide you through turbulent times. I have been in practice for over 25 years.
In session, we will look at what you are hoping to get from the counseling experience and collaboratively discover what will work for your situation toward getting unstuck from emotional, behavioral and relationship issues. I commonly see people with concerns such as depression, anxiety, relationship issues, financial difficulties, anger management, addictions, and grief. I also specialize in couples counseling issues such as communication, trust, and infidelity, and guide you through turbulent times. I have been in practice for over 25 years.
(575) 578-2285 View (575) 578-2285
Photo of The Hope Holders Counseling Services, Counselor in Chaves County, NM
The Hope Holders Counseling Services
Counselor, MS, LPCC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Roswell, NM 88201  (Online Only)
I believe that changes take place through healing relationships. My job as your counselor is to listen and understand what you are going through and what changes you are seeking. I offer to hold hope for you when times are dark or you feel lost or confused and to share in your progress too! I work from a person-centered approach and use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Attachment Based Perspective to help you learn and grow and make the changes you want to make. I also work with people who have been through a traumatic event and help them go from feeling like a victim and being afraid to learning how to live with it and experiencing
I believe that changes take place through healing relationships. My job as your counselor is to listen and understand what you are going through and what changes you are seeking. I offer to hold hope for you when times are dark or you feel lost or confused and to share in your progress too! I work from a person-centered approach and use Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Attachment Based Perspective to help you learn and grow and make the changes you want to make. I also work with people who have been through a traumatic event and help them go from feeling like a victim and being afraid to learning how to live with it and experiencing
(575) 483-1689 View (575) 483-1689
Photo of Dr. Mark White, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chaves County, NM
Dr. Mark White
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT-S, CSAT-S, CMAT-S, CPTT-S, LSOTP
Verified
3 Endorsed
Roswell, NM 88201
Searching for hope and healing from experiencing the trauma of betrayal, infidelity, compulsive sexual behavior, or relationship distress? Lasting, long-term recovery requires guidance. Individually, are you experiencing anxiety or depression in the current context of Coronavirus? With a focus on your context, experience, and emotion, I specialize in deconstructing your presenting issues to clarify specific problems that you desire to change or respond to. I offer services by video conferencing, phone, and in-person. With similarly qualified colleagues, we offer collaborating therapists for each partner and for the relationship.
Searching for hope and healing from experiencing the trauma of betrayal, infidelity, compulsive sexual behavior, or relationship distress? Lasting, long-term recovery requires guidance. Individually, are you experiencing anxiety or depression in the current context of Coronavirus? With a focus on your context, experience, and emotion, I specialize in deconstructing your presenting issues to clarify specific problems that you desire to change or respond to. I offer services by video conferencing, phone, and in-person. With similarly qualified colleagues, we offer collaborating therapists for each partner and for the relationship.
(806) 553-2618 View (806) 553-2618
Photo of Healing Legacy, Counseling & EMDR , Counselor in Chaves County, NM
Healing Legacy, Counseling & EMDR
Counselor, LPCC, C-EMDR , C-DBT
Verified
Roswell, NM 88201
Waitlist for new clients
My availability for accepting new clients is August 2024. I am a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional. My Certifications include EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing) and DBT (Dialectical Behavior Therapy). I have been providing treatment support for two decades. My own trauma history uniquely lends as a conduit to an empathetic healing experience. I earned a BA in Psychology from ENMU-Portales, NM & an MA in Counseling from The University of New Mexico.
My availability for accepting new clients is August 2024. I am a Certified Clinical Trauma Professional. My Certifications include EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing) and DBT (Dialectical Behavior Therapy). I have been providing treatment support for two decades. My own trauma history uniquely lends as a conduit to an empathetic healing experience. I earned a BA in Psychology from ENMU-Portales, NM & an MA in Counseling from The University of New Mexico.
(505) 405-1360 View (505) 405-1360
Photo of Rhonda R Shields, Counselor in Chaves County, NM
Rhonda R Shields
Counselor, LPCC, DCBT
Verified
Roswell, NM 88201  (Online Only)
You want to think like you have it “altogether” but deep down you are struggling with the challenging experiences that have occurred in your life. You may be tired of anxiety, sleepless nights, sadness, anger outbursts and then guilt and thinking that you are not good enough, or worthless. You may not even remember a time when things didn’t feel this way. But one thing is for sure: you’re ready for some relief. You’re ready to be able to go places, do things, sleep at night and no more anger outbursts, anxiety or sadness. Most of all, you want to let go of the past, happier relationships and a live a more joyful life.
You want to think like you have it “altogether” but deep down you are struggling with the challenging experiences that have occurred in your life. You may be tired of anxiety, sleepless nights, sadness, anger outbursts and then guilt and thinking that you are not good enough, or worthless. You may not even remember a time when things didn’t feel this way. But one thing is for sure: you’re ready for some relief. You’re ready to be able to go places, do things, sleep at night and no more anger outbursts, anxiety or sadness. Most of all, you want to let go of the past, happier relationships and a live a more joyful life.
(575) 205-4923 View (575) 205-4923
Photo of Katrina Bruns, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chaves County, NM
Katrina Bruns
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, LISW
Verified
Roswell, NM 88201
Are you looking for an easily accessible therapist that you can see from the comfort of your home or anywhere of your choosing? Are you looking to improve your life, work through past trauma, or build coping skills for maintaining positive mental health? If so, we may be the right fit!
Are you looking for an easily accessible therapist that you can see from the comfort of your home or anywhere of your choosing? Are you looking to improve your life, work through past trauma, or build coping skills for maintaining positive mental health? If so, we may be the right fit!
(575) 210-5198 View (575) 210-5198
Photo of MelindaJoy Pattison, Counselor in Chaves County, NM
MelindaJoy Pattison
Counselor, MA, LMHC
Verified
Lake Arthur, NM 88253
Success in the process of psychotherapy is ultimately dependent upon the relationship between therapist and client. Beyond that--any additional modality training can be useful but not a replacement, for this all important element. I am a relationally trained psychotherapist. Creating a safe and nurturing space for my clients to do the work that is unique for each one of them; is my speciality. That means I am able to work with just about anyone and that I can help with nearly any - thing you may have going on in your life. Whether you carry a heavy load of anxiety or find yourself in active addiction; I believe I can help.
Success in the process of psychotherapy is ultimately dependent upon the relationship between therapist and client. Beyond that--any additional modality training can be useful but not a replacement, for this all important element. I am a relationally trained psychotherapist. Creating a safe and nurturing space for my clients to do the work that is unique for each one of them; is my speciality. That means I am able to work with just about anyone and that I can help with nearly any - thing you may have going on in your life. Whether you carry a heavy load of anxiety or find yourself in active addiction; I believe I can help.
(505) 557-1778 View (505) 557-1778

Online Therapists

Photo of Chelsey Klein, Counselor in Chaves County, NM
Chelsey Klein
Counselor, NCC, LPCC, LCPC, CADC-In, LPC
Verified
Portales, NM 88130  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Does each day seem to be a challenge and you feel you are just surviving? Maybe you are carrying the weight of the past or others expectations. I can offer a safe space to process and internally resolve the heaviness of everyday life with unconditional positive regard as well as tools to manage daily stressors using a bottom up approach that will include coping skills and trauma processing to help resolve the internal processes that cause difficulty in every day life.
Does each day seem to be a challenge and you feel you are just surviving? Maybe you are carrying the weight of the past or others expectations. I can offer a safe space to process and internally resolve the heaviness of everyday life with unconditional positive regard as well as tools to manage daily stressors using a bottom up approach that will include coping skills and trauma processing to help resolve the internal processes that cause difficulty in every day life.
(575) 825-7206 View (575) 825-7206
The Evolution Group, Inc
Counselor, LPCC, LMFT, LCSW
Verified
Ruidoso, NM 88345
We all know what anxiety feels like. We get butterflies in our stomachs, our hearts pound; we worry and fret, or feel jittery. This can happen when we are alone, in social contexts, elevators, in the car, or even just thinking about it. If worries and fears, anxiety, panic, or insomnia related to anxiety are preventing you from living your life the way you’d like, you may be suffering from an anxiety disorder. Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts and physical changes like increased blood pressure. In short it is our body’s response to a perceived threat.
We all know what anxiety feels like. We get butterflies in our stomachs, our hearts pound; we worry and fret, or feel jittery. This can happen when we are alone, in social contexts, elevators, in the car, or even just thinking about it. If worries and fears, anxiety, panic, or insomnia related to anxiety are preventing you from living your life the way you’d like, you may be suffering from an anxiety disorder. Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts and physical changes like increased blood pressure. In short it is our body’s response to a perceived threat.
(505) 242-6988 View (505) 242-6988
Photo of Lourdes Wilson, Licensed Professional Counselor in Chaves County, NM
Lourdes Wilson
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC-S, LPC, LPCC
Verified
Hobbs, NM 88240
Lourdes Wilson is a highly skilled Licensed professional counselor supervisor (LPC-S) Supervisor with a distinguished career spanning over 30 years. Currently licensed in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, Lourdes is renowned for her expertise in addressing a wide array of mental health issues, with specialized proficiency in grief, couples counseling, and stress management.
Lourdes Wilson is a highly skilled Licensed professional counselor supervisor (LPC-S) Supervisor with a distinguished career spanning over 30 years. Currently licensed in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, Lourdes is renowned for her expertise in addressing a wide array of mental health issues, with specialized proficiency in grief, couples counseling, and stress management.
(432) 389-2366 View (432) 389-2366
Photo of A Bridge to Healing Counseling Services Inc, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Chaves County, NM
A Bridge to Healing Counseling Services Inc
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CCTP, CATP
Verified
Alamogordo, NM 88310
Let me help you build the bridges to reach your goals Whatever your reason for seeking out Psychotherapy, I’m dedicated to helping you find your way to better mental health. Book your first appointment to get started on your journey towards the life you deserve.
Let me help you build the bridges to reach your goals Whatever your reason for seeking out Psychotherapy, I’m dedicated to helping you find your way to better mental health. Book your first appointment to get started on your journey towards the life you deserve.
(575) 205-4823 View (575) 205-4823
Photo of The Evolution Group, Inc, Counselor in Chaves County, NM
The Evolution Group, Inc
Counselor, LPCC, LMHC, LCSW
Verified
Ruidoso, NM 88345
Problem gambling is one of the most hidden addictions in the U.S. due to the shame and stigma associated with gambling problems. Many people still mistake problem gambling for a moral problem or simply see it as poor choice making, rather than understanding the complex brain hijacking that problem gambling is for some people who can’t quit. Several neurotransmitters including dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, opioids, to name a few, are acting simultaneously on the brain during problem gambling.
Problem gambling is one of the most hidden addictions in the U.S. due to the shame and stigma associated with gambling problems. Many people still mistake problem gambling for a moral problem or simply see it as poor choice making, rather than understanding the complex brain hijacking that problem gambling is for some people who can’t quit. Several neurotransmitters including dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, opioids, to name a few, are acting simultaneously on the brain during problem gambling.
(505) 605-5123 View (505) 605-5123
Photo of Jennifer Welsh, Counselor in Chaves County, NM
Jennifer Welsh
Counselor, MS, LPCC
Verified
Alamogordo, NM 88310
Life often creates challenges that affect our overall wellbeing. One way to navigate through those challenges is seeking counseling services. I understand that it can be difficult. Therefore, I focus on making the process as easy as possible. I work with clients who have a large range of issues, such as depression, anxiety, trauma, behavioral issues, and so much more. I want to be able to create a supportive environment so that we can work together on getting to the root of the problem and how to overcome it. I want to be able to help support and facilitate the journey to a greater wellbeing.
Life often creates challenges that affect our overall wellbeing. One way to navigate through those challenges is seeking counseling services. I understand that it can be difficult. Therefore, I focus on making the process as easy as possible. I work with clients who have a large range of issues, such as depression, anxiety, trauma, behavioral issues, and so much more. I want to be able to create a supportive environment so that we can work together on getting to the root of the problem and how to overcome it. I want to be able to help support and facilitate the journey to a greater wellbeing.
(575) 577-3479 View (575) 577-3479
The Evolution Group, Inc
Counselor, LPCC, LMFT, LCSW
Verified
Ruidoso, NM 88345
Couples Counseling with a therapist who “gets it” is often just what is needed for a relationship that is struggling, in conflict, on its last legs, or when it is going through transition. Sometimes relationships are in crisis due to infidelity or the discovery of pornography use. Couples counseling is proven to be very helpful in these situations, resolving relationship conflicts such as sexual problems, financial conflict, disagreements over parenting issues, or communication problems among other issues that arise in relationships.
Couples Counseling with a therapist who “gets it” is often just what is needed for a relationship that is struggling, in conflict, on its last legs, or when it is going through transition. Sometimes relationships are in crisis due to infidelity or the discovery of pornography use. Couples counseling is proven to be very helpful in these situations, resolving relationship conflicts such as sexual problems, financial conflict, disagreements over parenting issues, or communication problems among other issues that arise in relationships.
(505) 657-3605 View (505) 657-3605
Photo of LaRocque Counseling Associates, LLC, Counselor in Chaves County, NM
LaRocque Counseling Associates, LLC
Counselor, MS, LPCC
Verified
Alamogordo, NM 88310
Waitlist for new clients
Welcome and thank you for visiting my page. It can be a daunting process connecting with a counselor you're comfortable with; however, I'll strive to be that person for you. Combined, I have over 34 years of experience in the military and in private practice working with ages 9+ for a variety of experiences that cause anxiety, trauma, and negative beliefs often resulting in self-sabotaging behaviors. I focus on personal development by helping you develop the skills needed to deal with the inevitable struggles we all face in our lives.
Welcome and thank you for visiting my page. It can be a daunting process connecting with a counselor you're comfortable with; however, I'll strive to be that person for you. Combined, I have over 34 years of experience in the military and in private practice working with ages 9+ for a variety of experiences that cause anxiety, trauma, and negative beliefs often resulting in self-sabotaging behaviors. I focus on personal development by helping you develop the skills needed to deal with the inevitable struggles we all face in our lives.
(575) 214-3839 View (575) 214-3839
Photo of TeleCounseling New Mexico, Counselor in Chaves County, NM
TeleCounseling New Mexico
Counselor, MA, LMHC, LADAC
Verified
Ruidoso, NM 88345  (Online Only)
These are trying times, aren’t they? Struggling in a relationship in the middle of a global pandemic—magnifing the overwhelm! Relationships and homelife feel overwhelming. You’re numb and exasperated. You’re feeling hopeless and taken advantage of. Your partner trash talks you—taking another vital part of your self-esteem. You may feel used and disrespected—even victimized. Brain fog is a ‘constant’ as you feel life passing you by. I feel you. There is a scientific system for recovery. My speciality is providing that system for your recovery: a step-by-step system leading out of the hopelessness and into a healthy relationship.
These are trying times, aren’t they? Struggling in a relationship in the middle of a global pandemic—magnifing the overwhelm! Relationships and homelife feel overwhelming. You’re numb and exasperated. You’re feeling hopeless and taken advantage of. Your partner trash talks you—taking another vital part of your self-esteem. You may feel used and disrespected—even victimized. Brain fog is a ‘constant’ as you feel life passing you by. I feel you. There is a scientific system for recovery. My speciality is providing that system for your recovery: a step-by-step system leading out of the hopelessness and into a healthy relationship.
(575) 218-7671 View (575) 218-7671
Photo of Honor J Medina, Marriage & Family Therapist in Chaves County, NM
Honor J Medina
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT, LPCC
Verified
Carlsbad, NM 88220
Honor is a marriage and family therapist practicing for 30 years. She is an Advanced Clinical Hypnotherapist, Trauma Informed Therapist, Certified Master Facilitator of Equus Coaching, Certified Transpersonal Coach and Leadership Circle Certified. She is known for assisting people with breaking patterns of behavior they haven’t been able to stop and help people to show up with renewed integrity and balance in their lives. Honor is committed to spirituality and loves connected people with their spiritual resources. Honor’s private practice is located in Carlsbad, NM and she sees clients via Zoom.
Honor is a marriage and family therapist practicing for 30 years. She is an Advanced Clinical Hypnotherapist, Trauma Informed Therapist, Certified Master Facilitator of Equus Coaching, Certified Transpersonal Coach and Leadership Circle Certified. She is known for assisting people with breaking patterns of behavior they haven’t been able to stop and help people to show up with renewed integrity and balance in their lives. Honor is committed to spirituality and loves connected people with their spiritual resources. Honor’s private practice is located in Carlsbad, NM and she sees clients via Zoom.
(575) 825-3965 View (575) 825-3965
Photo of McClain Counseling Services, LLC, Counselor in Chaves County, NM
McClain Counseling Services, LLC
Counselor, LPCC
Verified
Alamogordo, NM 88310  (Online Only)
Do you feel lost, anxious and lacking in meaning in your life? Sounding board licensed in both MO and NM. Proud to assist individual clients on their journey through difficult times. Convenient Telehealth to work with busy schedules!
Do you feel lost, anxious and lacking in meaning in your life? Sounding board licensed in both MO and NM. Proud to assist individual clients on their journey through difficult times. Convenient Telehealth to work with busy schedules!
(575) 214-7554 View (575) 214-7554

See more therapy options for Chaves County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Chaves County, NM

< 10

Therapists in Chaves County, NM who prioritize treating:

100% Depression
100% Trauma and PTSD
89% Anxiety
89% Peer Relationships
78% Relationship Issues
78% Grief
78% Anger Management

Average years in practice

16 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% BlueCross and BlueShield
80% Medicaid
80% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Chaves County, NM see their clients

67% In Person and Online
33% Online Only

Gender breakdown

88% Female
12% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Chaves County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.