Therapists in Morristown, NJ

Photo of Ari Hahn, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Morristown, NJ
Ari Hahn
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LCSW
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960  (Online Only)
Work. Family. Friends. Why can't life be simpler? With multiple deadlines, a growing to-do list, and a family and social life that demands attention. You know that you can be successful, but you're beginning to think that you are dropping too many balls. The constant pressure to perform is turning into unrelenting anxiety and your performance is suffering. Therapy sounds like it might be a good idea, but no way can you dedicate seasons or years to making things better. Your work cannot wait, your spouse/lover cannot wait, you cannot wait. Efficiency is critical. Confidentiality is critical. But you're ready to do what it takes.
Work. Family. Friends. Why can't life be simpler? With multiple deadlines, a growing to-do list, and a family and social life that demands attention. You know that you can be successful, but you're beginning to think that you are dropping too many balls. The constant pressure to perform is turning into unrelenting anxiety and your performance is suffering. Therapy sounds like it might be a good idea, but no way can you dedicate seasons or years to making things better. Your work cannot wait, your spouse/lover cannot wait, you cannot wait. Efficiency is critical. Confidentiality is critical. But you're ready to do what it takes.
(862) 217-5178 View (862) 217-5178
Photo of Elizabeth Mac Ewen Lcsw LLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Morristown, NJ
Elizabeth Mac Ewen Lcsw LLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Morristown, NJ 07960
Not accepting new clients
Every accomplishment starts with the decision to try. Starting therapy is a decision to work towards making desired changes for your overall wellness. Making changes or thinking about making changes can cause you to feel nervous, stressed, ashamed, overwhelmed, or maybe even afraid. I want to thank you for your courage and commitment to taking the first step in caring for yourself by starting therapy. Your willingness to start is what counts, not how long it took you to get here.
Every accomplishment starts with the decision to try. Starting therapy is a decision to work towards making desired changes for your overall wellness. Making changes or thinking about making changes can cause you to feel nervous, stressed, ashamed, overwhelmed, or maybe even afraid. I want to thank you for your courage and commitment to taking the first step in caring for yourself by starting therapy. Your willingness to start is what counts, not how long it took you to get here.
(973) 943-4426 View (973) 943-4426
Photo of Sexual Addiction Sex Misbehavior Infidelity Expert, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Morristown, NJ
Sexual Addiction Sex Misbehavior Infidelity Expert
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, SOTS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Morristown, NJ 07960
Absolute sexual addiction elite level expert 26 years + 45,000 hours sexual misbehavior specialist psychotherapy provided, faster recovery evidence based research oriented treating of Infidelity / Cheating /Affairs, Prostitution Use, "Seeking Arrangements", Sugar Daddy, Sex Apps, Strip Clubs, Massage Parlors, Sex Misconduct, Certified Specialist. I created government funded sexual misbehavior programs, utilizing highly effective clinical models. I use my most up to date understanding to have you change your thinking and learn how to end self destructive actions and love yourself and the great life you have. All I do is these cases.
Absolute sexual addiction elite level expert 26 years + 45,000 hours sexual misbehavior specialist psychotherapy provided, faster recovery evidence based research oriented treating of Infidelity / Cheating /Affairs, Prostitution Use, "Seeking Arrangements", Sugar Daddy, Sex Apps, Strip Clubs, Massage Parlors, Sex Misconduct, Certified Specialist. I created government funded sexual misbehavior programs, utilizing highly effective clinical models. I use my most up to date understanding to have you change your thinking and learn how to end self destructive actions and love yourself and the great life you have. All I do is these cases.
(201) 379-6085 View (201) 379-6085
Photo of Lauren Dobbs, Psychologist in Morristown, NJ
Lauren Dobbs
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960
Dr. Dobbs is an accomplished clinical psychologist with over fifteen years of experience between teaching and clinical work. She specializes in working with children, teens, and adults and has worked across various settings, including private practice, school, residential, and community mental health. Her therapeutic approach is rooted in the gold standard of treatment, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which provides faster, more effective results. With children and teens, she goes beyond the traditional confines of therapy by harnessing their natural creativity, integrating art, music, games, journaling, and other creative outlets.
Dr. Dobbs is an accomplished clinical psychologist with over fifteen years of experience between teaching and clinical work. She specializes in working with children, teens, and adults and has worked across various settings, including private practice, school, residential, and community mental health. Her therapeutic approach is rooted in the gold standard of treatment, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which provides faster, more effective results. With children and teens, she goes beyond the traditional confines of therapy by harnessing their natural creativity, integrating art, music, games, journaling, and other creative outlets.
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Photo of Mary Haroun, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Morristown, NJ
Mary Haroun
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, LCADC
Verified Verified
6 Endorsed
Morristown, NJ 07960
Not accepting new clients
Feeling overwhelmed and fatigued? Are you unable to get out of your own way? Are your loved ones' problems weighing you down? Has depression, anxiety, guilt and low self-esteem become the norm? Don't give up! Allow me to offer you problem-solving techniques that will help you cope with the everyday stress of modern life such as: grief, irritability, fear, stress, or life transitions in general. Let me help you recapture your energy and restore a feeling of optimism and zest for life.
Feeling overwhelmed and fatigued? Are you unable to get out of your own way? Are your loved ones' problems weighing you down? Has depression, anxiety, guilt and low self-esteem become the norm? Don't give up! Allow me to offer you problem-solving techniques that will help you cope with the everyday stress of modern life such as: grief, irritability, fear, stress, or life transitions in general. Let me help you recapture your energy and restore a feeling of optimism and zest for life.
(973) 446-2519 View (973) 446-2519
Photo of Joshshea Bonds, Marriage & Family Therapist in Morristown, NJ
Joshshea Bonds
Marriage & Family Therapist, MAMFT, LAMFT
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960
My ideal client is seeking therapy because they are feeling sad. It almost feels like depression. The client is not sure how to stop feeling this way. They also don't know why they are feeling this way. They want to learn what is making them feel sad. The client would like to learn strategies to help identify triggers and learn coping skills to decrease the depression.
My ideal client is seeking therapy because they are feeling sad. It almost feels like depression. The client is not sure how to stop feeling this way. They also don't know why they are feeling this way. They want to learn what is making them feel sad. The client would like to learn strategies to help identify triggers and learn coping skills to decrease the depression.
(973) 358-6286 View (973) 358-6286
Photo of Niya Bush, Counselor in Morristown, NJ
Niya Bush
Counselor, MS, LAC, NCC
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960
My ideal client would be a high-functioning, motivated individual eager to attain self-understanding and self-awareness and willing to explore underlying schemas that impact thought and behavior. This client would be open to discussing and working through 'false-self' states and their relationship to early life experiences. This process would lead the client to the expression and development of 'true self 'experiences and enhanced authenticity. Their issues may be anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, poor confidence, and low self-efficacy due to distorted thinking within the core belief system and identity.
My ideal client would be a high-functioning, motivated individual eager to attain self-understanding and self-awareness and willing to explore underlying schemas that impact thought and behavior. This client would be open to discussing and working through 'false-self' states and their relationship to early life experiences. This process would lead the client to the expression and development of 'true self 'experiences and enhanced authenticity. Their issues may be anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, poor confidence, and low self-efficacy due to distorted thinking within the core belief system and identity.
(973) 791-5899 View (973) 791-5899
Photo of Emilie Rowan, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Morristown, NJ
Emilie Rowan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960  (Online Only)
Therapy is a special place to explore who you truly are and what makes you happy. If you are not feeling fulfilled, it is time to do something about that! Life is short and the capacity to look at how you deal with situations can require a special kind of honesty in order to make a real change. I would love the opportunity to work with you to help you make these important changes.
Therapy is a special place to explore who you truly are and what makes you happy. If you are not feeling fulfilled, it is time to do something about that! Life is short and the capacity to look at how you deal with situations can require a special kind of honesty in order to make a real change. I would love the opportunity to work with you to help you make these important changes.
(973) 718-5365 View (973) 718-5365
Photo of Allison Guilbault, Licensed Professional Counselor in Morristown, NJ
Allison Guilbault
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Morristown, NJ 07960  (Online Only)
You have already invested in personal growth, learned mindfulness, meditate, focus on your wellness... and yet... you still feel stuck. You find yourself apologizing to the waitress when you ask for more salad dressing. You have trouble speaking up to your partner for fear of being called dramatic, too much or over-sensitive. You hate when people post your picture without showing you first. You hear whispers of the old you who wanted big things and know that it is your intuition calling. You want to stop feeling small. You want to make peace with old wounds. ​ You are ready to take up space without apology.
You have already invested in personal growth, learned mindfulness, meditate, focus on your wellness... and yet... you still feel stuck. You find yourself apologizing to the waitress when you ask for more salad dressing. You have trouble speaking up to your partner for fear of being called dramatic, too much or over-sensitive. You hate when people post your picture without showing you first. You hear whispers of the old you who wanted big things and know that it is your intuition calling. You want to stop feeling small. You want to make peace with old wounds. ​ You are ready to take up space without apology.
(201) 423-6785 View (201) 423-6785
Photo of Cheryl Garodnick, Drug & Alcohol Counselor in Morristown, NJ
Cheryl Garodnick
Drug & Alcohol Counselor, LPC, LCADC, ACS, CCS, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Morristown, NJ 07960
Therapy is about change and change is more manageable now, than ever before. Healthier outcomes throughout life's stages require a supportive environment that is found when connecting to a provider at Therapy Resources of Morris County, LLC. All providers at TRMC have chosen the counseling profession to develop safe, compassionate, non-judgmental relationships that support successful outcomes through the change process. It's about time...let us take the first step with you.
Therapy is about change and change is more manageable now, than ever before. Healthier outcomes throughout life's stages require a supportive environment that is found when connecting to a provider at Therapy Resources of Morris County, LLC. All providers at TRMC have chosen the counseling profession to develop safe, compassionate, non-judgmental relationships that support successful outcomes through the change process. It's about time...let us take the first step with you.
(973) 419-6863 View (973) 419-6863
Photo of Samantha Ellis, Counselor in Morristown, NJ
Samantha Ellis
Counselor, MEd, LAC, NCC, PMH-C
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960
My ideal clients are moms struggling with anxiety and looking for support through their transition to motherhood. These women are looking for encouragement and need support as they learn to trust their own intuition.
My ideal clients are moms struggling with anxiety and looking for support through their transition to motherhood. These women are looking for encouragement and need support as they learn to trust their own intuition.
(973) 620-7505 View (973) 620-7505
Photo of Margaret Hynes, Counselor in Morristown, NJ
Margaret Hynes
Counselor, LPC, LCADC, NCC
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960
Facing life's challenges takes courage and while there is always a path toward change, we sometimes need support along the way. Counseling can help increase self-awareness leading to healthier choices, effective coping skills and improved communication, elevating overall wellness and life satisfaction. Learning to manage anxiety and depression, coping with grief or trauma, family relationship conflict and recovery from substance abuse are common problems I work on with clients. Together, we can navigate what often seems overwhelming when faced alone.
Facing life's challenges takes courage and while there is always a path toward change, we sometimes need support along the way. Counseling can help increase self-awareness leading to healthier choices, effective coping skills and improved communication, elevating overall wellness and life satisfaction. Learning to manage anxiety and depression, coping with grief or trauma, family relationship conflict and recovery from substance abuse are common problems I work on with clients. Together, we can navigate what often seems overwhelming when faced alone.
(973) 381-1417 View (973) 381-1417
Photo of Theresa Donnarumma, Marriage & Family Therapist in Morristown, NJ
Theresa Donnarumma
Marriage & Family Therapist, EdS, MEd, LMFT, Sch Psy
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960  (Online Only)
Hello and Welcome. Are you feeling overwhelmed, dealing with ADHD symptoms, anxiety, depression, guilt, inappropriate eating, an inability to focus. Let’s work together. I have guided individuals and families to better cope with family relationships, special education issues, ADHD, eating disorders, and other marital and parenting issues. I incorporate CBT and DBT techniques to assist in making more immediate behavioral changes; as we work through more challenging issues. My goal for clients is to assist them in gaining the wisdom and confidence to create change in their life.
Hello and Welcome. Are you feeling overwhelmed, dealing with ADHD symptoms, anxiety, depression, guilt, inappropriate eating, an inability to focus. Let’s work together. I have guided individuals and families to better cope with family relationships, special education issues, ADHD, eating disorders, and other marital and parenting issues. I incorporate CBT and DBT techniques to assist in making more immediate behavioral changes; as we work through more challenging issues. My goal for clients is to assist them in gaining the wisdom and confidence to create change in their life.
(973) 370-9009 View (973) 370-9009
Photo of Julie K Steinberg, Psychologist in Morristown, NJ
Julie K Steinberg
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960
I believe that every person has a healthy part of them that strives for positive change. When you are at a difficult point in your life, a relationship with a trusted therapist is a great help. Therapy can help you pinpoint the issues you need to work on, and understand where they come from and what keeps you stuck - while challenging you to make positive and lasting change.
I believe that every person has a healthy part of them that strives for positive change. When you are at a difficult point in your life, a relationship with a trusted therapist is a great help. Therapy can help you pinpoint the issues you need to work on, and understand where they come from and what keeps you stuck - while challenging you to make positive and lasting change.
(973) 993-9550 View (973) 993-9550
Photo of Elizabeth Roesle, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Morristown, NJ
Elizabeth Roesle
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Morristown, NJ 07960  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
I'm a licensed social worker and a therapist at Embracing Uncertainty. I work with adolescents and adults struggling with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, ADHD, borderline personality disorder, eating disorders, trauma, and more. I put emphasis on building a solid working relationship so we can explore issues and begin figuring out a way through them.
I'm a licensed social worker and a therapist at Embracing Uncertainty. I work with adolescents and adults struggling with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, ADHD, borderline personality disorder, eating disorders, trauma, and more. I put emphasis on building a solid working relationship so we can explore issues and begin figuring out a way through them.
(201) 528-6015 View (201) 528-6015
Photo of Tori Maidenberg, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Morristown, NJ
Tori Maidenberg
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960
Tori has extensive training in a diverse range of therapeutic modalities proven to be highly effective, including DBT, CBT, Exposure Therapy, and Couples/Family Therapy. She was a fellow in Columbia University’s DBT Training Program and trained by the renowned Behavioral Tech Institute. Working with adolescents through adulthood, Tori has cultivated a wealth of experience and expertise in addressing a wide range of therapeutic needs across the lifespan. Her focus lies in the treatment of emotional and interpersonal dysregulation, OCD, anxiety-related disorders, social anxiety, depression, trauma, grief, and couples/family issues.
Tori has extensive training in a diverse range of therapeutic modalities proven to be highly effective, including DBT, CBT, Exposure Therapy, and Couples/Family Therapy. She was a fellow in Columbia University’s DBT Training Program and trained by the renowned Behavioral Tech Institute. Working with adolescents through adulthood, Tori has cultivated a wealth of experience and expertise in addressing a wide range of therapeutic needs across the lifespan. Her focus lies in the treatment of emotional and interpersonal dysregulation, OCD, anxiety-related disorders, social anxiety, depression, trauma, grief, and couples/family issues.
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Photo of Jessica Robina, Licensed Professional Counselor in Morristown, NJ
Jessica Robina
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960  (Online Only)
I know life can be challenging at times, and these challenges may interfere in your ability to live a healthy and content life. I am a compassionate, supportive, and insightful therapist, who is available to listen to you from a non-judgmental perspective. My approach is to support you in working toward your personal goals. I do this by helping you gain clarity into how your thoughts, feelings, or behaviors are impacting your life. I will also provide feedback and introduce skills to help you challenge negative thoughts, cope with troublesome feelings, or change harmful behaviors.
I know life can be challenging at times, and these challenges may interfere in your ability to live a healthy and content life. I am a compassionate, supportive, and insightful therapist, who is available to listen to you from a non-judgmental perspective. My approach is to support you in working toward your personal goals. I do this by helping you gain clarity into how your thoughts, feelings, or behaviors are impacting your life. I will also provide feedback and introduce skills to help you challenge negative thoughts, cope with troublesome feelings, or change harmful behaviors.
(201) 345-1929 View (201) 345-1929
Photo of Beth Mazzarella in Morristown, NJ
Beth Mazzarella
MA, BCBA
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960  (Online Only)
Families of children with autism, developmental disabilities and behavioral challenges may find themselves frustrated and exhausted as they try to manage their child's behavior, or just try to enjoy a calm, harmonious day to day life. They may find the traditional parenting tricks seem to make things worse, or just don't seem to apply to their child.
Families of children with autism, developmental disabilities and behavioral challenges may find themselves frustrated and exhausted as they try to manage their child's behavior, or just try to enjoy a calm, harmonious day to day life. They may find the traditional parenting tricks seem to make things worse, or just don't seem to apply to their child.
(973) 604-8070 View (973) 604-8070
Photo of Jane Alice Coyle, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Morristown, NJ
Jane Alice Coyle
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LCADC, CCS
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960
Are life’s stressors impacting your sense of well-being, your family life or other relationships? Anxiety and depression can immobilize us, leaving us feeling a loss of control and sometimes we just can't make things better on our own. Together we can identify which obstacles are preventing you from achieving your personal goals and then determine how to help you overcome those obstacles. By understanding our past and how we have come to our current situations, we can better prepare and take charge of our lives. Understanding and accepting ourselves is the pathway to freedom and happiness.
Are life’s stressors impacting your sense of well-being, your family life or other relationships? Anxiety and depression can immobilize us, leaving us feeling a loss of control and sometimes we just can't make things better on our own. Together we can identify which obstacles are preventing you from achieving your personal goals and then determine how to help you overcome those obstacles. By understanding our past and how we have come to our current situations, we can better prepare and take charge of our lives. Understanding and accepting ourselves is the pathway to freedom and happiness.
(973) 490-4882 View (973) 490-4882
Photo of Lauren S Becker, Psychologist in Morristown, NJ
Lauren S Becker
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Morristown, NJ 07960
What do compulsive eating, poor sleep, preoccupation with repetitive thoughts or images, and/or self-doubt and sadness have in common? They are all highly treatable symptoms, which are often exacerbated by life change or stress. In my private practice I help my clients grow through such times. Life crises can be catalysts for greater self awareness. I can help you learn to better understand and manage emotions in order to alleviate symptoms and lead a happier and more productive life. I incorporate a range of strategies depending on your particular situation, needs and goals.
What do compulsive eating, poor sleep, preoccupation with repetitive thoughts or images, and/or self-doubt and sadness have in common? They are all highly treatable symptoms, which are often exacerbated by life change or stress. In my private practice I help my clients grow through such times. Life crises can be catalysts for greater self awareness. I can help you learn to better understand and manage emotions in order to alleviate symptoms and lead a happier and more productive life. I incorporate a range of strategies depending on your particular situation, needs and goals.
(973) 671-8069 View (973) 671-8069

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Morristown, NJ

500+

Average cost per session

$175

Therapists in Morristown, NJ who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
89% Depression
81% Relationship Issues
78% Self Esteem
71% Coping Skills
66% Trauma and PTSD
65% Stress

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

77% Aetna
66% Cigna and Evernorth
66% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Morristown, NJ see their clients

76% In Person and Online
24% Online Only

Gender breakdown

81% Female
18% Male
1% Non-Binary
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Morristown?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.