Therapists in Waterloo, NE

Photo of Barbara Bradford, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Barbara Bradford
Counselor, LCSW, LIMHP
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Waterloo, NE 68069  (Online Only)
Are you tired of listening to that committee in your head - you know, the one that says you are stupid or wrong or that you're not worthy and don't fit in? At Cerebral Landscaping, we are all about embracing our quirks, whether it's being as neurodiverse as a Rubik's Cube, having more issues than People magazine, or wanting a self-esteem boost. Sometimes, if we hear something enough, we can think it's true. This often happens with negative messages we hear or tell ourselves. We are not here to endure or cause suffering. Together, we can find another way.
Are you tired of listening to that committee in your head - you know, the one that says you are stupid or wrong or that you're not worthy and don't fit in? At Cerebral Landscaping, we are all about embracing our quirks, whether it's being as neurodiverse as a Rubik's Cube, having more issues than People magazine, or wanting a self-esteem boost. Sometimes, if we hear something enough, we can think it's true. This often happens with negative messages we hear or tell ourselves. We are not here to endure or cause suffering. Together, we can find another way.
(402) 940-7874 View (402) 940-7874
Photo of Audrey Hines, Marriage & Family Therapist in Waterloo, NE
Audrey Hines
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT, LIMHP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Waterloo, NE 68069  (Online Only)
Everyone said having a baby would be the most magical time in your life, but you're finding that juggling the demands of parenthood and partnership leave you feeling more unappreciated, unseen in your marriage, and overwhelmed than you've ever been before. Feelings of loneliness and anxiety visit more than you could have imagined, and worry sets in that maybe you'll never cut it as a mom. Know it doesn't have to be this way. You can trust your abilities as a parent, enjoy the here-and-now with your partner and your baby, and approach both the chaos and beauty of parenthood with compassion, confidence, and humor.
Everyone said having a baby would be the most magical time in your life, but you're finding that juggling the demands of parenthood and partnership leave you feeling more unappreciated, unseen in your marriage, and overwhelmed than you've ever been before. Feelings of loneliness and anxiety visit more than you could have imagined, and worry sets in that maybe you'll never cut it as a mom. Know it doesn't have to be this way. You can trust your abilities as a parent, enjoy the here-and-now with your partner and your baby, and approach both the chaos and beauty of parenthood with compassion, confidence, and humor.
(402) 226-1936 View (402) 226-1936
Photo of Ace Devlin, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Ace Devlin
Counselor, MS, PLMHP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Waterloo, NE 68069  (Online Only)
Most of the time we can manage the ups and downs of life without extra support. Then something shifts, and it can feel like it all collapses like a house of cards. Quickly, it can feel like you don't even recognize yourself anymore. None of the skills you were using to successfully manage your life work like they used to. You're overwhelmed and at a loss for how to get unstuck. At times even the seemingly tiniest of changes can shake us to our foundations, and leave us feeling adrift; but change is often the perfect opportunity to grow.
Most of the time we can manage the ups and downs of life without extra support. Then something shifts, and it can feel like it all collapses like a house of cards. Quickly, it can feel like you don't even recognize yourself anymore. None of the skills you were using to successfully manage your life work like they used to. You're overwhelmed and at a loss for how to get unstuck. At times even the seemingly tiniest of changes can shake us to our foundations, and leave us feeling adrift; but change is often the perfect opportunity to grow.
(402) 809-4254 View (402) 809-4254
Photo of Charmayne Adams, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Charmayne Adams
Counselor, PhD, LIMHP, NCC
Verified Verified
Waterloo, NE 68069  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Hello! I work with adults and adolescents who are trying to navigate a wide range of emotions, thoughts, and behaviors that may be causing distress/stress in their lives. This can include anxiety, work-related stress, depression, suicidal ideation, relationship issues, anger, or just overall not feeling as well as you'd like to. I believe that true emotional health comes from being able to feel and manage a wide range of feelings without becoming overwhelmed. I can help support clients as they move toward a more holistic sense of wellness that is sustainable.
Hello! I work with adults and adolescents who are trying to navigate a wide range of emotions, thoughts, and behaviors that may be causing distress/stress in their lives. This can include anxiety, work-related stress, depression, suicidal ideation, relationship issues, anger, or just overall not feeling as well as you'd like to. I believe that true emotional health comes from being able to feel and manage a wide range of feelings without becoming overwhelmed. I can help support clients as they move toward a more holistic sense of wellness that is sustainable.
(531) 233-1422 View (531) 233-1422

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Ben Higgins, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Ben Higgins
Counselor, PLMHP, MS, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Elkhorn, NE 68022
I am so happy you are here. This journey is focused completely on you! I love working with people to help them create the life they desire. I am extremely honored each time a person like you invites me to journey alongside them. I hope to help you build your strengths, overcome challenges, and win. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) and EMDR Trained Clinician. Please schedule an appointment online or reach out with any questions you may have.
I am so happy you are here. This journey is focused completely on you! I love working with people to help them create the life they desire. I am extremely honored each time a person like you invites me to journey alongside them. I hope to help you build your strengths, overcome challenges, and win. I am a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) and EMDR Trained Clinician. Please schedule an appointment online or reach out with any questions you may have.
(402) 685-9608 View (402) 685-9608
Photo of Madison Dee Euse, Licensed Professional Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Madison Dee Euse
Licensed Professional Counselor, LIMHP, LPC, PLADC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Omaha, NE 68116
Are you feeling stuck in life? Overwhelmed with day-to-day activities? Looking to find joy and happiness in each day? Sometimes it may feel like life kicks us when we are already down. My goal is to help you live your best life and get through hiccups along the way.
Are you feeling stuck in life? Overwhelmed with day-to-day activities? Looking to find joy and happiness in each day? Sometimes it may feel like life kicks us when we are already down. My goal is to help you live your best life and get through hiccups along the way.
(402) 275-5628 View (402) 275-5628
Photo of Krista Anderson, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Krista Anderson
Counselor, LIMHP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Elkhorn, NE 68022
"You don't have to be great to start, but you have to start to be great." When life seems overwhelming, sometimes the hardest part is just getting started. Working with an experienced and dedicated therapist can enhance your quality of life and provide a foundation for positive growth in all areas of life.
"You don't have to be great to start, but you have to start to be great." When life seems overwhelming, sometimes the hardest part is just getting started. Working with an experienced and dedicated therapist can enhance your quality of life and provide a foundation for positive growth in all areas of life.
(402) 513-3395 View (402) 513-3395
Photo of Stephani McKee, Provisional Mental Health Practitioner in Waterloo, NE
Stephani McKee
Provisional Mental Health Practitioner, MS, PLMHP, NCC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Elkhorn, NE 68022
Are you struggling with anxiety and depression due to life transitions such as divorce, infertility, the death of a loved one, college stress or the loss of a dream, and seeking Christian counseling? Have you experienced trauma in your life and you feel stuck under the weight of worry and fear? Are “shoulds” and “musts” leaving you paralyzed with thoughts of “I’m not good enough” and “I don’t matter”? Often people wait to reach out until they feel depleted, resentful, and ashamed. I believe we get stuck due to our thinking, and the way we get unstuck is to change our thinking! But is it possible? Yes! It doesn't have to be this way!
Are you struggling with anxiety and depression due to life transitions such as divorce, infertility, the death of a loved one, college stress or the loss of a dream, and seeking Christian counseling? Have you experienced trauma in your life and you feel stuck under the weight of worry and fear? Are “shoulds” and “musts” leaving you paralyzed with thoughts of “I’m not good enough” and “I don’t matter”? Often people wait to reach out until they feel depleted, resentful, and ashamed. I believe we get stuck due to our thinking, and the way we get unstuck is to change our thinking! But is it possible? Yes! It doesn't have to be this way!
(402) 698-4892 View (402) 698-4892
Photo of Gail A Olson, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Gail A Olson
Counselor, PhD, LIMHP, LADC, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Omaha, NE 68154
Not accepting new clients
Life can be difficult and filled with stress, whether it is work, relationships, anxiety, addictive behaviors, tough choices. Are you looking for some answers and relief? Hoping to find some direction or guidance? Are you wanting more peace in your life? I will be glad to partner with you and assist you in reaching your goals. I provide caring, highly competent, straight-forward, direct responses as you seek a quality life. There is hope for change; you can build a better, more fulfilled future! I offer compassionate, non-judgmental feedback.
Life can be difficult and filled with stress, whether it is work, relationships, anxiety, addictive behaviors, tough choices. Are you looking for some answers and relief? Hoping to find some direction or guidance? Are you wanting more peace in your life? I will be glad to partner with you and assist you in reaching your goals. I provide caring, highly competent, straight-forward, direct responses as you seek a quality life. There is hope for change; you can build a better, more fulfilled future! I offer compassionate, non-judgmental feedback.
(402) 318-3031 View (402) 318-3031
Photo of Courtney Mertes, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Courtney Mertes
Counselor, LIMHP, LADC, LPC-MH, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Omaha, NE 68154
A new and encouraging beginning for you. You already took the first step by beginning the search for a counselor. My goal is to unveil your potential through change so you can live a life you have been looking for within yourself. I am here to give you the tools needed to reach that goal. Counseling is about giving new outlooks, but the ultimate goal is achieved by a client's efforts.
A new and encouraging beginning for you. You already took the first step by beginning the search for a counselor. My goal is to unveil your potential through change so you can live a life you have been looking for within yourself. I am here to give you the tools needed to reach that goal. Counseling is about giving new outlooks, but the ultimate goal is achieved by a client's efforts.
(402) 810-7206 View (402) 810-7206
Photo of Dr. Katie Reutzel, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Dr. Katie Reutzel
Counselor, PhD, RD, LMNT, PLMHP
Verified Verified
Omaha, NE 68116
My name is Dr. Katie Reutzel and I am a Registered Dietitian and Provisionally Licensed Mental Health Practitioner in the state of Nebraska. I am an adjunct professor at the University of Nebraska-Omaha in addition to offering nutrition and mental health counseling through my private practice, K-Love Counseling. I am passionate about seeing the whole person healed...body, soul, and spirit...through the work of the Holy Spirit and the integration of both mental health and nutrition to ensure my clients are able to live life in freedom and abundance.
My name is Dr. Katie Reutzel and I am a Registered Dietitian and Provisionally Licensed Mental Health Practitioner in the state of Nebraska. I am an adjunct professor at the University of Nebraska-Omaha in addition to offering nutrition and mental health counseling through my private practice, K-Love Counseling. I am passionate about seeing the whole person healed...body, soul, and spirit...through the work of the Holy Spirit and the integration of both mental health and nutrition to ensure my clients are able to live life in freedom and abundance.
(402) 621-5695 View (402) 621-5695
Photo of Margo Botkin, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Margo Botkin
Counselor, LIMHP, LPC
Verified Verified
Omaha, NE 68116
Welcome! I'm so glad you're here. I am a Licensed Independent Mental Health Practitioner (LIMHP) who offers in-person or telehealth counseling services to clients in Nebraska or Iowa. I am passionate about working with individuals struggling with perinatal mental health issues, stress, grief, anxiety, depression and trauma. Together, we determine your goals and develop a treatment plan to meet your needs.
Welcome! I'm so glad you're here. I am a Licensed Independent Mental Health Practitioner (LIMHP) who offers in-person or telehealth counseling services to clients in Nebraska or Iowa. I am passionate about working with individuals struggling with perinatal mental health issues, stress, grief, anxiety, depression and trauma. Together, we determine your goals and develop a treatment plan to meet your needs.
(402) 624-4257 View (402) 624-4257
Photo of Laura Pryor, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Laura Pryor
Counselor, LIMHP, LPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Omaha, NE 68154
I best help those grow who are willing to reflect, take accountability, and initiate change. My areas of specialty include: Trauma & PTSD, Generational Trauma, Attachment Wounds, Narcissistic Abuse, and Personality Conflict. I currently hold a license in the state of Nebraska and Iowa.
I best help those grow who are willing to reflect, take accountability, and initiate change. My areas of specialty include: Trauma & PTSD, Generational Trauma, Attachment Wounds, Narcissistic Abuse, and Personality Conflict. I currently hold a license in the state of Nebraska and Iowa.
(402) 620-6838 View (402) 620-6838
Misty Warren
Counselor, MS, NCC, LIMHP, TLMHC
Verified Verified
Omaha, NE 68135
"Life’s difficulties can be overwhelming and at times feel unmanageable. Utilizing aspects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Solution Focused Therapy, and Mindfulness techniques, I can assist you in learning skills to manage life’s stressors and decrease that overwhelming feeling. Together, we can navigate through the therapeutic process and find what is comfortable for you. I assist individuals to address things such as relationships, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, trauma, and behaviors. I provide therapy for ages five and up for individuals, couples, families and groups. We also offer teen, adult male and female groups.
"Life’s difficulties can be overwhelming and at times feel unmanageable. Utilizing aspects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Solution Focused Therapy, and Mindfulness techniques, I can assist you in learning skills to manage life’s stressors and decrease that overwhelming feeling. Together, we can navigate through the therapeutic process and find what is comfortable for you. I assist individuals to address things such as relationships, depression, anxiety, self-esteem, trauma, and behaviors. I provide therapy for ages five and up for individuals, couples, families and groups. We also offer teen, adult male and female groups.
(531) 233-1169 View (531) 233-1169
Photo of Paige McCoy, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Paige McCoy
Counselor, LIMHP, LADC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Omaha, NE 68116
“Daring greatly means the courage to be vulnerable. It means to show up and be seen. To ask for what you need. To talk about how you’re feeling. To have the hard conversations.” - Brene Brown. As a therapist I want to help make the hard conversations a little easier to have. I specialize in working with children, adolescents, and adults who may be impacted by symptoms of depression, anxiety, trauma, perinatal mental health concerns, and substance use. My goal is to help empower my clients to feel confident in being able to utilize healthy coping skills for their current life stressors and mental health symptoms.
“Daring greatly means the courage to be vulnerable. It means to show up and be seen. To ask for what you need. To talk about how you’re feeling. To have the hard conversations.” - Brene Brown. As a therapist I want to help make the hard conversations a little easier to have. I specialize in working with children, adolescents, and adults who may be impacted by symptoms of depression, anxiety, trauma, perinatal mental health concerns, and substance use. My goal is to help empower my clients to feel confident in being able to utilize healthy coping skills for their current life stressors and mental health symptoms.
(402) 347-2134 View (402) 347-2134
Photo of Cassandra Lynn Hungerford, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Cassandra Lynn Hungerford
Counselor, LIMHP, LMHP, LADC
Verified Verified
Elkhorn, NE 68022
Sometimes life doesn't turn out how we planned. At that point we have the option to give up or to keep fighting. Sometimes, we need to get out of our own way to move forward. If you've been feeling like you are fighting an uphill battle and nothing is getting better, I want to help you change that.
Sometimes life doesn't turn out how we planned. At that point we have the option to give up or to keep fighting. Sometimes, we need to get out of our own way to move forward. If you've been feeling like you are fighting an uphill battle and nothing is getting better, I want to help you change that.
(402) 920-5194 View (402) 920-5194
Photo of Sandra Rahe, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Sandra Rahe
Counselor, PhD, EdS, MEd, LIMHP
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Omaha, NE 68135
Is your spouse or child driving you crazy? Just not happy anymore? Feeling anxious or overwhelmed? ACCEPTING NEW PATIENTS in West Omaha. www.DrSandraRahe.com 2017-2024 Best Rated Marriage Counselor Omaha- I'm a licensed independent mental health practitioner, school psychologist & professional counselor who has worked in inpatient psychiatric facilities, outpatient psychotherapy agencies, schools, as a consultant for businesses. Since 1986, I've provided psychotherapy to people of all ages struggling with anxiety, depression, sleep issues, cheating spouse, relationship problems, divorce, stress, bipolar disorder. ADHD. Call now.
Is your spouse or child driving you crazy? Just not happy anymore? Feeling anxious or overwhelmed? ACCEPTING NEW PATIENTS in West Omaha. www.DrSandraRahe.com 2017-2024 Best Rated Marriage Counselor Omaha- I'm a licensed independent mental health practitioner, school psychologist & professional counselor who has worked in inpatient psychiatric facilities, outpatient psychotherapy agencies, schools, as a consultant for businesses. Since 1986, I've provided psychotherapy to people of all ages struggling with anxiety, depression, sleep issues, cheating spouse, relationship problems, divorce, stress, bipolar disorder. ADHD. Call now.
(531) 233-1291 View (531) 233-1291
Photo of Bette Tarrant LCSW, LIMHP, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Waterloo, NE
Bette Tarrant LCSW, LIMHP
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LIMHP
Verified Verified
Elkhorn, NE 68022
Do you have concerns about your relationship? Are you troubled by past experiences that affect you today? You may feel troubled by excessive guilt, anxiety, worry and depression. I am an experienced, well trained therapist. I have had 40 years of experience working with individuals and couples. We can work together to identity problem(s) and their resolution. I look forward to helping you reach your goals. Also. I have special training to help you with grief and loss.
Do you have concerns about your relationship? Are you troubled by past experiences that affect you today? You may feel troubled by excessive guilt, anxiety, worry and depression. I am an experienced, well trained therapist. I have had 40 years of experience working with individuals and couples. We can work together to identity problem(s) and their resolution. I look forward to helping you reach your goals. Also. I have special training to help you with grief and loss.
(402) 205-1044 View (402) 205-1044
Photo of Sarah Genereux, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Sarah Genereux
Counselor, LMHP
Verified Verified
Omaha, NE 68135
Hello! I am so glad you reached out and are taking this brave step. I love working with people of all ages... Young children age 2 and older, elementary age kiddos, teenagers, and adults. I work well in the areas of trauma, attachment, foster care and adoption, behaviors, ADHD, depression, anxiety, bi-polar and many other areas of mental health. I feel everyone at one time or another would benefit from having their own counselor.
Hello! I am so glad you reached out and are taking this brave step. I love working with people of all ages... Young children age 2 and older, elementary age kiddos, teenagers, and adults. I work well in the areas of trauma, attachment, foster care and adoption, behaviors, ADHD, depression, anxiety, bi-polar and many other areas of mental health. I feel everyone at one time or another would benefit from having their own counselor.
(402) 500-1974 View (402) 500-1974
Photo of Corina Maher, Counselor in Waterloo, NE
Corina Maher
Counselor, LIMHP, CPC, LMHC, RPT
Verified Verified
Omaha, NE 68154
Waitlist for new clients
That's it! You've had enough!! Life has dealt you something unlivable and you need help. You can't imagine it being easier, different. For a second, try and imagine someone offering support, guidance, and validation to help you process and overcome those difficult moments. Together we can help ease the tension, reduce the stress, change the helplessness, and move toward a more livable existence. With specialty training I help clients achieve this through various therapy tools, like EMDR, talk therapy, music, Play Therapy and expressive art therapy. You can also find more about me on my website: unityyfs.com.
That's it! You've had enough!! Life has dealt you something unlivable and you need help. You can't imagine it being easier, different. For a second, try and imagine someone offering support, guidance, and validation to help you process and overcome those difficult moments. Together we can help ease the tension, reduce the stress, change the helplessness, and move toward a more livable existence. With specialty training I help clients achieve this through various therapy tools, like EMDR, talk therapy, music, Play Therapy and expressive art therapy. You can also find more about me on my website: unityyfs.com.
(402) 526-5215 View (402) 526-5215

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Waterloo, NE

< 10

Therapists in Waterloo, NE who prioritize treating:

100% Anxiety
75% Relationship Issues
75% Depression
75% ADHD
75% Trauma and PTSD
75% Life Transitions
50% Grief

Average years in practice

19 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% BlueCross and BlueShield
67% Other
67% Blue Cross

How Therapists in Waterloo, NE see their clients

100% Online Only

Gender breakdown

67% Female
33% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Waterloo?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.