Therapists in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC

Photo of Tomeka Gantt, Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Tomeka Gantt
Counselor, PhD, NCC, LCMHCS
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273
I currently work with children, adolescents, adults, couples, and families.
I currently work with children, adolescents, adults, couples, and families.
(980) 399-5369 View (980) 399-5369
Photo of Solutions for Life Inc., Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Solutions for Life Inc.
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, LISW-CP, QMHP
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273
I would like to thank you for reading my profile! I honor your courage to seek help. Allow me to assist you on your journey of healing and awakening to your Universal Truth. I will assist you by helping you learn to tap into the power within that has always existed! You will discover your true-self and be able to begin creating the life of your dreams. I am both a Spiritual Empowerment (Life) Coach and a Licensed Therapist and can meet either need. Contact me and allow me to help you discover the solutions for your life one session at a time!
I would like to thank you for reading my profile! I honor your courage to seek help. Allow me to assist you on your journey of healing and awakening to your Universal Truth. I will assist you by helping you learn to tap into the power within that has always existed! You will discover your true-self and be able to begin creating the life of your dreams. I am both a Spiritual Empowerment (Life) Coach and a Licensed Therapist and can meet either need. Contact me and allow me to help you discover the solutions for your life one session at a time!
(704) 594-3090 View (704) 594-3090
Photo of LaGreta Cameron, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
LaGreta Cameron
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28278
Life can come at you fast and at times, become a little overwhelming. Sometimes, feelings of hopelessness, stress, frustration and even sadness may occur. It can be a little hard trying to manage everyday life stressors, like school or even family dynamics. This can all cause feelings of disappointment or hopelessness.
Life can come at you fast and at times, become a little overwhelming. Sometimes, feelings of hopelessness, stress, frustration and even sadness may occur. It can be a little hard trying to manage everyday life stressors, like school or even family dynamics. This can all cause feelings of disappointment or hopelessness.
(984) 224-6877 View (984) 224-6877
Photo of Evelyn Murrell, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Evelyn Murrell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273
Anxiety and Depression can be debilitating, causing direct stress, and makes navigating through life difficult. Although there may seem to be no end to depression; setting goals, and working through feelings and triggers can help you combat the symptoms. Depression and Anxiety have a direct effect on your self-esteem causing you to feel less than your worth. As we work through your depression, anxiety, and changes of life we will work to rebuild your self-esteem. Helping you become whole.
Anxiety and Depression can be debilitating, causing direct stress, and makes navigating through life difficult. Although there may seem to be no end to depression; setting goals, and working through feelings and triggers can help you combat the symptoms. Depression and Anxiety have a direct effect on your self-esteem causing you to feel less than your worth. As we work through your depression, anxiety, and changes of life we will work to rebuild your self-esteem. Helping you become whole.
(704) 741-3941 View (704) 741-3941
Photo of Wilson Professional Counseling, Licensed Professional Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Wilson Professional Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPCS, NCC, LMHC
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273
I have been a therapist for more than 15 years, successfully working with children,families and individuals. I provide therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury, Anxiety, Panic, Anger, Stress Related Disorders, PTSD, and ADHD. My therapeutic interventions consist of Biofeedback, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Behavior Modification and Relaxation Techniques."
I have been a therapist for more than 15 years, successfully working with children,families and individuals. I provide therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury, Anxiety, Panic, Anger, Stress Related Disorders, PTSD, and ADHD. My therapeutic interventions consist of Biofeedback, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Behavior Modification and Relaxation Techniques."
(917) 725-3118 View (917) 725-3118
Photo of Miranda Meaders, MA, LPA, Psychological Associate in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Miranda Meaders, MA, LPA
Psychological Associate, MA, LPA
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273
I understand that life sometimes presents with challenges that seem difficult to overcome. Often these challenges contribute to mental heath problems, such as depression and anxiety. Left untreated, these problems can affect multiple areas of one's life.
I understand that life sometimes presents with challenges that seem difficult to overcome. Often these challenges contribute to mental heath problems, such as depression and anxiety. Left untreated, these problems can affect multiple areas of one's life.
(704) 935-2531 View (704) 935-2531
Photo of Danelle Brown Holbrook, Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Danelle Brown Holbrook
Counselor, LCMHCS, LPC
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28217
If you are looking for natural ways to improve your mental health, please contact Whole Health Plus. We are a holistic center focused on the mind/body/spirit connection. Danelle focuses on natural remedies, nutrition, energy and faith-based principles as ways to help heal and restore. Come see how Danelle can help support your mental health and lifestyle changes to promote greater healing and help create whole health plus so much more!
If you are looking for natural ways to improve your mental health, please contact Whole Health Plus. We are a holistic center focused on the mind/body/spirit connection. Danelle focuses on natural remedies, nutrition, energy and faith-based principles as ways to help heal and restore. Come see how Danelle can help support your mental health and lifestyle changes to promote greater healing and help create whole health plus so much more!
(980) 446-2669 View (980) 446-2669
Photo of Jay Hayes, Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Jay Hayes
Counselor, MACC, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273
You’re easygoing, helpful, flexible, considerate, attentive, and polite. You go the extra mile to make sure that others' needs are met. Keeping your commitments to others is easy, but showing up for yourself, well.. that’s another story. And let’s not mention your fear of abandonment and rejection and how it holds you back from being genuinely happy. It feels like you’ve been living in a haze and just going through the motions. But now, you’re ready for something different. You’re ready to overcome your past and THRIVE — that’s where I come in!
You’re easygoing, helpful, flexible, considerate, attentive, and polite. You go the extra mile to make sure that others' needs are met. Keeping your commitments to others is easy, but showing up for yourself, well.. that’s another story. And let’s not mention your fear of abandonment and rejection and how it holds you back from being genuinely happy. It feels like you’ve been living in a haze and just going through the motions. But now, you’re ready for something different. You’re ready to overcome your past and THRIVE — that’s where I come in!
(980) 414-3184 View (980) 414-3184
Photo of ShiftingParadigms Counseling and Consulting, PC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
ShiftingParadigms Counseling and Consulting, PC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, CRTC, LCSW, LISW-CP, CCSOTS, LPHA
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273
CREATING THE CONDITIONS FOR CHANGE in your lifecourse through pyschotherapy and life coaching... Our support is strengths based and empathetic to the challenges that make it difficult for you to create the life that you want. Struggling in your relationships? Trying to deal with difficult events in your life? We don't preach, stand on soap boxes or point fingers...our job is to momentarily hold what you "can't" so you can "work it out"! We simply help you connect the loose connections. That is how emotional growth happens and how we help CREATE THE CONDITIONS FOR CHANGE.
CREATING THE CONDITIONS FOR CHANGE in your lifecourse through pyschotherapy and life coaching... Our support is strengths based and empathetic to the challenges that make it difficult for you to create the life that you want. Struggling in your relationships? Trying to deal with difficult events in your life? We don't preach, stand on soap boxes or point fingers...our job is to momentarily hold what you "can't" so you can "work it out"! We simply help you connect the loose connections. That is how emotional growth happens and how we help CREATE THE CONDITIONS FOR CHANGE.
(704) 207-0423 View (704) 207-0423
Photo of Kristi L Miller, Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Kristi L Miller
Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor, MAEdS, LCMHC, RPT
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273
I work with children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 3-25) whom are struggling emotionally or behaviorally. I have extensive experience with trauma and complex trauma cases.
I work with children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 3-25) whom are struggling emotionally or behaviorally. I have extensive experience with trauma and complex trauma cases.
(704) 272-2964 View (704) 272-2964
Photo of Vatogna Steward, PLLC, Licensed Professional Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Vatogna Steward, PLLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MAC, LCMHC, LPC, LMFT, NCC
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273
Welcome to the first step in finding a therapist to aid you in your healing and development. My practice highlights individuals, families and couples who are ready to make a change in their life. In my therapeutic approach I integrate several therapeutic approaches that have key characteristics to aid the client in their own healing and development. I allow the client to engage their thoughts which can drive their actions which will impact their overall worldview. I use an individualized approach that enables the client to see what modality they can grow from. Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapist (TF-CBT) therapist.
Welcome to the first step in finding a therapist to aid you in your healing and development. My practice highlights individuals, families and couples who are ready to make a change in their life. In my therapeutic approach I integrate several therapeutic approaches that have key characteristics to aid the client in their own healing and development. I allow the client to engage their thoughts which can drive their actions which will impact their overall worldview. I use an individualized approach that enables the client to see what modality they can grow from. Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapist (TF-CBT) therapist.
(980) 238-2658 View (980) 238-2658
Photo of Dentavius Lamarn Barber, Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Dentavius Lamarn Barber
Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor, MA , LCMHC-S, LCAS, NCC, CCS
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273
Dentavius is a Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor-Supervisor and Licensed Clinical Addiction Specialist in the state of North Carolina, in addition to a Licensed Professional Counselor in the state of Georgia and South Carolina. Dentavius hold certifications as a National Board Certified Counselor, Certified Clinical Supervisor with the North Carolina Addictions Specialist Professional Practice Board, International Certified Advanced Alcohol and Drug Counselor with the International Certification & Reciprocity Consortium, and Certified Clinical Trauma Professional with International Association of Trauma Professionals.
Dentavius is a Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor-Supervisor and Licensed Clinical Addiction Specialist in the state of North Carolina, in addition to a Licensed Professional Counselor in the state of Georgia and South Carolina. Dentavius hold certifications as a National Board Certified Counselor, Certified Clinical Supervisor with the North Carolina Addictions Specialist Professional Practice Board, International Certified Advanced Alcohol and Drug Counselor with the International Certification & Reciprocity Consortium, and Certified Clinical Trauma Professional with International Association of Trauma Professionals.
(704) 459-4341 View (704) 459-4341
Photo of LaTia Edwards, Licensed Professional Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
LaTia Edwards
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LCMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273  (Online Only)
Thank you for viewing my profile! I am honored to assist you on your journey to discover your true potential and self empowerment to make changes that will lead to a more sustaining and fulfilling life. Let’s take a leap of faith together! I have experience working with various populations ranging from severe mental illness, chemical dependency, depression, and anxiety, to everyday life issues. I am passionate about working with children, adolescents, and adults; individuals, couples, families and group therapy.
Thank you for viewing my profile! I am honored to assist you on your journey to discover your true potential and self empowerment to make changes that will lead to a more sustaining and fulfilling life. Let’s take a leap of faith together! I have experience working with various populations ranging from severe mental illness, chemical dependency, depression, and anxiety, to everyday life issues. I am passionate about working with children, adolescents, and adults; individuals, couples, families and group therapy.
(980) 291-9303 View (980) 291-9303
Photo of Tonia Jacobs Deese, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Tonia Jacobs Deese
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28217
Waitlist for new clients
Are there things in your life that you would like to change, but you don’t know where to start? Are you struggling with the ups and downs of life and are stressed, anxious, or just not feeling like yourself? Then, it’s time to give therapy a try! A dedicated clinician, social worker, and advocate, I am passionate about helping you achieve complete wellness—being healthy in your mind, body, spirit, and emotions. When we pay attention to these areas of our lives, we thrive. You pick the area(s) you want to focus on, and you pick where we will start. I will support, challenge, and encourage you along the way.
Are there things in your life that you would like to change, but you don’t know where to start? Are you struggling with the ups and downs of life and are stressed, anxious, or just not feeling like yourself? Then, it’s time to give therapy a try! A dedicated clinician, social worker, and advocate, I am passionate about helping you achieve complete wellness—being healthy in your mind, body, spirit, and emotions. When we pay attention to these areas of our lives, we thrive. You pick the area(s) you want to focus on, and you pick where we will start. I will support, challenge, and encourage you along the way.
(704) 859-2236 View (704) 859-2236
Photo of Cofield Counseling and Clinical Supervision, Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Cofield Counseling and Clinical Supervision
Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor, PhD, LCMHCS, LPCS, LCAS, CCS
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273  (Online Only)
Welcome to the first step in your healing journey! I specialize in helping clients rediscover themselves, work through unresolved issues, and cope with life transitions while providing an authentic, comfortable and supportive environment. I believe the counseling relationship is crucial in the healing journey and I provide a laid back and relatable approach to therapy. Together we will work to process long standing behavior patterns and negative perceptions that are impacting your life.
Welcome to the first step in your healing journey! I specialize in helping clients rediscover themselves, work through unresolved issues, and cope with life transitions while providing an authentic, comfortable and supportive environment. I believe the counseling relationship is crucial in the healing journey and I provide a laid back and relatable approach to therapy. Together we will work to process long standing behavior patterns and negative perceptions that are impacting your life.
(704) 237-6516 View (704) 237-6516
Photo of Kristin Davis, Marriage & Family Therapist in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Kristin Davis
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273  (Online Only)
Are you seeking purpose and meaning for your life? Are you frustrated about the current state of your relationships? From a systemic approach, I specialize in helping individuals, couples and families reach their greatest potential. I am keenly invested in the concept that both internal and external environments require balance in an effort to achieve your best life. In addition to extensive training in systemic psychotherapy, I incorporate over 10 years of experience in wellness education and public health to help clients reach their goals.
Are you seeking purpose and meaning for your life? Are you frustrated about the current state of your relationships? From a systemic approach, I specialize in helping individuals, couples and families reach their greatest potential. I am keenly invested in the concept that both internal and external environments require balance in an effort to achieve your best life. In addition to extensive training in systemic psychotherapy, I incorporate over 10 years of experience in wellness education and public health to help clients reach their goals.
(704) 209-4773 View (704) 209-4773
Photo of Adrean L. Cottle, Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Adrean L. Cottle
Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor, MEd, NCC, LCMHC
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28217  (Online Only)
Life can be complicated and difficult to maneuver at times. Although we live in a complex society, life should be enjoyable. There may be times when you or a loved one will need extra support and guidance to navigate the hard parts of life. I am committed to helping you do just that. I am dedicated to assisting you in regaining the confidence you need to tackle challenges and overcome obstacles. Thank you for choosing me and allowing me to help you through this phase of life.
Life can be complicated and difficult to maneuver at times. Although we live in a complex society, life should be enjoyable. There may be times when you or a loved one will need extra support and guidance to navigate the hard parts of life. I am committed to helping you do just that. I am dedicated to assisting you in regaining the confidence you need to tackle challenges and overcome obstacles. Thank you for choosing me and allowing me to help you through this phase of life.
(704) 810-2036 View (704) 810-2036
Photo of LaToya C Bell, Licensed Professional Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
LaToya C Bell
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LCMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273  (Online Only)
Vision Counseling is dedicated to providing quality service to help you reach your full potential despite your current situation. Vision Counseling is committed to travel the journey to wellness with you in facing such issues that can be addressed through individual, family and group counseling.Vision Counseling does not offer marriage counseling at this time. Vision Counseling is in South West Charlotte that is currently offering non- traditional hours to best suit your busy lifestyle.
Vision Counseling is dedicated to providing quality service to help you reach your full potential despite your current situation. Vision Counseling is committed to travel the journey to wellness with you in facing such issues that can be addressed through individual, family and group counseling.Vision Counseling does not offer marriage counseling at this time. Vision Counseling is in South West Charlotte that is currently offering non- traditional hours to best suit your busy lifestyle.
(704) 702-0015 View (704) 702-0015
Photo of Shonda Fulton, Licensed Professional Counselor in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Shonda Fulton
Licensed Professional Counselor, LCMHC, LCAS, CCTP, CCS
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28273  (Online Only)
NOW ACCEPTING NEW CLIENTS! My passion is to assist individuals to become their true and authentic self. My desire is to foster healing and growth within each individual, family and couple I work with. I believe that in order to make these changes, the client and I will need to look at the complete picture of their life, taking a more holistic approach. I like to draw on their strengths in order to help implement change. I want to help my clients move beyond the troubles and stressors they have experienced in their lives and help them move towards a life worth living
NOW ACCEPTING NEW CLIENTS! My passion is to assist individuals to become their true and authentic self. My desire is to foster healing and growth within each individual, family and couple I work with. I believe that in order to make these changes, the client and I will need to look at the complete picture of their life, taking a more holistic approach. I like to draw on their strengths in order to help implement change. I want to help my clients move beyond the troubles and stressors they have experienced in their lives and help them move towards a life worth living
(980) 365-5894 View (980) 365-5894
Photo of Heather Tidwell, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC
Heather Tidwell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LCSW, LCAS
Verified Verified
Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC 28217
Do you ever lay awake at night thinking about things you want to change, thinking about how you want to be happier, thinking that you wish someone understood what you were going through? I am here to help guide you through the process to begin working towards your desired change. I sincerely believe in treating the whole person and understand that many of us have experienced previous trauma/negative experiences, excessive worries that effects our ability to be what and who we want to be in many different areas of our lives.
Do you ever lay awake at night thinking about things you want to change, thinking about how you want to be happier, thinking that you wish someone understood what you were going through? I am here to help guide you through the process to begin working towards your desired change. I sincerely believe in treating the whole person and understand that many of us have experienced previous trauma/negative experiences, excessive worries that effects our ability to be what and who we want to be in many different areas of our lives.
(551) 231-7817 View (551) 231-7817

See more therapy options for Yorkmount, Charlotte

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC

60+

Average cost per session

$132

Therapists in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
89% Depression
85% Self Esteem
80% Stress
77% Coping Skills
76% Relationship Issues
68% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

91% BlueCross and BlueShield
73% Aetna
64% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Yorkmount, Charlotte, NC see their clients

69% In Person and Online
31% Online Only

Gender breakdown

83% Female
17% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Yorkmount, Charlotte?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.