Therapists in Cape Fear, NC

Photo of Tiffany Rogers, Licensed Professional Counselor in Cape Fear, NC
Tiffany Rogers
Licensed Professional Counselor, LCMHCS, LCASA, NCC, TF-CBT
Verified Verified
Cape Fear, NC 28401
Ever felt alone, rejected or misunderstood? Or simply just felt overwhelmed with many obstacles coming at once? If you have, you are not the only one, nor are you in this by yourself. In fact, I believe that it is my duty and my obligation to give you support and help you realize that there is a way to get your life back, to become a better you! Regardless if it is addiction, depression, anxiety or just overall life- you can overcome whatever you are facing with the right tools , skills and support.
Ever felt alone, rejected or misunderstood? Or simply just felt overwhelmed with many obstacles coming at once? If you have, you are not the only one, nor are you in this by yourself. In fact, I believe that it is my duty and my obligation to give you support and help you realize that there is a way to get your life back, to become a better you! Regardless if it is addiction, depression, anxiety or just overall life- you can overcome whatever you are facing with the right tools , skills and support.
(984) 207-3267 View (984) 207-3267
Photo of Amanda Smith, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cape Fear, NC
Amanda Smith
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Cape Fear, NC 28401
Dealing with anxiety can be difficult. Fortunately, research has shown many strategies that can help alleviate some of the worry and discomfort. When we combine these techniques with a practice of self-empowerment, the possibilities of healing increase tenfold. One of the best things that we can do for ourselves is to learn to recognize, embrace, and utilize our inner strengths. My counseling service is designed to help you find your inner champion while providing you with teachable tools that you need to overcome current and future obstacles.
Dealing with anxiety can be difficult. Fortunately, research has shown many strategies that can help alleviate some of the worry and discomfort. When we combine these techniques with a practice of self-empowerment, the possibilities of healing increase tenfold. One of the best things that we can do for ourselves is to learn to recognize, embrace, and utilize our inner strengths. My counseling service is designed to help you find your inner champion while providing you with teachable tools that you need to overcome current and future obstacles.
(910) 460-6516 View (910) 460-6516
Photo of David James Bolton, Licensed Professional Counselor in Cape Fear, NC
David James Bolton
Licensed Professional Counselor, MEd, LMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cape Fear, NC 28401
What do most people want? We want peace in the valley! In our relationships, in ourselves. As we move through life, we undoubtedly will experience resistance from others, or have circumstances that catch us off guard and shake our confidence. Anxiety, fear and depression move in, and past failures can have us feeling trapped. Resignation and cynicism zap our energy and happiness. We know there is a better way, but we just can’t seem to find it. In my sessions with you, we will identify and focus on ways to navigate these challenges to restore what has gone missing in your life.
What do most people want? We want peace in the valley! In our relationships, in ourselves. As we move through life, we undoubtedly will experience resistance from others, or have circumstances that catch us off guard and shake our confidence. Anxiety, fear and depression move in, and past failures can have us feeling trapped. Resignation and cynicism zap our energy and happiness. We know there is a better way, but we just can’t seem to find it. In my sessions with you, we will identify and focus on ways to navigate these challenges to restore what has gone missing in your life.
(910) 788-2140 View (910) 788-2140
Photo of Julee Young Llanos, Lic Clinical Mental Health Counselor Associate in Cape Fear, NC
Julee Young Llanos
Lic Clinical Mental Health Counselor Associate, MAEd, LCMHCA, NCC
Verified Verified
Cape Fear, NC 28401
Seeking professional help is an important step. The task of finding the right therapist can be overwhelming. Finding someone with whom you have a genuine connection is paramount to healing and growth. This is why I offer all new clients a free 30-minute phone consultation, allowing you to ensure we are a good fit. I strive to infuse authenticity & "realness" into my work with clients and to create an environment where they are comfortable doing the same.
Seeking professional help is an important step. The task of finding the right therapist can be overwhelming. Finding someone with whom you have a genuine connection is paramount to healing and growth. This is why I offer all new clients a free 30-minute phone consultation, allowing you to ensure we are a good fit. I strive to infuse authenticity & "realness" into my work with clients and to create an environment where they are comfortable doing the same.
(910) 537-5491 View (910) 537-5491
Photo of Katrina Creech, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cape Fear, NC
Katrina Creech
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Cape Fear, NC 28401  (Online Only)
Are you wanting to make changes, but not really sure where to begin? We all experience life challenges that can sometimes leave us feeling hopeless, frustrated, and overwhelmed. I provide an accepting space for you to share your story, process your emotions, and develop tangible skills that you can incorporate into your daily life. We'll explore what truly matters to you while celebrating your victories and learning from challenges side by side. It is important to feel connected to your therapist. I utilize humor and candidness in session.
Are you wanting to make changes, but not really sure where to begin? We all experience life challenges that can sometimes leave us feeling hopeless, frustrated, and overwhelmed. I provide an accepting space for you to share your story, process your emotions, and develop tangible skills that you can incorporate into your daily life. We'll explore what truly matters to you while celebrating your victories and learning from challenges side by side. It is important to feel connected to your therapist. I utilize humor and candidness in session.
(910) 606-6480 View (910) 606-6480
Photo of Chris Schulte, Licensed Professional Counselor in Cape Fear, NC
Chris Schulte
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LCMHCA
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Cape Fear, NC 28401
Feeling Stuck? As a therapist specializing in men's issues, I offer a nurturing space for you to explore your struggles and triumphs freely. Together, we can delve into the depths of anxiety, depression, career uncertainties, and relationship dynamics with compassion and understanding. My approach is grounded in empathy and evidence-based practices, tailored to meet your unique needs and aspirations. Through our work, I aim to empower you to embrace vulnerability as a source of strength, challenge societal expectations, and cultivate resilience. Reach out today, and let's embark on this transformative journey together.
Feeling Stuck? As a therapist specializing in men's issues, I offer a nurturing space for you to explore your struggles and triumphs freely. Together, we can delve into the depths of anxiety, depression, career uncertainties, and relationship dynamics with compassion and understanding. My approach is grounded in empathy and evidence-based practices, tailored to meet your unique needs and aspirations. Through our work, I aim to empower you to embrace vulnerability as a source of strength, challenge societal expectations, and cultivate resilience. Reach out today, and let's embark on this transformative journey together.
(910) 839-5869 View (910) 839-5869

More Therapists Nearby

Photo of Rob Moser, Counselor in Cape Fear, NC
Rob Moser
Counselor, MEd, LCMHCA, LCASA
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28403
Are you struggling with depression, anxiety, marriage issues, relationship struggles, parenting/child/teen problems, pain, addiction, pornography, or a faith crisis? Or maybe just seeking peace amidst life’s general uncertainty? Rob’s 20-year career in counseling, six years as a lead pastor, and four years as an overseas missionary, as well as his experience as a foster/adoptive parent, give him the confidence to wade into a myriad of life’s challenges with you.
Are you struggling with depression, anxiety, marriage issues, relationship struggles, parenting/child/teen problems, pain, addiction, pornography, or a faith crisis? Or maybe just seeking peace amidst life’s general uncertainty? Rob’s 20-year career in counseling, six years as a lead pastor, and four years as an overseas missionary, as well as his experience as a foster/adoptive parent, give him the confidence to wade into a myriad of life’s challenges with you.
(910) 812-8310 View (910) 812-8310
Photo of Dana King, Lic Clinical Mental Health Counselor Associate in Cape Fear, NC
Dana King
Lic Clinical Mental Health Counselor Associate, LCMHCA
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28403
Welcome to “Beyond Reach Professional Counseling Center.” Thank you for visiting my profile, Dana King LCMHCA. As an African-American woman, counseling was not something that was discussed in my family. I am excited to see how the perception of therapy has changed for the better. We all experience difficult times and sometimes it takes a professional to assist in the healing process and that’s ok. I want to provide you with a safe and open environment. I can offer a space of comfort, mutual respect and trust.
Welcome to “Beyond Reach Professional Counseling Center.” Thank you for visiting my profile, Dana King LCMHCA. As an African-American woman, counseling was not something that was discussed in my family. I am excited to see how the perception of therapy has changed for the better. We all experience difficult times and sometimes it takes a professional to assist in the healing process and that’s ok. I want to provide you with a safe and open environment. I can offer a space of comfort, mutual respect and trust.
(910) 714-9237 View (910) 714-9237
Photo of Katie Windham, Licensed Professional Counselor in Cape Fear, NC
Katie Windham
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LCMHC, NCC
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401
Times of difficulty and uncertainty can increase stress, anxiety, depression, addictive behaviors, and can place added strain on relationships. The therapeutic process can help you develop a sense of calming, clarity, flexibility, and resilience. Help is available. You can begin to heal and restore balance in your life. I can provide support and resources for you to develop self-awareness, coping skills, effective communication skills, and healthy boundaries.
Times of difficulty and uncertainty can increase stress, anxiety, depression, addictive behaviors, and can place added strain on relationships. The therapeutic process can help you develop a sense of calming, clarity, flexibility, and resilience. Help is available. You can begin to heal and restore balance in your life. I can provide support and resources for you to develop self-awareness, coping skills, effective communication skills, and healthy boundaries.
(910) 427-5540 View (910) 427-5540
Photo of Kat Overman, Marriage & Family Therapist in Cape Fear, NC
Kat Overman
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401
Waitlist for new clients
Therapy with me is a collaborative partnership. We will work together to enact the change you are seeking, and form a relationship based on direct, honest, and respectful feedback. I aim to provide care that is deeply empathetic towards the difficulty of change, while maintaining that growth is possible with the right approach. You can expect to be both emotionally supported & challenged throughout our process. Whether it is guiding you to a deeper understanding of Self, providing you with practical skills, helping you foster deeper connections, or holding you accountable, I am committed to walking alongside you on this journey.
Therapy with me is a collaborative partnership. We will work together to enact the change you are seeking, and form a relationship based on direct, honest, and respectful feedback. I aim to provide care that is deeply empathetic towards the difficulty of change, while maintaining that growth is possible with the right approach. You can expect to be both emotionally supported & challenged throughout our process. Whether it is guiding you to a deeper understanding of Self, providing you with practical skills, helping you foster deeper connections, or holding you accountable, I am committed to walking alongside you on this journey.
(910) 773-5165 View (910) 773-5165
Photo of James Hollingsworth, Counselor in Cape Fear, NC
James Hollingsworth
Counselor, MS, LCMHC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28401
As humans we have that feeling that we are alone in this despair and that nobody can help us. Therefore, therapy is an experience that can be beneficial to everyone. It allows us to take the time to mindfully look closely at ourselves. It can help us reflect on how to manage difficult life changes, loneliness and challenging relationships. I am a Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor and my ideal client is someone who is committed to improving their quality of life through the resolution of trauma,
As humans we have that feeling that we are alone in this despair and that nobody can help us. Therefore, therapy is an experience that can be beneficial to everyone. It allows us to take the time to mindfully look closely at ourselves. It can help us reflect on how to manage difficult life changes, loneliness and challenging relationships. I am a Licensed Clinical Mental Health Counselor and my ideal client is someone who is committed to improving their quality of life through the resolution of trauma,
(910) 698-8488 View (910) 698-8488
Photo of Lillian Hood, Psychological Associate in Cape Fear, NC
Lillian Hood
Psychological Associate, MA, LPA
Verified Verified
5 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28403
Anxiety is robbing you of your sleep, joy, freedom, and peace of mind. Sometimes you just feel paralyzed, unable to move forward. It leaves you feeling exhausted and unmotivated. You've tried pushing the thoughts away. They are about something from your past or fears for what might happen now. Pushing them away isn't working, and you are ready to try something else.
Anxiety is robbing you of your sleep, joy, freedom, and peace of mind. Sometimes you just feel paralyzed, unable to move forward. It leaves you feeling exhausted and unmotivated. You've tried pushing the thoughts away. They are about something from your past or fears for what might happen now. Pushing them away isn't working, and you are ready to try something else.
(910) 742-0433 View (910) 742-0433
Photo of Colleen Faulkner, Pre-Licensed Professional in Cape Fear, NC
Colleen Faulkner
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA, LCMHCA, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28403
My hope is to provide you with a safe environment to explore how your lived experiences have impacted you and may be directing your beliefs, actions, and relationships. I love to work with clients on issues including self-worth, anxiety, stress, life transitions, family of origin issues, and people affected by divorce or family changes. I utilize many theories, often pulling from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Narrative Therapy, solution-focused therapy, and trauma-informed care.
My hope is to provide you with a safe environment to explore how your lived experiences have impacted you and may be directing your beliefs, actions, and relationships. I love to work with clients on issues including self-worth, anxiety, stress, life transitions, family of origin issues, and people affected by divorce or family changes. I utilize many theories, often pulling from Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Narrative Therapy, solution-focused therapy, and trauma-informed care.
(910) 634-2674 View (910) 634-2674
Photo of Rhonda J Holmes, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cape Fear, NC
Rhonda J Holmes
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28403
Therapy involves a partnership built upon trust, support, and a non-judgmental approach. I believe each individual has a unique story that deserves to be respected and honored. We all have strengths and abilities, powerful catalysts for resilience and desired change. While my clinical practice relies on research based treatment interventions, I highly value the importance of humor and a no-nonsense, down to earth approach to communication.
Therapy involves a partnership built upon trust, support, and a non-judgmental approach. I believe each individual has a unique story that deserves to be respected and honored. We all have strengths and abilities, powerful catalysts for resilience and desired change. While my clinical practice relies on research based treatment interventions, I highly value the importance of humor and a no-nonsense, down to earth approach to communication.
(910) 779-4238 View (910) 779-4238
Photo of Alli Irving, Psychologist in Cape Fear, NC
Alli Irving
Psychologist, PhD, HSP-P
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28403  (Online Only)
Welcome! I am a Licensed Psychologist who strongly believes in the healing power of the therapeutic relationship. I invest time in getting to know my clients and learning about their struggles and strengths. I have years of experience successfully helping individuals and couples reach their mental health goals and look forward to helping you, too.
Welcome! I am a Licensed Psychologist who strongly believes in the healing power of the therapeutic relationship. I invest time in getting to know my clients and learning about their struggles and strengths. I have years of experience successfully helping individuals and couples reach their mental health goals and look forward to helping you, too.
(984) 203-9406 View (984) 203-9406
Photo of The Anxious Owl, PLLC, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cape Fear, NC
The Anxious Owl, PLLC
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401  (Online Only)
Hello, I'm Stacy, a clinical therapist dedicated to empowering individuals to achieve their full potential. If you're feeling stuck or disconnected from yourself, and you're ready to gain understanding and tools to shift in a more helpful direction, I'm here to support you. I believe that you already possess the answers within you, and my goal is to help you unlock that inner wisdom and equip you with practical tools that extend beyond our sessions.
Hello, I'm Stacy, a clinical therapist dedicated to empowering individuals to achieve their full potential. If you're feeling stuck or disconnected from yourself, and you're ready to gain understanding and tools to shift in a more helpful direction, I'm here to support you. I believe that you already possess the answers within you, and my goal is to help you unlock that inner wisdom and equip you with practical tools that extend beyond our sessions.
(704) 387-3082 View (704) 387-3082
Photo of Hannah Parham, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Cape Fear, NC
Hannah Parham
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSWA
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Wilmington, NC 28403
I deeply value the opportunity to partner with clients as they pursue healing and navigate the challenges of life. I am passionate about holistic wellness and strive to create a safe and accepting place for healing. I view holding space for people in this way as the greatest honor and privilege. Whether facing grief after a loss, unmanaged anxiety, or feelings of not being enough, I believe we each have within us everything we need to live healthy, wholehearted lives. I love supporting clients as they discover their inner wisdom and practice newly acquired skills on their journeys.
I deeply value the opportunity to partner with clients as they pursue healing and navigate the challenges of life. I am passionate about holistic wellness and strive to create a safe and accepting place for healing. I view holding space for people in this way as the greatest honor and privilege. Whether facing grief after a loss, unmanaged anxiety, or feelings of not being enough, I believe we each have within us everything we need to live healthy, wholehearted lives. I love supporting clients as they discover their inner wisdom and practice newly acquired skills on their journeys.
(910) 812-5869 View (910) 812-5869
Photo of Robin Jones, Psychologist in Cape Fear, NC
Robin Jones
Psychologist, PhD
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28401  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
I am a licensed psychologist, PsyPACT member, and former adjunct faculty of Craven Community and Lenoir Community College. I work under the umbrella of Alpha Neurobehavioral Clinic in Jacksonville, NC. I help individuals ages 20 and older to manage conditions such as generalized anxiety, health anxiety, depression, adjustment disorders, panic attacks, PTSD and emotional eating. I also help individuals with things such as communication skills, building boundaries, life transitions, being a military spouse, weathering the throes of peri-menopause and menopause, adopting a vegan lifestyle, grief and much more!
I am a licensed psychologist, PsyPACT member, and former adjunct faculty of Craven Community and Lenoir Community College. I work under the umbrella of Alpha Neurobehavioral Clinic in Jacksonville, NC. I help individuals ages 20 and older to manage conditions such as generalized anxiety, health anxiety, depression, adjustment disorders, panic attacks, PTSD and emotional eating. I also help individuals with things such as communication skills, building boundaries, life transitions, being a military spouse, weathering the throes of peri-menopause and menopause, adopting a vegan lifestyle, grief and much more!
(910) 991-2044 View (910) 991-2044
Photo of Lauren Francis, Psychological Associate in Cape Fear, NC
Lauren Francis
Psychological Associate, MA, LPA
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28403
As a therapist, I am committed to creating a collaborative, nonjudgmental, and supportive atmosphere to assist you in making the changes that will lead to a fulfilling life. While I have the knowledge and resources to help guide you, I believe that you are the expert on your own life. This makes us a team, and through the therapeutic process, we will work together to reach your goals. I do not adhere to a one-size-fits-all approach to therapy. I am aware that each person is unique in their needs and I feel strongly about working with each other to find the approach and skills that work best for you
As a therapist, I am committed to creating a collaborative, nonjudgmental, and supportive atmosphere to assist you in making the changes that will lead to a fulfilling life. While I have the knowledge and resources to help guide you, I believe that you are the expert on your own life. This makes us a team, and through the therapeutic process, we will work together to reach your goals. I do not adhere to a one-size-fits-all approach to therapy. I am aware that each person is unique in their needs and I feel strongly about working with each other to find the approach and skills that work best for you
(910) 541-5453 View (910) 541-5453
Photo of Bola Ruff, Marriage & Family Therapist in Cape Fear, NC
Bola Ruff
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
Wilmington, NC 28403  (Online Only)
Bola is a Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist (LMFT) with over 13 years of experience in the mental health field. She has an affinity for working with children, families, and couples. She has many years of experience helping families navigate the challenges of parenting children with mental health challenges, co-parenting in divorce, and other stages of life hurdles.
Bola is a Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist (LMFT) with over 13 years of experience in the mental health field. She has an affinity for working with children, families, and couples. She has many years of experience helping families navigate the challenges of parenting children with mental health challenges, co-parenting in divorce, and other stages of life hurdles.
(910) 312-2550 View (910) 312-2550

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Cape Fear, NC

< 10

Therapists in Cape Fear, NC who prioritize treating:

100% Relationship Issues
100% Depression
100% Anxiety
100% Stress
83% Trauma and PTSD
83% Anger Management
83% Family Conflict

Average years in practice

25 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

100% BlueCross and BlueShield
60% Aetna
40% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Cape Fear, NC see their clients

84% In Person and Online
16% Online Only

Gender breakdown

67% Female
33% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Cape Fear?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.