Therapists in Saint Louis, MO

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Photo of Anthony F. Pickens, Licensed Professional Counselor in Saint Louis, MO
Anthony F. Pickens
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63112
I work with families and individuals ages 12 and up who are seeking support with daily life challenges related to emotional, relational, spiritual or career concerns.
I work with families and individuals ages 12 and up who are seeking support with daily life challenges related to emotional, relational, spiritual or career concerns.
(314) 912-3085 View (314) 912-3085
Photo of Lauren G Kempton, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Saint Louis, MO
Lauren G Kempton
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW, MPH
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63104
Not accepting new clients
Many of us carry around an old burden or ache that's been there so long that we may wonder if we'll ever be without it. We use any number of different ways to escape or cope — numbing, scrolling, ruminating, perfectionism, distraction, tuning out our feelings. I'm human; I've done all of these things, too. I know how difficult it can be to see the possibilities of feeling better when you are stuck in survival mode and old patterns. But if you're ready to let go of these burdens, and learn to feel everything that you are beyond the distraction, disconnection and pain, then I'm ready to do it with you.
Many of us carry around an old burden or ache that's been there so long that we may wonder if we'll ever be without it. We use any number of different ways to escape or cope — numbing, scrolling, ruminating, perfectionism, distraction, tuning out our feelings. I'm human; I've done all of these things, too. I know how difficult it can be to see the possibilities of feeling better when you are stuck in survival mode and old patterns. But if you're ready to let go of these burdens, and learn to feel everything that you are beyond the distraction, disconnection and pain, then I'm ready to do it with you.
(314) 804-0257 View (314) 804-0257
Photo of Latina Gaston, Licensed Professional Counselor in Saint Louis, MO
Latina Gaston
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63112  (Online Only)
As they say now, "Life be life'n!" Challenges arise everyday that may cause you stress, anxiety, or maybe even feel a little less motivated. You need someone neutral to talk to and help you gain an understanding and a different perspective. You want to find solutions to those concerns, but you don't know where to start. Together, we will unpack and explore any challenges. We will work together to reframe negative thought patterns. We will brainstorm and partner on how to navigate your concerns. I will provide tools and resources that you may find helpful along the way.
As they say now, "Life be life'n!" Challenges arise everyday that may cause you stress, anxiety, or maybe even feel a little less motivated. You need someone neutral to talk to and help you gain an understanding and a different perspective. You want to find solutions to those concerns, but you don't know where to start. Together, we will unpack and explore any challenges. We will work together to reframe negative thought patterns. We will brainstorm and partner on how to navigate your concerns. I will provide tools and resources that you may find helpful along the way.
(314) 601-1953 View (314) 601-1953
Photo of William Arrington, Licensed Professional Counselor in Saint Louis, MO
William Arrington
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NCC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63101  (Online Only)
Perhaps you haven’t been able to identify why you feel so empty, lack purpose, or just can’t seem to keep your head above water—you may feel like you’re drowning. Maybe you feel extremely anxious about many things, a loved one passed unexpectedly, or your marriage is not where you want it. You're looking for peace, or just know there is more to life than what you've been doing.
Perhaps you haven’t been able to identify why you feel so empty, lack purpose, or just can’t seem to keep your head above water—you may feel like you’re drowning. Maybe you feel extremely anxious about many things, a loved one passed unexpectedly, or your marriage is not where you want it. You're looking for peace, or just know there is more to life than what you've been doing.
(636) 275-1655 View (636) 275-1655
Photo of Ellie Mental Health - Hampton Ave, Licensed Professional Counselor in Saint Louis, MO
Ellie Mental Health - Hampton Ave
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63139
Ellie Mental Health in St. Louis-Hampton Avenue, Missouri isn’t your average therapy clinic. We’ve created a comfy, judgment-free zone where you can be authentic, get real about where you’re at in your mental health, and receive the compassionate care you deserve. We strive to break down treatment barriers and provide you with customized counseling services that meet your therapy needs.
Ellie Mental Health in St. Louis-Hampton Avenue, Missouri isn’t your average therapy clinic. We’ve created a comfy, judgment-free zone where you can be authentic, get real about where you’re at in your mental health, and receive the compassionate care you deserve. We strive to break down treatment barriers and provide you with customized counseling services that meet your therapy needs.
(314) 860-8535 View (314) 860-8535
Photo of Joy and Hope Counseling Services, LLC, Licensed Professional Counselor in Saint Louis, MO
Joy and Hope Counseling Services, LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63106
Having affordable access and resources to mental health services can be a great relief to both everyday stressors and life's trauma. Acknowledging and seeking help are the first steps to achieving life goals to feel better inside and out. We are proud that you are here, and we are ready to help you move forward. We will help you take the next steps in life to achieve your goals. We will help you through life challenges and help you to become more equipped to become your best self. We offer a safe a supportive environment.
Having affordable access and resources to mental health services can be a great relief to both everyday stressors and life's trauma. Acknowledging and seeking help are the first steps to achieving life goals to feel better inside and out. We are proud that you are here, and we are ready to help you move forward. We will help you take the next steps in life to achieve your goals. We will help you through life challenges and help you to become more equipped to become your best self. We offer a safe a supportive environment.
(314) 208-2239 View (314) 208-2239
Photo of David C Woodard—Sondermind, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Saint Louis, MO
David C Woodard—Sondermind
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, MSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63110  (Online Only)
It’s not uncommon to feel depression and anxiety from time to time especially these days. Maybe you’ve been struggling with a chronic illness. Perhaps you’ve tried therapy in the past, but for whatever reason, it didn’t work . I’ll help you problem-solve your difficulties from new perspectives, and learn to cope in ways you never thought possible. I’ll empower you to find your inner strength and hope for the future. Welll versed in Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, I look forward to meeting and working with the unique individual you are.
It’s not uncommon to feel depression and anxiety from time to time especially these days. Maybe you’ve been struggling with a chronic illness. Perhaps you’ve tried therapy in the past, but for whatever reason, it didn’t work . I’ll help you problem-solve your difficulties from new perspectives, and learn to cope in ways you never thought possible. I’ll empower you to find your inner strength and hope for the future. Welll versed in Mindfulness and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, I look forward to meeting and working with the unique individual you are.
(314) 938-2797 View (314) 938-2797
Photo of Kevin Galle, Pre-Licensed Professional in Saint Louis, MO
Kevin Galle
Pre-Licensed Professional, MS, PLPC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63118
Maybe you're feeling lost? Maybe you're feeling cheated, insignificant, or like the fire in your soul is smoldering out? We can all feel that way sometimes. The good news is it's not a life sentence and we don't have to do it alone! I would love to accompany you on your path towards healing and transformation as you strive towards building the life you want for yourself. Therapy, to me, is a relational tool in which we can explore ourselves more deeply and heal from our deepest pains.
Maybe you're feeling lost? Maybe you're feeling cheated, insignificant, or like the fire in your soul is smoldering out? We can all feel that way sometimes. The good news is it's not a life sentence and we don't have to do it alone! I would love to accompany you on your path towards healing and transformation as you strive towards building the life you want for yourself. Therapy, to me, is a relational tool in which we can explore ourselves more deeply and heal from our deepest pains.
(314) 947-6233 View (314) 947-6233
Photo of Tiffany J Walehwa, Licensed Professional Counselor in Saint Louis, MO
Tiffany J Walehwa
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63105
I am trauma-informed therapist that has experience working with a diverse population that includes children, adolescents and adults. Dedicated to creating an inclusive environment, I continue my training throughout the year to effectively serve marginalized communities, including those related to the LGBTQIA community. Born and raised in St. Louis City, I am aware of some of the treasures and challenges that come from living in the area. However, I remain committed to serving the systemic issues that face the clientele in other states, including California and Texas. I strive to provide a safe, client-focused environment.
I am trauma-informed therapist that has experience working with a diverse population that includes children, adolescents and adults. Dedicated to creating an inclusive environment, I continue my training throughout the year to effectively serve marginalized communities, including those related to the LGBTQIA community. Born and raised in St. Louis City, I am aware of some of the treasures and challenges that come from living in the area. However, I remain committed to serving the systemic issues that face the clientele in other states, including California and Texas. I strive to provide a safe, client-focused environment.
(314) 701-7058 View (314) 701-7058
Photo of Brian Bauer, Licensed Professional Counselor in Saint Louis, MO
Brian Bauer
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, SAP, CEAP
Verified
7 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63127
Not accepting new clients
Specializing with male clients. Life's journey is frequently filled with unexpected twists and turns placing individuals and families into valleys, deserts, and forests never imagined. Some are left wondering how to manage from day to day and perhaps minute to minute. Often this is the time help is sought for navigating this path, but more importantly, obtaining a perspective to find a way to wholeness and health. Brian leads clients in finding and establishing a safe place empowering fresh clarity and momentum through the process and beyond.
Specializing with male clients. Life's journey is frequently filled with unexpected twists and turns placing individuals and families into valleys, deserts, and forests never imagined. Some are left wondering how to manage from day to day and perhaps minute to minute. Often this is the time help is sought for navigating this path, but more importantly, obtaining a perspective to find a way to wholeness and health. Brian leads clients in finding and establishing a safe place empowering fresh clarity and momentum through the process and beyond.
(314) 315-4177 View (314) 315-4177
Photo of McKayla Kagie, Pre-Licensed Professional in Saint Louis, MO
McKayla Kagie
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA, SMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63109  (Online Only)
The therapeutic relationship is one of healing and hope. Facilitating that relationship is very important because I understand the value of working with someone not pushing their usually well-intentioned agenda onto your situation. Someone outside our problems who has no investment in how we handle those problems can offer limitless perspective and an abundance of compassion. In addition to being a listening ear, therapists have many resources and tools to help us navigate whatever challenges and changes life throws at us. This is the type of therapist I strive to be.
The therapeutic relationship is one of healing and hope. Facilitating that relationship is very important because I understand the value of working with someone not pushing their usually well-intentioned agenda onto your situation. Someone outside our problems who has no investment in how we handle those problems can offer limitless perspective and an abundance of compassion. In addition to being a listening ear, therapists have many resources and tools to help us navigate whatever challenges and changes life throws at us. This is the type of therapist I strive to be.
(314) 207-9904 View (314) 207-9904
Photo of Ellen Marting Jayaprabhu, Marriage & Family Therapist in Saint Louis, MO
Ellen Marting Jayaprabhu
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63141
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I provide individual, couple, and family therapy for a variety of clinical issues from psychodynamic and family systems perspectives. I specialize in anxiety, depression, grief, eating disorders, abuse recovery (sexual, physical and emotional), relationship problems, adults and adolescents. I have a passion to work with hurting people and find it an honor to be part of the healing process that can occur through psychotherapy. I value and prioritize developing a strong and authentic relationship with my clients.
I am a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist. I provide individual, couple, and family therapy for a variety of clinical issues from psychodynamic and family systems perspectives. I specialize in anxiety, depression, grief, eating disorders, abuse recovery (sexual, physical and emotional), relationship problems, adults and adolescents. I have a passion to work with hurting people and find it an honor to be part of the healing process that can occur through psychotherapy. I value and prioritize developing a strong and authentic relationship with my clients.
(314) 635-6505 View (314) 635-6505
Photo of Nicole Ray, LPC Intern in Saint Louis, MO
Nicole Ray
LPC Intern
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63104
Hi there! My name is Nicole and I am a Counselor-In-Training specializing in neurodivergent adults, late ADHD diagnosis, self-discovery, creativity blocks, and career counseling. I believe that everyone deserves an authentic, safe space to explore who they are and discover whether it is congruent with how they would like to show up in the world. Therapy can be that wonderful place to identify what a life worth living means for you, and how to get there. I view therapy as a collaborative process–we will work towards making your life look the way you want it to, together.
Hi there! My name is Nicole and I am a Counselor-In-Training specializing in neurodivergent adults, late ADHD diagnosis, self-discovery, creativity blocks, and career counseling. I believe that everyone deserves an authentic, safe space to explore who they are and discover whether it is congruent with how they would like to show up in the world. Therapy can be that wonderful place to identify what a life worth living means for you, and how to get there. I view therapy as a collaborative process–we will work towards making your life look the way you want it to, together.
(314) 970-3727 View (314) 970-3727
Photo of Hannah Paul, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Saint Louis, MO
Hannah Paul
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63146  (Online Only)
It is so exciting to me that you are looking for a therapist! I love working with people who want to process experiences in religious settings that felt unsettling or upsetting, or who are examining their relationship with a spiritual or religious organization. Let’s go there - with a transparent, flexible agenda and zero pressure for you to arrive at a specific conclusion or end point. I also would likely love to work with you if you want to address and process the ways that religious influences have impacted your relationships with family or friends, sex life, LGBTQIA+ identity development, or other important parts of your life.
It is so exciting to me that you are looking for a therapist! I love working with people who want to process experiences in religious settings that felt unsettling or upsetting, or who are examining their relationship with a spiritual or religious organization. Let’s go there - with a transparent, flexible agenda and zero pressure for you to arrive at a specific conclusion or end point. I also would likely love to work with you if you want to address and process the ways that religious influences have impacted your relationships with family or friends, sex life, LGBTQIA+ identity development, or other important parts of your life.
(314) 451-7829 View (314) 451-7829
Photo of Carol Love, Marriage & Family Therapist in Saint Louis, MO
Carol Love
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified
2 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63117
I specialize in working with families who have had, or are going through a divorce or parental separation. Chronic conflict will have a lasting negative effect on you and your children BUT if you are able to manage your emotions and parent successfully, you and your children can thrive in the future. It is important to develop a good coparenting relationship and make sure your children have the support they need to deal with divorce/separation issues. In order to facilitate a positive outcome for families, I provide Coparent Counseling, Family Therapy, Reunification Therapy Group and Individual Therapy (adult and child).
I specialize in working with families who have had, or are going through a divorce or parental separation. Chronic conflict will have a lasting negative effect on you and your children BUT if you are able to manage your emotions and parent successfully, you and your children can thrive in the future. It is important to develop a good coparenting relationship and make sure your children have the support they need to deal with divorce/separation issues. In order to facilitate a positive outcome for families, I provide Coparent Counseling, Family Therapy, Reunification Therapy Group and Individual Therapy (adult and child).
(314) 665-2301 View (314) 665-2301
Photo of Harry Skaletsky, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Saint Louis, MO
Harry Skaletsky
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63129
Life can present us with situations that cause pain, anxiety or suffering. These problems can stem from your past, or may have presented more recently. While this can be overwhelming, seeking out therapy is a courageous act in and of itself, and there is no correct point when beginning to address these issues. I know too well that coping with the challenges of life is not a straightforward path. That is why I offer my clients an open and trustworthy therapeutic environment where we can explore these issues, to not only gain better insight, but also learn how to cope more effectively.
Life can present us with situations that cause pain, anxiety or suffering. These problems can stem from your past, or may have presented more recently. While this can be overwhelming, seeking out therapy is a courageous act in and of itself, and there is no correct point when beginning to address these issues. I know too well that coping with the challenges of life is not a straightforward path. That is why I offer my clients an open and trustworthy therapeutic environment where we can explore these issues, to not only gain better insight, but also learn how to cope more effectively.
(314) 887-5597 View (314) 887-5597
Photo of Claudine Miller, Licensed Professional Counselor in Saint Louis, MO
Claudine Miller
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC(MO), LCPC(IL
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63108  (Online Only)
Change can create stress, depression and anxiety or it can be a transformative experience. I help individuals and couples cope with changes in career, relationships, and life goals. Whether you are unhappy in your relationships, your work, or some other aspect of your life, counseling can help. If you are recognizing the need to create change in your life, I would love to help you create the life you desire. My primary focus is on helping others transform and create joy in their lives.
Change can create stress, depression and anxiety or it can be a transformative experience. I help individuals and couples cope with changes in career, relationships, and life goals. Whether you are unhappy in your relationships, your work, or some other aspect of your life, counseling can help. If you are recognizing the need to create change in your life, I would love to help you create the life you desire. My primary focus is on helping others transform and create joy in their lives.
(314) 310-4088 View (314) 310-4088
Photo of Corry Cande in Saint Louis, MO
Corry Cande
MEd, CCLS, FMCHC, NBC-HWC
1 Endorsed
Saint Louis, MO 63105
"I don't think I can repeat often enough how grateful I am that we found our way to you." - Parent Testimonial. Since 2001, I have had the privilege of working with children, adolescents and families as they have faced some of life's most challenging obstacles. Using a strengths based approach, all that I say and do, is individualized to meet the specific needs of each person. Empowering the individual by encouraging positive coping and stress transformation is at heart of what I do. As a Mother of 3 children, one of which has a rare health condition, I deeply understand the importance of meeting the unique needs of each individual.
"I don't think I can repeat often enough how grateful I am that we found our way to you." - Parent Testimonial. Since 2001, I have had the privilege of working with children, adolescents and families as they have faced some of life's most challenging obstacles. Using a strengths based approach, all that I say and do, is individualized to meet the specific needs of each person. Empowering the individual by encouraging positive coping and stress transformation is at heart of what I do. As a Mother of 3 children, one of which has a rare health condition, I deeply understand the importance of meeting the unique needs of each individual.
(636) 429-2499 View (636) 429-2499
Photo of Mitch Cartwright, Pre-Licensed Professional in Saint Louis, MO
Mitch Cartwright
Pre-Licensed Professional, MEd, NCC, PLPC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63104
Sometimes it may feel like your inner worldview and dreams don’t match the outer world’s experiences and expectations. Sometimes we need help to gather all of our feelings, thoughts, beliefs, histories, and dreams in order to speak them out loud and make sense of them in a safe space. My goal is to help you share your story and your light with the world. When we share our story we heal; when we heal, we give to the greater world and the ripple of change is exponential. My ideal client's goals are to live authentically and freely, unapologetically, powerfully, and to find fulfillment in the day to day.
Sometimes it may feel like your inner worldview and dreams don’t match the outer world’s experiences and expectations. Sometimes we need help to gather all of our feelings, thoughts, beliefs, histories, and dreams in order to speak them out loud and make sense of them in a safe space. My goal is to help you share your story and your light with the world. When we share our story we heal; when we heal, we give to the greater world and the ripple of change is exponential. My ideal client's goals are to live authentically and freely, unapologetically, powerfully, and to find fulfillment in the day to day.
(314) 207-5401 View (314) 207-5401
Photo of Karolyn Ratliff, Licensed Professional Counselor in Saint Louis, MO
Karolyn Ratliff
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
Saint Louis, MO 63141
Not accepting new clients
Do you find yourself overwhelmed or feeling lost? Are you having trouble completing daily tasks? Does the person in the mirror feel like a stranger or an enemy? Does life seem a little harder than it used to? Do you question your worth or place in the world? If you answered yes to any of these, YOU are in the right place. Counseling can be extremely beneficial for people that are struggling just like you are at this time. This doesn’t have to be your existence, there is hope that you will regain your ability to take on the day and find enjoyment in the little things again.
Do you find yourself overwhelmed or feeling lost? Are you having trouble completing daily tasks? Does the person in the mirror feel like a stranger or an enemy? Does life seem a little harder than it used to? Do you question your worth or place in the world? If you answered yes to any of these, YOU are in the right place. Counseling can be extremely beneficial for people that are struggling just like you are at this time. This doesn’t have to be your existence, there is hope that you will regain your ability to take on the day and find enjoyment in the little things again.
(314) 720-4308 View (314) 720-4308

See more therapy options for Saint Louis

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Saint Louis, MO

1,000+

Average cost per session

$125

Therapists in Saint Louis, MO who prioritize treating:

91% Anxiety
87% Depression
77% Relationship Issues
76% Self Esteem
70% Trauma and PTSD
67% Stress
66% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

75% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
69% Aetna
69% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Saint Louis, MO see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

79% Female
19% Male
2% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Saint Louis?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.