Therapists in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN

Photo of Miriam Itzkowitz, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Miriam Itzkowitz
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55105  (Online Only)
Therapy, like life, happens in the context of relationships. Our first task will be to form our own. During this time I’ll hear from you about what’s going well in your life as well as what is feeling difficult or overwhelming. Our work can take several forms, but in all of them I value connection, humor, and authenticity.
Therapy, like life, happens in the context of relationships. Our first task will be to form our own. During this time I’ll hear from you about what’s going well in your life as well as what is feeling difficult or overwhelming. Our work can take several forms, but in all of them I value connection, humor, and authenticity.
(651) 505-5262 View (651) 505-5262
Photo of Allison Kirk, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Allison Kirk
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
I believe each person deserves to live the best life possible. Often, that can be a challenge due to difficult things that have happened in the past or current challenges we face. Trauma and hurt effect how we view the world and ourselves. I work with individuals in including teens and adults, as well as couples, to help them get to a better place in their life. We will work together to figure out how move through current and past challenges more effectively so that hope and ease become a part of everyday life.
I believe each person deserves to live the best life possible. Often, that can be a challenge due to difficult things that have happened in the past or current challenges we face. Trauma and hurt effect how we view the world and ourselves. I work with individuals in including teens and adults, as well as couples, to help them get to a better place in their life. We will work together to figure out how move through current and past challenges more effectively so that hope and ease become a part of everyday life.
(651) 413-9481 View (651) 413-9481
Photo of Mitchel Paulson, Licensed Professional Counselor in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Mitchel Paulson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPCC, LSC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102  (Online Only)
Mitchel is a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, Licensed School Counselor, and MN Board Approved Supervisor for LPCs/LPCCs. He holds a Master's Degree in Counseling Education & Supervision from Winona State University and has been in practice since 2015. Mitchel's practice involves individual psychotherapy for adolescents and adults presenting with a variety of concerns, including anxiety, depression, grief/trauma, life transitions, and more. Mitchel also works with families and couples in need of support. He is an Adjunct Instructor in the Master's of Counseling program at Hazelden Graduate School of Addiction Studies.
Mitchel is a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, Licensed School Counselor, and MN Board Approved Supervisor for LPCs/LPCCs. He holds a Master's Degree in Counseling Education & Supervision from Winona State University and has been in practice since 2015. Mitchel's practice involves individual psychotherapy for adolescents and adults presenting with a variety of concerns, including anxiety, depression, grief/trauma, life transitions, and more. Mitchel also works with families and couples in need of support. He is an Adjunct Instructor in the Master's of Counseling program at Hazelden Graduate School of Addiction Studies.
(507) 416-4479 View (507) 416-4479
Photo of Matthew Daniel Long, Licensed Professional Counselor in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Matthew Daniel Long
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPCC, LADC
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
Immediate Openings for general mental health therapy and/or substance use counseling. My area of expertise is in recovery from substance use disorders and co-occurring mental health issues. I believe the reasons for substance use reside in our biological makeup, in our mind processes and in our relationships with others. You are the expert on yourself and I feel that on a journey together, using my clinical expertise, we can better align your behaviors with your values.
Immediate Openings for general mental health therapy and/or substance use counseling. My area of expertise is in recovery from substance use disorders and co-occurring mental health issues. I believe the reasons for substance use reside in our biological makeup, in our mind processes and in our relationships with others. You are the expert on yourself and I feel that on a journey together, using my clinical expertise, we can better align your behaviors with your values.
(651) 419-5767 View (651) 419-5767
Photo of Amanda Markowski, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Amanda Markowski
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
Not accepting new clients
I strive to provide a supportive and non-judgmental environment to help you learn more about yourself, gain skills to navigate life’s challenges, and live an authentic, fulfilled life. My areas of focus include working with clients who experience anxiety, OCD, perfectionism, and trauma. I enjoy working with clients who identify as LGBQ+, transgender, and/or gender expansive. In my practice, I utilize a person-centered, relational approach.
I strive to provide a supportive and non-judgmental environment to help you learn more about yourself, gain skills to navigate life’s challenges, and live an authentic, fulfilled life. My areas of focus include working with clients who experience anxiety, OCD, perfectionism, and trauma. I enjoy working with clients who identify as LGBQ+, transgender, and/or gender expansive. In my practice, I utilize a person-centered, relational approach.
(612) 999-2263 View (612) 999-2263
Photo of Erin A Metz, Marriage & Family Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Erin A Metz
Marriage & Family Therapist, DMFT, LMFT, LADC
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102  (Online Only)
We all face changes, challenges and difficult situations in life, some we see coming, others are totally unexpected. Sometimes we handle them just fine and others, leave us feeling stuck, alone, and wondering if things will ever get better, if we will ever feel better.
We all face changes, challenges and difficult situations in life, some we see coming, others are totally unexpected. Sometimes we handle them just fine and others, leave us feeling stuck, alone, and wondering if things will ever get better, if we will ever feel better.
(612) 662-0556 View (612) 662-0556
Photo of Jennifer Ann LaCroix, Marriage & Family Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Jennifer Ann LaCroix
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
The therapeutic relationship is transformative and at the root of our work together. It is my honor to walk alongside individuals, couples, and families working to heal from past traumas, gain perspective and insight, and strengthen and deepen their most important relationships. I currently work primarily with couples, co-parents, as well as individuals and folks in non-traditional relationships. Perspective is an incredibly powerful tool and one of the many gifts of therapy. I utilize an eclectic blend of theoretical approaches depending on client's needs and desired outcomes.
The therapeutic relationship is transformative and at the root of our work together. It is my honor to walk alongside individuals, couples, and families working to heal from past traumas, gain perspective and insight, and strengthen and deepen their most important relationships. I currently work primarily with couples, co-parents, as well as individuals and folks in non-traditional relationships. Perspective is an incredibly powerful tool and one of the many gifts of therapy. I utilize an eclectic blend of theoretical approaches depending on client's needs and desired outcomes.
(651) 877-6588 View (651) 877-6588
Photo of Tim Winchell, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Tim Winchell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW, LCSW, MSW
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
Thanks for visiting my profile, are you struggling with anxiety, depression, or memories of painful experiences? I would welcome the opportunity to help you resolve these issues! I am an Independent Clinical Social Worker practicing in person in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area and remotely across Minnesota and Colorado. For the past 12 years I've been providing individual therapy for adults coping with depression, anxiety, gender dysphoria, LGBT issues, drug and alcohol issues and PTSD.
Thanks for visiting my profile, are you struggling with anxiety, depression, or memories of painful experiences? I would welcome the opportunity to help you resolve these issues! I am an Independent Clinical Social Worker practicing in person in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area and remotely across Minnesota and Colorado. For the past 12 years I've been providing individual therapy for adults coping with depression, anxiety, gender dysphoria, LGBT issues, drug and alcohol issues and PTSD.
(651) 362-4008 View (651) 362-4008
Photo of Nora L. Hollenkamp, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Nora L. Hollenkamp
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
You may have lost a job, a beloved pet, or are caring for an aging loved one. Perhaps a significant relationship in your life has taken a turn and you feel alone or confused with what your "new normal" looks like. Maybe you are a recent college graduate and struggle to find meaning in your everyday adult life. Whatever your problem may be, I can help navigate the turbulent waters in life and help you reach both your short- and long-term goals.
You may have lost a job, a beloved pet, or are caring for an aging loved one. Perhaps a significant relationship in your life has taken a turn and you feel alone or confused with what your "new normal" looks like. Maybe you are a recent college graduate and struggle to find meaning in your everyday adult life. Whatever your problem may be, I can help navigate the turbulent waters in life and help you reach both your short- and long-term goals.
(763) 317-0829 View (763) 317-0829
Photo of Terry M Post, Licensed Professional Counselor in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Terry M Post
Licensed Professional Counselor, MS, LPCC, LADC
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
I help people overcome life’s challenges so that they can grow and find the happiness they desire. I have a long history of working with those struggling with addiction as well as concerns related to sex and intimacy. From a mental health perspective, I work with clients who have anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship problems and some personality disorders.
I help people overcome life’s challenges so that they can grow and find the happiness they desire. I have a long history of working with those struggling with addiction as well as concerns related to sex and intimacy. From a mental health perspective, I work with clients who have anxiety, depression, trauma, relationship problems and some personality disorders.
(952) 213-6554 View (952) 213-6554
Photo of Jess Holly, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Jess Holly
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LICSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102  (Online Only)
Jess Holly received her Bachelor’s degree in Child Psychology from the University of Minnesota and went on to earn a Master’s degree in Clinical Social Work from the U of M. Jess previously worked for a children’s community mental health agency in Minneapolis and surrounding areas where she provided in-home therapeutic support to children and their families facing serious and persistent mental and behavioral health challenges. Jess also has experience treating adults with anxiety and depression.
Jess Holly received her Bachelor’s degree in Child Psychology from the University of Minnesota and went on to earn a Master’s degree in Clinical Social Work from the U of M. Jess previously worked for a children’s community mental health agency in Minneapolis and surrounding areas where she provided in-home therapeutic support to children and their families facing serious and persistent mental and behavioral health challenges. Jess also has experience treating adults with anxiety and depression.
(651) 359-9875 View (651) 359-9875
Photo of Minnesota Neuropsychology: Dyslexia, ADHD Testing, Psychologist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Minnesota Neuropsychology: Dyslexia, ADHD Testing
Psychologist, PhD, LP, ABPP
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
We provide testing for children and adults in these areas: Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dyscalculia, ADHD, and Gifted and Talented/Twice Exceptional. A neuropsychological evaluation helps in determining the cause of the struggle, clarifying whether a diagnosis is appropriate, and creating a recommendation plan. At Minnesota Neuropsychology, we are dedicated to providing meaningful neuropsychological evaluations to address your specific questions. Let's work together to understand the struggle, highlight the strengths, and see what can be done to help.
We provide testing for children and adults in these areas: Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dyscalculia, ADHD, and Gifted and Talented/Twice Exceptional. A neuropsychological evaluation helps in determining the cause of the struggle, clarifying whether a diagnosis is appropriate, and creating a recommendation plan. At Minnesota Neuropsychology, we are dedicated to providing meaningful neuropsychological evaluations to address your specific questions. Let's work together to understand the struggle, highlight the strengths, and see what can be done to help.
(651) 358-2303 View (651) 358-2303
Photo of Carmen Kirchhoff, Counselor in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Carmen Kirchhoff
Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
Note: (I don't currently have availability, but please feel free to reach out to be added to my waiting list!) I believe that providing a collaborative, calm, non-judgmental, and empathic environment is key to encouraging healing and growth. My aim is to help guide clients through choices that move them toward living a more valued life. Having worked in the advertising & marketing fields for many years, I'm intimately familiar with the fast-paced and performance-demanding environment that many of us are faced with in modern society and strive to find ways to bring a sense of calm to everyday life.
Note: (I don't currently have availability, but please feel free to reach out to be added to my waiting list!) I believe that providing a collaborative, calm, non-judgmental, and empathic environment is key to encouraging healing and growth. My aim is to help guide clients through choices that move them toward living a more valued life. Having worked in the advertising & marketing fields for many years, I'm intimately familiar with the fast-paced and performance-demanding environment that many of us are faced with in modern society and strive to find ways to bring a sense of calm to everyday life.
(612) 712-4641 View (612) 712-4641
Photo of Joshua Powell, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Joshua Powell
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW, EMDR
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
I know it can be hard to reach out for help, especially when you're reaching out to a stranger. I really hope that you take this important step. You deserve to feel better. I promise to listen to what's bothering you, what's important to you, and to help you be the best you. I'm not here to judge or make you into someone you don't want to be.
I know it can be hard to reach out for help, especially when you're reaching out to a stranger. I really hope that you take this important step. You deserve to feel better. I promise to listen to what's bothering you, what's important to you, and to help you be the best you. I'm not here to judge or make you into someone you don't want to be.
(651) 410-1732 View (651) 410-1732
Photo of Mai Ko Xiong, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Mai Ko Xiong
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55103  (Online Only)
I create a safe space for individuals to tell their story, express theirselves, explore and find healing at their own pace, free from judgment.
I create a safe space for individuals to tell their story, express theirselves, explore and find healing at their own pace, free from judgment.
(651) 419-5452 View (651) 419-5452
Photo of Trinity Love Counseling, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Trinity Love Counseling
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW, LADC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
I am accepting new clients. I work alongside people who are navigating the ups and downs of life, seeking healing from loss as well as traumatic experiences, and finding freedom in the recovery of their mental health. I believe therapy can be one of many powerful tools that allows us to integrate with our authentic self, reclaim our story, connect in a new or meaningful way, and experience a life worth living. I help people who are looking to create healthier relationships through needs exploration, boundary setting, and mindful self-compassion. I offer Accelerated Resolution Therapy, Brainspotting, & Mindfulness interventions.
I am accepting new clients. I work alongside people who are navigating the ups and downs of life, seeking healing from loss as well as traumatic experiences, and finding freedom in the recovery of their mental health. I believe therapy can be one of many powerful tools that allows us to integrate with our authentic self, reclaim our story, connect in a new or meaningful way, and experience a life worth living. I help people who are looking to create healthier relationships through needs exploration, boundary setting, and mindful self-compassion. I offer Accelerated Resolution Therapy, Brainspotting, & Mindfulness interventions.
(651) 504-0408 View (651) 504-0408
Photo of Megan Blommer, Marriage & Family Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Megan Blommer
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
Whether you're considering beginning therapy for the first time, continuing or returning to treatment, good for you! You're already taking positive steps to improve your mental health and well-being. I meet clients wherever they are in life and utilize a strengths-based, collaborative approach to help them get to where they would like to be. I support clients in identifying areas in which they may benefit from making changes and help them develop effective skills to do so. My therapeutic style incorporates warmth, humor, and positive regard for the strengths of each individual.
Whether you're considering beginning therapy for the first time, continuing or returning to treatment, good for you! You're already taking positive steps to improve your mental health and well-being. I meet clients wherever they are in life and utilize a strengths-based, collaborative approach to help them get to where they would like to be. I support clients in identifying areas in which they may benefit from making changes and help them develop effective skills to do so. My therapeutic style incorporates warmth, humor, and positive regard for the strengths of each individual.
(651) 564-8988 View (651) 564-8988
Photo of Casey Rae Blum, Pre-Licensed Professional in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Casey Rae Blum
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA, LADC, MHP
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102  (Online Only)
Deciding to make changes in your life can often be overwhelming. Uncertainty and self-doubt can make a path forward seem impossible. Through our work together, I can assist you in identifying the changes you would like to enact in your own life and help establish how to get there. If you find yourself feeling stuck in emotional pain or problems, therapy can be a catalyst for change you seek.Learning how to manage stress more effectively gives us access to new opportunities. I utilize both EMDR and ART therapies as a way to manage a variety of mental health conditions, including trauma, addiction, depression, grief and anxiety.
Deciding to make changes in your life can often be overwhelming. Uncertainty and self-doubt can make a path forward seem impossible. Through our work together, I can assist you in identifying the changes you would like to enact in your own life and help establish how to get there. If you find yourself feeling stuck in emotional pain or problems, therapy can be a catalyst for change you seek.Learning how to manage stress more effectively gives us access to new opportunities. I utilize both EMDR and ART therapies as a way to manage a variety of mental health conditions, including trauma, addiction, depression, grief and anxiety.
(651) 412-1612 View (651) 412-1612
Photo of Erin O'Gara, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Erin O'Gara
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LGSW
Verified Verified
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55102
I believe strongly in person centered care, meaning your goals for healing and growth will be placed at the core of our work together. You are the expert in your life and I am honored to walk your journey and co-create therapy sessions with you! I operate from a strength based perspective and trauma informed lens, and work to create a welcoming and calming environment for all clients. I believe the relationship between the client and therapist is essential to growth and healing and I will bring kindness, understanding, and humor to our work together. I enjoy working with adolescents, adults, aging adults, and couples.
I believe strongly in person centered care, meaning your goals for healing and growth will be placed at the core of our work together. You are the expert in your life and I am honored to walk your journey and co-create therapy sessions with you! I operate from a strength based perspective and trauma informed lens, and work to create a welcoming and calming environment for all clients. I believe the relationship between the client and therapist is essential to growth and healing and I will bring kindness, understanding, and humor to our work together. I enjoy working with adolescents, adults, aging adults, and couples.
(651) 240-2137 View (651) 240-2137
Photo of Beth Johnson, Marriage & Family Therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN
Beth Johnson
Marriage & Family Therapist, LMFT
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN 55112
I have over 15 years experience working with individuals as they navigate life’s ups and downs. I am a seasoned therapist in helping clients emerge from feeling discontent and not quite sure knowing what to do to finding direction and feeling empowered. Maybe you feel like the familiar roles that once provided comfort are now holding you back from embracing your true self. Or maybe you’re going through a big transition and what is next feels scary and overwhelming. Divorce? Midlife? Menopause? Empty nest? These can be scary transitions that are full of potential and growth!
I have over 15 years experience working with individuals as they navigate life’s ups and downs. I am a seasoned therapist in helping clients emerge from feeling discontent and not quite sure knowing what to do to finding direction and feeling empowered. Maybe you feel like the familiar roles that once provided comfort are now holding you back from embracing your true self. Or maybe you’re going through a big transition and what is next feels scary and overwhelming. Divorce? Midlife? Menopause? Empty nest? These can be scary transitions that are full of potential and growth!
(952) 955-9331 View (952) 955-9331

See more therapy options for Summit-University, Saint Paul

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN

30+

Average cost per session

$165

Therapists in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN who prioritize treating:

92% Depression
90% Anxiety
87% Relationship Issues
85% Stress
82% Trauma and PTSD
82% Life Transitions
79% Self Esteem

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

84% BlueCross and BlueShield
76% Medica
76% Optum

How Therapists in Summit-University, Saint Paul, MN see their clients

65% In Person and Online
35% Online Only

Gender breakdown

76% Female
19% Male
5% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Summit-University, Saint Paul?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.