Therapists in Saint Paul, MN

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Photo of Anne O'Connor, Licensed Social Worker in Saint Paul, MN
Anne O'Connor
Licensed Social Worker, LGSW, RYT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Paul, MN 55104  (Online Only)
My work is with couples, families, and groups of people committed to learning and development. Relationships provide wonderful opportunities for personal growth. Together, we'll improve communication patterns and relationships skills; deepen or build your purpose and joy for living; create a life that is more in alignment with your desires and values; foster the care and respect you want; consider and support your identity and its full expression; and manage challenges with more skill and confidence. Living intentionally, including being in therapy, isn't always easy. But it's often far more satisfying.
My work is with couples, families, and groups of people committed to learning and development. Relationships provide wonderful opportunities for personal growth. Together, we'll improve communication patterns and relationships skills; deepen or build your purpose and joy for living; create a life that is more in alignment with your desires and values; foster the care and respect you want; consider and support your identity and its full expression; and manage challenges with more skill and confidence. Living intentionally, including being in therapy, isn't always easy. But it's often far more satisfying.
(651) 538-2641 View (651) 538-2641
Photo of Abbey Wiltzius, Marriage & Family Therapist in Saint Paul, MN
Abbey Wiltzius
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Paul, MN 55104
Being a human is not easy. The good news is that we don't have to navigate it alone. Psychotherapy is a partnership that can support and empower you through difficult experiences, find hope, and create a greater sense of meaning and purpose in your life.
Being a human is not easy. The good news is that we don't have to navigate it alone. Psychotherapy is a partnership that can support and empower you through difficult experiences, find hope, and create a greater sense of meaning and purpose in your life.
(651) 401-7069 View (651) 401-7069
Photo of Ted Cooper, Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor in Saint Paul, MN
Ted Cooper
Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55116  (Online Only)
I focus on my client's strengths and core values, and collaborate with them to find their own answers. I believe in the power of choice, and that learning how to make good choices is key. Clients often say after working with me that they feel encouraged, empowered and able to face their fears, and they understand that fear is a choice, not a necessity. I assist clients in working through their personal barriers, so that they can be successful, present and happy in their lives and the lives of their families.
I focus on my client's strengths and core values, and collaborate with them to find their own answers. I believe in the power of choice, and that learning how to make good choices is key. Clients often say after working with me that they feel encouraged, empowered and able to face their fears, and they understand that fear is a choice, not a necessity. I assist clients in working through their personal barriers, so that they can be successful, present and happy in their lives and the lives of their families.
(651) 504-8914 View (651) 504-8914
Photo of Charlie Miller, Counselor in Saint Paul, MN
Charlie Miller
Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55105
Having challenges with mental health can be overwhelming, lonely, and distressing. My goal is to welcome you and/or your loved ones to a comfortable space where we can explore these difficulties. I come with an accepting trauma-informed mindset to encourage learning, growth, and perseverance. Let me join you in finding your strengths and resilience.
Having challenges with mental health can be overwhelming, lonely, and distressing. My goal is to welcome you and/or your loved ones to a comfortable space where we can explore these difficulties. I come with an accepting trauma-informed mindset to encourage learning, growth, and perseverance. Let me join you in finding your strengths and resilience.
(651) 877-8458 View (651) 877-8458
Photo of Dionne M Blood, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Saint Paul, MN
Dionne M Blood
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55104
Have you tried therapy before just haven't "clicked" with the provider or felt like you don't get anywhere new? Many of my clients describe past experiences the same way. Therapy can be different. I have a gentle yet straight-forward approach that allows us focus on what is not working for you in your life. Whether you are going through a big life transition, relationship difficulties, divorce, parenting issues, or just not happy with life; therapy can help. Together, we ill work to find new ways to cope and adjust to the challenges of life.
Have you tried therapy before just haven't "clicked" with the provider or felt like you don't get anywhere new? Many of my clients describe past experiences the same way. Therapy can be different. I have a gentle yet straight-forward approach that allows us focus on what is not working for you in your life. Whether you are going through a big life transition, relationship difficulties, divorce, parenting issues, or just not happy with life; therapy can help. Together, we ill work to find new ways to cope and adjust to the challenges of life.
(651) 302-7896 View (651) 302-7896
Photo of Nicole Carreon, Marriage & Family Therapist in Saint Paul, MN
Nicole Carreon
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
2 Endorsed
Saint Paul, MN 55105
Waitlist for new clients
As a direct therapist, I believe in the power of establishing a genuine and empathetic connection with clients. Drawing from a deep understanding of human psychology, I create a safe and non-judgmental space for clients to explore their thoughts, emotions, and experiences. I'm committed to staying informed of the latest research and developments in psychology. This dedication to ongoing education ensures that I'm providing clients with the most effective and evidence-based therapeutic interventions available.
As a direct therapist, I believe in the power of establishing a genuine and empathetic connection with clients. Drawing from a deep understanding of human psychology, I create a safe and non-judgmental space for clients to explore their thoughts, emotions, and experiences. I'm committed to staying informed of the latest research and developments in psychology. This dedication to ongoing education ensures that I'm providing clients with the most effective and evidence-based therapeutic interventions available.
(507) 593-7712 View (507) 593-7712
Photo of Elizabeth Wittenberg, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Saint Paul, MN
Elizabeth Wittenberg
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, JD, LICSW
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55114
Finding the right therapist is important. You want someone you can feel comfortable with, who understands your life experiences and really "gets" you. Research demonstrates that it's the quality of this relationship, more than any other factor, that makes therapy successful. To see if I might be the right therapist for you, you can read more about my approach and what it might be like to work with me at www.wittenbergconsult.com. That will help you decide if we might be a good fit.
Finding the right therapist is important. You want someone you can feel comfortable with, who understands your life experiences and really "gets" you. Research demonstrates that it's the quality of this relationship, more than any other factor, that makes therapy successful. To see if I might be the right therapist for you, you can read more about my approach and what it might be like to work with me at www.wittenbergconsult.com. That will help you decide if we might be a good fit.
(612) 217-2183 View (612) 217-2183
Photo of Martin J Schoen, Psychologist in Saint Paul, MN
Martin J Schoen
Psychologist, PsyD, LP
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55113
I'm a psychologist who makes house calls and, therefore, assist people with a wide variety of problematic situations. I have 34 years in the field of mental health counseling and consulting. My practice consists of home- and community based visits during the afternoons and evenings, and consulting in the community in institutional settings.
I'm a psychologist who makes house calls and, therefore, assist people with a wide variety of problematic situations. I have 34 years in the field of mental health counseling and consulting. My practice consists of home- and community based visits during the afternoons and evenings, and consulting in the community in institutional settings.
(651) 356-6244 View (651) 356-6244
Photo of Jayme Kolbo, Counselor in Saint Paul, MN
Jayme Kolbo
Counselor, MA, LPCC
Verified
5 Endorsed
Saint Paul, MN 55102  (Online Only)
I specialize in treating individuals with OCD, generalized anxiety, specific phobias, hoarding disorder, body-focused repetitive behaviors, and related anxiety disorders. If you are struggling with excessive fear, obsessive and/or intrusive thoughts, compulsive or ritualistic behaviors, chronic feelings of doubt, difficulty tolerating uncertainty, hopelessness, clutter, disorganization, shame, and/or patterns of avoidance that are impacting your life, you are not alone. There is hope and evidence-based therapy available.
I specialize in treating individuals with OCD, generalized anxiety, specific phobias, hoarding disorder, body-focused repetitive behaviors, and related anxiety disorders. If you are struggling with excessive fear, obsessive and/or intrusive thoughts, compulsive or ritualistic behaviors, chronic feelings of doubt, difficulty tolerating uncertainty, hopelessness, clutter, disorganization, shame, and/or patterns of avoidance that are impacting your life, you are not alone. There is hope and evidence-based therapy available.
(612) 234-2205 View (612) 234-2205
Photo of Pamela Gilliam Martin in Saint Paul, MN
Pamela Gilliam Martin
MA, LPCC
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55114
I am committed to your health and well-being through the delivery of evidence based therapeutic approaches. As a Mental Health Practitioner, I work with adults addressing a variety of concerns including addictions, eating disorders, mood disorders, anxiety, stress management, depression, self-esteem, career, life transitions, grief/loss and relationship issues.
I am committed to your health and well-being through the delivery of evidence based therapeutic approaches. As a Mental Health Practitioner, I work with adults addressing a variety of concerns including addictions, eating disorders, mood disorders, anxiety, stress management, depression, self-esteem, career, life transitions, grief/loss and relationship issues.
(651) 644-4100 x140 View (651) 644-4100 x140
Photo of Marina A. Feldman, Pre-Licensed Professional in Saint Paul, MN
Marina A. Feldman
Pre-Licensed Professional, MA
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55104
Does anxiety make you feel stuck? Do you feel like you are facing life’s challenges and struggles alone? I am here to assure there is hope and that therapy can open the space for you to unload all the burdens and allow you to process your experiences in a safe and caring environment. As a therapist working with individuals experiencing anxiety, depression, autism, ADHD, stress, trauma, and women’s issues, I am here to provide authentic and honest support while helping you navigate your struggles. Remember, you are capable of incredible things, and I am here to guide you towards the life you deserve.
Does anxiety make you feel stuck? Do you feel like you are facing life’s challenges and struggles alone? I am here to assure there is hope and that therapy can open the space for you to unload all the burdens and allow you to process your experiences in a safe and caring environment. As a therapist working with individuals experiencing anxiety, depression, autism, ADHD, stress, trauma, and women’s issues, I am here to provide authentic and honest support while helping you navigate your struggles. Remember, you are capable of incredible things, and I am here to guide you towards the life you deserve.
(651) 237-8191 View (651) 237-8191
Photo of Amy Kathleen Griffiths Tori, Marriage & Family Therapist Intern in Saint Paul, MN
Amy Kathleen Griffiths Tori
Marriage & Family Therapist Intern, PhD
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55104
Are you and your partner(s) fighting? or drifting apart? Does your mind race and keep you from sleeping, concentrating or enjoying hobbies? Do you feel so "blah" it is hard to manage your daily responsibilities? Maybe you are wandering in the fog of grief and loss, or feel overwhelmed by the demands of a big life transition. Perhaps you are struggling to care for children or aging parents. Or you might be seeking to more fully embrace your LGBTQIA+ identity or find a supportive community. Maybe you are just looking for a fresh perspective as you consider how to create a more satisfying way of life.
Are you and your partner(s) fighting? or drifting apart? Does your mind race and keep you from sleeping, concentrating or enjoying hobbies? Do you feel so "blah" it is hard to manage your daily responsibilities? Maybe you are wandering in the fog of grief and loss, or feel overwhelmed by the demands of a big life transition. Perhaps you are struggling to care for children or aging parents. Or you might be seeking to more fully embrace your LGBTQIA+ identity or find a supportive community. Maybe you are just looking for a fresh perspective as you consider how to create a more satisfying way of life.
(651) 372-8340 View (651) 372-8340
Photo of Lisa Eimers, Licensed Professional Counselor in Saint Paul, MN
Lisa Eimers
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified
2 Endorsed
Saint Paul, MN 55104
I am a licensed professional counselor specializing in trauma, perinatal mental health, and attachment issues. I work with acute and complex traumas, with the understanding trauma is truly in the eye of the beholder. Trauma can be overwhelming. We can find ourselves stuck in the same patterns. Sometimes we may even feel trapped in our own bodies or frozen in fear. Bad memories can refuse to shrink or fade. You may find yourself coping in ways that just make things worse. I have worked with individuals who have childhood abuse/neglect, sexual assault, medical trauma, trauma from being a first responder, and traumatic loss.
I am a licensed professional counselor specializing in trauma, perinatal mental health, and attachment issues. I work with acute and complex traumas, with the understanding trauma is truly in the eye of the beholder. Trauma can be overwhelming. We can find ourselves stuck in the same patterns. Sometimes we may even feel trapped in our own bodies or frozen in fear. Bad memories can refuse to shrink or fade. You may find yourself coping in ways that just make things worse. I have worked with individuals who have childhood abuse/neglect, sexual assault, medical trauma, trauma from being a first responder, and traumatic loss.
(612) 682-1757 View (612) 682-1757
Photo of TC Largaespada, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Saint Paul, MN
TC Largaespada
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Saint Paul, MN 55102  (Online Only)
When you are feeling overwhelmed but aren't sure how things can change, I can help. When you find that you keep making the same mistakes, doing things you promised yourself you would stop, I can help. Behavior changes are more than just applying logic to your situation. If it was only logic, you would have figured it out by now. I focus on how the brain processes experiences. I can provide the space to sort things out and finally make sense of those old patterns.
When you are feeling overwhelmed but aren't sure how things can change, I can help. When you find that you keep making the same mistakes, doing things you promised yourself you would stop, I can help. Behavior changes are more than just applying logic to your situation. If it was only logic, you would have figured it out by now. I focus on how the brain processes experiences. I can provide the space to sort things out and finally make sense of those old patterns.
(651) 964-0962 View (651) 964-0962
Photo of Nora L. Hollenkamp, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Saint Paul, MN
Nora L. Hollenkamp
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55102
Waitlist for new clients
You may have lost a job, a beloved pet, or are caring for an aging loved one. Perhaps a significant relationship in your life has taken a turn and you feel alone or confused with what your "new normal" looks like. Maybe you are a recent college graduate and struggle to find meaning in your everyday adult life. Whatever your problem may be, I can help navigate the turbulent waters in life and help you reach both your short- and long-term goals.
You may have lost a job, a beloved pet, or are caring for an aging loved one. Perhaps a significant relationship in your life has taken a turn and you feel alone or confused with what your "new normal" looks like. Maybe you are a recent college graduate and struggle to find meaning in your everyday adult life. Whatever your problem may be, I can help navigate the turbulent waters in life and help you reach both your short- and long-term goals.
(763) 317-0829 View (763) 317-0829
Photo of Dionne Trice, Marriage & Family Therapist in Saint Paul, MN
Dionne Trice
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55104
As a therapist, I bring nearly 20 yrs working with domestic violence, 30 yrs of ministry, community activism, nearly 40 yrs of marriage & the tragic loss of a child. Through it, I've grown in my understanding of the impact of systems, trauma and loss on people. As an African American therapist I specialize in working with minority stress and other trauma related to being part of an marginalized group. My areas of focus include: grief & loss, depression, anxiety, trauma, interpersonal relationship issues, perinatal mental health, communication issues, Interpersonal Violence, spiritual abuse/trauma, and stress management.
As a therapist, I bring nearly 20 yrs working with domestic violence, 30 yrs of ministry, community activism, nearly 40 yrs of marriage & the tragic loss of a child. Through it, I've grown in my understanding of the impact of systems, trauma and loss on people. As an African American therapist I specialize in working with minority stress and other trauma related to being part of an marginalized group. My areas of focus include: grief & loss, depression, anxiety, trauma, interpersonal relationship issues, perinatal mental health, communication issues, Interpersonal Violence, spiritual abuse/trauma, and stress management.
(651) 427-3243 View (651) 427-3243
Photo of Clifford J Buhl, Psychologist in Saint Paul, MN
Clifford J Buhl
Psychologist, PsyD, LP
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55104
I believe making active focused choices about how to cope with problems and reach your goals pays dividends. Some clients come to therapy to better make peace with their past so as not to continue old patterns. Others are seeking relief from stress and anxiety that the modern world seems to breed. Yet others are working on improving important relationships. Many clients are looking for answers to meaning and purpose that they have not yet resolved in their day-to-day life. What is it that you most want to work on?
I believe making active focused choices about how to cope with problems and reach your goals pays dividends. Some clients come to therapy to better make peace with their past so as not to continue old patterns. Others are seeking relief from stress and anxiety that the modern world seems to breed. Yet others are working on improving important relationships. Many clients are looking for answers to meaning and purpose that they have not yet resolved in their day-to-day life. What is it that you most want to work on?
(651) 372-8944 View (651) 372-8944
Photo of Minnesota Ctr for Psychology-Childrens Svcs, Psychologist in Saint Paul, MN
Minnesota Ctr for Psychology-Childrens Svcs
Psychologist, PsyD
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55114
At Minnesota Center for Psychology, we offer comprehensive mental health services for children and adolescents age 3-17, as well as their families. We are committed to providing the best quality care in an environment that fosters integrity, respect, hope, health, and learning. If your child is experiencing anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, family conflict, school or relationship issues, grief, sadness, body image issues, sleep problems, suicidal thoughts, trauma, low motivation, restlessness, communication issues, LGBT or gender identity issues, life transitions mood swings, shame, anger, or behavioral issues, our highly trained and experienced clinicians can help!
At Minnesota Center for Psychology, we offer comprehensive mental health services for children and adolescents age 3-17, as well as their families. We are committed to providing the best quality care in an environment that fosters integrity, respect, hope, health, and learning. If your child is experiencing anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, family conflict, school or relationship issues, grief, sadness, body image issues, sleep problems, suicidal thoughts, trauma, low motivation, restlessness, communication issues, LGBT or gender identity issues, life transitions mood swings, shame, anger, or behavioral issues, our highly trained and experienced clinicians can help!
(651) 419-3768 View (651) 419-3768
Photo of Jeff Hupf, Marriage & Family Therapist in Saint Paul, MN
Jeff Hupf
Marriage & Family Therapist, MS, LMFT
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55114
Therapists can't be good at everything. That's why I devote the vast majority of my practice to couples. Relationships are hard and we can find ourselves acting in ways that surprise even ourselves when things go wrong. So, you won't find me occupying the moral high ground, playing therapy tricks on you, or judging you. I'm marriage and relationship friendly, so I won't push you toward a crisis, a divorce or a break-up. As it is 50% of marriages end in divorce and upwards of 65% of second marriages end in a break-up, so if you have hopes and dreams for making things work, I'll be behind you 100%.
Therapists can't be good at everything. That's why I devote the vast majority of my practice to couples. Relationships are hard and we can find ourselves acting in ways that surprise even ourselves when things go wrong. So, you won't find me occupying the moral high ground, playing therapy tricks on you, or judging you. I'm marriage and relationship friendly, so I won't push you toward a crisis, a divorce or a break-up. As it is 50% of marriages end in divorce and upwards of 65% of second marriages end in a break-up, so if you have hopes and dreams for making things work, I'll be behind you 100%.
(651) 504-3464 View (651) 504-3464
Photo of Hlee Moua, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Saint Paul, MN
Hlee Moua
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LICSW
Verified
Saint Paul, MN 55106  (Online Only)
I have over 10 years of clinical experience working in outpatient clinics, schools, and emergency departments. I enjoy working with adolescents ages 12+, young adults, and adults. I specialize in supporting individuals with anxiety, depression, trauma, suicidal ideation/self-harm, life transitions, and identity and cultural concerns. I practice from a multicultural and systems lens to help clients understand how their personal experiences within their family and community have impacted and shaped them. I work with clients to explore their values and goals, process emotions, identify maladaptive patterns, and improve coping skills.
I have over 10 years of clinical experience working in outpatient clinics, schools, and emergency departments. I enjoy working with adolescents ages 12+, young adults, and adults. I specialize in supporting individuals with anxiety, depression, trauma, suicidal ideation/self-harm, life transitions, and identity and cultural concerns. I practice from a multicultural and systems lens to help clients understand how their personal experiences within their family and community have impacted and shaped them. I work with clients to explore their values and goals, process emotions, identify maladaptive patterns, and improve coping skills.
(651) 998-7405 View (651) 998-7405

See more therapy options for Saint Paul

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Saint Paul, MN

1,000+

Average cost per session

$160

Therapists in Saint Paul, MN who prioritize treating:

94% Anxiety
90% Depression
83% Relationship Issues
77% Self Esteem
74% Trauma and PTSD
68% Stress
66% Coping Skills

Average years in practice

11 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

85% BlueCross and BlueShield
73% UCare
67% HealthPartners of MN and WI

How Therapists in Saint Paul, MN see their clients

75% In Person and Online
25% Online Only

Gender breakdown

77% Female
20% Male
3% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Saint Paul?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.