Therapists in Walled Lake, MI

Photo of E Melissa Gadd, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Walled Lake, MI
E Melissa Gadd
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, CSW-G
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
Life stress often leaves us feeling anxious with difficulty focusing, racing thoughts, insomnia, and general restlessness. We may feel as if there is a dark cloud over our eyes, a change of appetite, difficulty doing basic tasks. Changes cause stress and uncertainty. College, marriage, the birth of children, new jobs are positive life transitions that can also be unsettling and an adjustment. Moving, kids leaving home, retirement and losses such as divorce, passing of loved ones, caregiving and the aging process can cause a significant amount of stress. The good news is life transitions help us grow.
Life stress often leaves us feeling anxious with difficulty focusing, racing thoughts, insomnia, and general restlessness. We may feel as if there is a dark cloud over our eyes, a change of appetite, difficulty doing basic tasks. Changes cause stress and uncertainty. College, marriage, the birth of children, new jobs are positive life transitions that can also be unsettling and an adjustment. Moving, kids leaving home, retirement and losses such as divorce, passing of loved ones, caregiving and the aging process can cause a significant amount of stress. The good news is life transitions help us grow.
(248) 574-5635 View (248) 574-5635
Photo of Integrative Behavioral Consulting in Walled Lake, MI
Integrative Behavioral Consulting
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
Integrative Behavioral Consulting LLC (IBC) gives parents an opportunity to work directly with a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) to help resolve behavior and sleep challenges they are facing. The sad truth is that insurance only covers services with a BCBA when a child is diagnosed with autism. It can also take more than a year for families to see a BCBA even with a diagnosis of autism or receive related therapy through the traditional system such as health insurance. This leaves so many children with behavioral issues without the help they need!
Integrative Behavioral Consulting LLC (IBC) gives parents an opportunity to work directly with a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) to help resolve behavior and sleep challenges they are facing. The sad truth is that insurance only covers services with a BCBA when a child is diagnosed with autism. It can also take more than a year for families to see a BCBA even with a diagnosis of autism or receive related therapy through the traditional system such as health insurance. This leaves so many children with behavioral issues without the help they need!
(248) 985-2077 View (248) 985-2077
Photo of Whitney Rudis, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Walled Lake, MI
Whitney Rudis
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LLMSW
Verified
1 Endorsed
Walled Lake, MI 48390
Hi! I am so glad you are here. I am a Limited Licensed Master Social Worker with a passionate commitment to helping others. I hold a Bachelor of Arts in Social Work and a Masters in Social Work (with a clinical focus) from Michigan State University. During my studies, I earned a Child Welfare certificate and a Health and Aging certificate. I have professional experience working with all ages, from young children to the geriatric population, and in different clinical settings, such as nonprofits and healthcare.
Hi! I am so glad you are here. I am a Limited Licensed Master Social Worker with a passionate commitment to helping others. I hold a Bachelor of Arts in Social Work and a Masters in Social Work (with a clinical focus) from Michigan State University. During my studies, I earned a Child Welfare certificate and a Health and Aging certificate. I have professional experience working with all ages, from young children to the geriatric population, and in different clinical settings, such as nonprofits and healthcare.
(248) 940-3285 x830 View (248) 940-3285 x830
Photo of Deborah Fishman Bienstock, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Walled Lake, MI
Deborah Fishman Bienstock
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
I am a Clinical Social Worker with more than 20 years of experience in mental health. I have a deep appreciation for supporting people as they face and work through life’s most difficult challenges. In therapy, I hope to help clients gain insight, develop coping strategies, and strengthen their emotional core. I enjoy working with adults of all ages and have particular interests in grief and loss, adjustment to illness, and issues associated with aging.
I am a Clinical Social Worker with more than 20 years of experience in mental health. I have a deep appreciation for supporting people as they face and work through life’s most difficult challenges. In therapy, I hope to help clients gain insight, develop coping strategies, and strengthen their emotional core. I enjoy working with adults of all ages and have particular interests in grief and loss, adjustment to illness, and issues associated with aging.
(248) 587-8256 View (248) 587-8256
Photo of Dr. Rachel Pad, Limited Licensed Psychologist in Walled Lake, MI
Dr. Rachel Pad
Limited Licensed Psychologist, PhD, dLLP
Verified
1 Endorsed
Walled Lake, MI 48390
Not accepting new clients
I work with adults experiencing depression, anxiety, conflicts in relationships, and uncertainty in overcoming life’s many challenges. I place equal emphasis on developing a warm, trusting therapeutic relationship and on the practice of intense listening. This allows us to discover and explore aspects of your self that have been hidden away as a means of coping with distress. At present I am able to bill for Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) or work with you to establish a fee based on a sliding scale.
I work with adults experiencing depression, anxiety, conflicts in relationships, and uncertainty in overcoming life’s many challenges. I place equal emphasis on developing a warm, trusting therapeutic relationship and on the practice of intense listening. This allows us to discover and explore aspects of your self that have been hidden away as a means of coping with distress. At present I am able to bill for Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) or work with you to establish a fee based on a sliding scale.
(248) 949-2435 View (248) 949-2435
Photo of James J. Zohoury, Counselor in Walled Lake, MI
James J. Zohoury
Counselor, LLPC, MBA, EMDR
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
Helping individuals overcome past trauma, anxiety, and depression and working with couples to reignite their love is a profoundly fulfilling and incredibly rewarding experience. At Overcome and Thrive Therapy, our goal is to facilitate personal and relational transformations from mere survival to thriving. As a licensed therapist, I am dedicated to supporting clients in overcoming past trauma, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while addressing current challenges such as depression and anxiety. Moreover, I specialize in working with couples navigating infidelity issues and facing marital difficulties.
Helping individuals overcome past trauma, anxiety, and depression and working with couples to reignite their love is a profoundly fulfilling and incredibly rewarding experience. At Overcome and Thrive Therapy, our goal is to facilitate personal and relational transformations from mere survival to thriving. As a licensed therapist, I am dedicated to supporting clients in overcoming past trauma, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while addressing current challenges such as depression and anxiety. Moreover, I specialize in working with couples navigating infidelity issues and facing marital difficulties.
(248) 206-3942 View (248) 206-3942
Photo of Karen E Stearns, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Walled Lake, MI
Karen E Stearns
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
Waitlist for new clients
I entered clinical social work later in life and I bring a mature understanding to working through psychological distress with my patients. Issues that may be addressed in treatment include trauma in childhood or as an adult, anxiety, depression, unresolved grief, relationship issues, inadequate self esteem and self harming behaviors. The goal of treatment is greater self awareness allowing emotional responses to be better understood and worked through, leading to a greater ability to meet life's challenges and live life more fully.
I entered clinical social work later in life and I bring a mature understanding to working through psychological distress with my patients. Issues that may be addressed in treatment include trauma in childhood or as an adult, anxiety, depression, unresolved grief, relationship issues, inadequate self esteem and self harming behaviors. The goal of treatment is greater self awareness allowing emotional responses to be better understood and worked through, leading to a greater ability to meet life's challenges and live life more fully.
(248) 294-1084 View (248) 294-1084
Photo of Dr. Dunia Karana Zebari, Psychologist in Walled Lake, MI
Dr. Dunia Karana Zebari
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390  (Online Only)
Dr. Dunia Karana Zebari is a clinical psychologist with extensive education and training in evidence-based psychotherapies. She received a BA degree from Oakland University, obtained her Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Detroit Mercy, and completed a 3-year NIH research fellowship at the University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.  She specializes in treatments of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorders, and insomnia disorders. Dr. Zebari has extensive experience in couples treatment.
Dr. Dunia Karana Zebari is a clinical psychologist with extensive education and training in evidence-based psychotherapies. She received a BA degree from Oakland University, obtained her Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Detroit Mercy, and completed a 3-year NIH research fellowship at the University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.  She specializes in treatments of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorders, and insomnia disorders. Dr. Zebari has extensive experience in couples treatment.
(248) 846-1160 View (248) 846-1160
Photo of Center for Integrative Psychology, Psychologist in Walled Lake, MI
Center for Integrative Psychology
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
I am a Harvard Medical School trained psychologist with a strong academic background tempered by 44 years of experience. I help people learn effective tools to deal with life's issues and deliver them with warmth, humor and support. A holistic, natural approach combined with brain optimization techniques can augment traditional psychotherapy to make change happen quickly.
I am a Harvard Medical School trained psychologist with a strong academic background tempered by 44 years of experience. I help people learn effective tools to deal with life's issues and deliver them with warmth, humor and support. A holistic, natural approach combined with brain optimization techniques can augment traditional psychotherapy to make change happen quickly.
(810) 637-1930 View (810) 637-1930
Photo of Darcey L. Maher, Psychologist in Walled Lake, MI
Darcey L. Maher
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
Not accepting new clients
I am a fully licensed clinical psychologist. I received my doctorate degree from the University of Detroit Mercy and have extensive clinical training in a variety of areas.
I am a fully licensed clinical psychologist. I received my doctorate degree from the University of Detroit Mercy and have extensive clinical training in a variety of areas.
(248) 487-9178 View (248) 487-9178
Photo of Sydney Walsh, Psychologist in Walled Lake, MI
Sydney Walsh
Psychologist, PhD, LP, CEDS
Verified
1 Endorsed
Walled Lake, MI 48390
I provide a warm, accepting and nonjudgmental approach, emphasizing the use of evidence-based treatments such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). In addition, I have received formal training and experience with Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). I have facilitated DBT skills groups and provide individualized DBT treatment to adolescents and adults. I thus focus on applying mindfulness and related behavioral skills to help clients learn to tolerate distress, manage emotions, and increase their overall coping ability and quality of life.
I provide a warm, accepting and nonjudgmental approach, emphasizing the use of evidence-based treatments such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT). In addition, I have received formal training and experience with Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). I have facilitated DBT skills groups and provide individualized DBT treatment to adolescents and adults. I thus focus on applying mindfulness and related behavioral skills to help clients learn to tolerate distress, manage emotions, and increase their overall coping ability and quality of life.
(248) 558-2242 View (248) 558-2242
Photo of Joan F Lazar, Counselor in Walled Lake, MI
Joan F Lazar
Counselor, MA, LLP, LPC
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
I have been in practice as a Psychotherapist for over 25 years working with adults, children, and adolescents, as well as families and couples. My aim is to help my clients address important issues in their lives and find new ways to make meaningful changes. I have worked in hospital settings, as well as outpatient mental health clinics. My clinical experience includes the treatment of mood disorders, depression/bipolar disorders, anxiety, anger management, family and marital relationship issues, grief and trauma, school difficulties, ADHD, and behavioral problems. I coordinate care with physicians, schools, employers, and the legal system and can administer the MMPI as needed.
I have been in practice as a Psychotherapist for over 25 years working with adults, children, and adolescents, as well as families and couples. My aim is to help my clients address important issues in their lives and find new ways to make meaningful changes. I have worked in hospital settings, as well as outpatient mental health clinics. My clinical experience includes the treatment of mood disorders, depression/bipolar disorders, anxiety, anger management, family and marital relationship issues, grief and trauma, school difficulties, ADHD, and behavioral problems. I coordinate care with physicians, schools, employers, and the legal system and can administer the MMPI as needed.
(248) 213-7737 View (248) 213-7737
Photo of Melanie Schwartz, Psychologist in Walled Lake, MI
Melanie Schwartz
Psychologist, PsyD, LP
Verified
7 Endorsed
Walled Lake, MI 48391
I am a clinical psychologist and owner of Viewpoint Psychology and Wellness. I have had extensive experience working with children, adolescents, and adults. I provide services in individual, group, family, and couples therapy. I specialize in the areas of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and other disruptive behavior problems, depression and other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, self-esteem issues, grief and loss, family issues, relationship issues, divorce, and trauma. I also specialize in parent training, in which I am able to work with parents to teach them effective skills in parenting.
I am a clinical psychologist and owner of Viewpoint Psychology and Wellness. I have had extensive experience working with children, adolescents, and adults. I provide services in individual, group, family, and couples therapy. I specialize in the areas of ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and other disruptive behavior problems, depression and other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, self-esteem issues, grief and loss, family issues, relationship issues, divorce, and trauma. I also specialize in parent training, in which I am able to work with parents to teach them effective skills in parenting.
(248) 669-9500 View (248) 669-9500
Photo of Jill L. Kofender, Psychologist in Walled Lake, MI
Jill L. Kofender
Psychologist, PhD
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
Seeking assistance to improve your emotional and psychological well-being can seem difficult and overwhelming. However, taking the first step and learning about your options demonstrates strength. I believe we all have the strength within us to grow and change to better navigate life's challenges. As a Licensed Clinical Psychologist, I offer a personalized, results-oriented approach to helping clients find solutions to difficulties. I work with adults and adolescents, providing treatment for a variety of personal concerns and psychological issues.
Seeking assistance to improve your emotional and psychological well-being can seem difficult and overwhelming. However, taking the first step and learning about your options demonstrates strength. I believe we all have the strength within us to grow and change to better navigate life's challenges. As a Licensed Clinical Psychologist, I offer a personalized, results-oriented approach to helping clients find solutions to difficulties. I work with adults and adolescents, providing treatment for a variety of personal concerns and psychological issues.
(248) 764-5895 View (248) 764-5895
Photo of Sarah K Redwood, Licensed Professional Counselor in Walled Lake, MI
Sarah K Redwood
Licensed Professional Counselor, NCC, LPC, CAADC
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
Having difficulties in life is something that we will all face and asking for help can be incredibly difficult. As a counselor I work to provide a judgement free comfortable environment to my clients in hopes that we can work together to address and overcome their difficulties and concerns.
Having difficulties in life is something that we will all face and asking for help can be incredibly difficult. As a counselor I work to provide a judgement free comfortable environment to my clients in hopes that we can work together to address and overcome their difficulties and concerns.
(248) 266-1144 View (248) 266-1144
Photo of Carolyn Daitch, Psychologist in Walled Lake, MI
Carolyn Daitch
Psychologist, PhD, FASCH, FMPA
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
Do you worry excessively? Have panic attacks; difficulty sleeping; specific phobias; stomach aches? Do you have relationship challenges? WE CAN HELP! We provide a wide range of therapeutic interventions from assessment to treatment, employing evidence-based strategies to help you become well. I am a fully licensed psychologist,, clinician, and international trainer of health care professionals. I am a certified Imago therapist and have been distinguished as an elected fellow of The American Society of Clinical Hypnosis and the Michigan Psychological Association.
Do you worry excessively? Have panic attacks; difficulty sleeping; specific phobias; stomach aches? Do you have relationship challenges? WE CAN HELP! We provide a wide range of therapeutic interventions from assessment to treatment, employing evidence-based strategies to help you become well. I am a fully licensed psychologist,, clinician, and international trainer of health care professionals. I am a certified Imago therapist and have been distinguished as an elected fellow of The American Society of Clinical Hypnosis and the Michigan Psychological Association.
(248) 949-2927 View (248) 949-2927
Photo of Ashley A Gray, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Walled Lake, MI
Ashley A Gray
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, CAADC
Verified
1 Endorsed
Walled Lake, MI 48390
We empower our clients through Individual and Couples and Family therapy. We specialize in dysfunctional communication patterns, victims of trauma, substance abuse, LGBTQ+, blended families, PTSD, adjustment/mood disorders, depression, anxiety, grief, stress, COVID-19, domestic violence, and sexual abuse. However, we are not limited to these conditions. Please call us today to make the first step. Remember we will all Repeat what we don't Repair!!!
We empower our clients through Individual and Couples and Family therapy. We specialize in dysfunctional communication patterns, victims of trauma, substance abuse, LGBTQ+, blended families, PTSD, adjustment/mood disorders, depression, anxiety, grief, stress, COVID-19, domestic violence, and sexual abuse. However, we are not limited to these conditions. Please call us today to make the first step. Remember we will all Repeat what we don't Repair!!!
(248) 780-7434 View (248) 780-7434
Photo of Julie Edwards, Licensed Professional Counselor in Walled Lake, MI
Julie Edwards
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390  (Online Only)
My goal is to teach you to become your own therapist. Over 15 years of experience working with children, adults, and couples to achieve their therapy goals. I employ a solution based person centered approach and work with my clients in a way that works for them.
My goal is to teach you to become your own therapist. Over 15 years of experience working with children, adults, and couples to achieve their therapy goals. I employ a solution based person centered approach and work with my clients in a way that works for them.
(248) 265-3924 View (248) 265-3924
Curtis Thornton
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW-C
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
Curtis Thornton is a Licensed Master Social Worker (LMSW) with 20 years of experience in the mental health field. Curtis specializes in providing therapy to individuals attempting to overcome challenges related to substance use and/or mental health disorders. The areas he has treated include, but are not limited to, relapse prevention, symptom management, enhancing self-esteem, relationship building, building a strong family structure, and recognizing and coping with thoughts, feelings, and emotions.
Curtis Thornton is a Licensed Master Social Worker (LMSW) with 20 years of experience in the mental health field. Curtis specializes in providing therapy to individuals attempting to overcome challenges related to substance use and/or mental health disorders. The areas he has treated include, but are not limited to, relapse prevention, symptom management, enhancing self-esteem, relationship building, building a strong family structure, and recognizing and coping with thoughts, feelings, and emotions.
(248) 791-9526 View (248) 791-9526
Photo of Nancy Warkentin Houdek, MA, LPC, NCC, PLLC, Counselor in Walled Lake, MI
Nancy Warkentin Houdek, MA, LPC, NCC, PLLC
Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified
Walled Lake, MI 48390
I help clients work through the challenges that come with anxiety, low mood, anger, lack of focus, feeling 'stuck', harsh repeating thoughts, relationship and career issues, and living without JOY! So much happens in our life that can distort how we see ourself, others and the events around us. Talking through our struggles helps us to see them in a new way, with added clarity and reason. From there we work together to find new interpretations, solutions and peace. My special interest is in supporting individuals who struggle with recognizing their self worth and their own unique ability to cope with life's ups and downs.
I help clients work through the challenges that come with anxiety, low mood, anger, lack of focus, feeling 'stuck', harsh repeating thoughts, relationship and career issues, and living without JOY! So much happens in our life that can distort how we see ourself, others and the events around us. Talking through our struggles helps us to see them in a new way, with added clarity and reason. From there we work together to find new interpretations, solutions and peace. My special interest is in supporting individuals who struggle with recognizing their self worth and their own unique ability to cope with life's ups and downs.
(586) 447-7884 View (586) 447-7884

See more therapy options for Walled Lake

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Walled Lake, MI

20+

Average cost per session

$130

Therapists in Walled Lake, MI who prioritize treating:

91% Depression
91% Anxiety
82% Relationship Issues
77% Grief
77% Self Esteem
68% Stress
64% Trauma and PTSD

Average years in practice

14 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

90% BlueCross and BlueShield
70% Blue Care Network
60% Aetna

How Therapists in Walled Lake, MI see their clients

91% In Person and Online
9% Online Only

Gender breakdown

86% Female
14% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Walled Lake?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.