Therapists in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI

Photo of Caitlin Reed, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Caitlin Reed
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Life can be difficult, especially in preteen through young adult years, where you can feel in constant change. Working with someone to help guide you through rough patches and work on developing certain skills and routines can help ease those transitions.
Life can be difficult, especially in preteen through young adult years, where you can feel in constant change. Working with someone to help guide you through rough patches and work on developing certain skills and routines can help ease those transitions.
(269) 795-6823 View (269) 795-6823
Photo of Melinda Nichols, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Melinda Nichols
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
In our highly pressured and complicated lives, so many of us experience work issues, relationship problems, low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, grief, and/or the stress of daily life. It can feel so exhausting and frustrating. You may even feel stuck but know that you deserve more. Through the therapeutic process, we will work together to prioritize your goals so that we knock down the barriers and challenges that you may be facing and restore joy and peace in your life.
In our highly pressured and complicated lives, so many of us experience work issues, relationship problems, low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, grief, and/or the stress of daily life. It can feel so exhausting and frustrating. You may even feel stuck but know that you deserve more. Through the therapeutic process, we will work together to prioritize your goals so that we knock down the barriers and challenges that you may be facing and restore joy and peace in your life.
(269) 367-8625 View (269) 367-8625
Photo of Susan Weaver, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Susan Weaver
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW, ACSW
Verified Verified
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
I'm currently accepting very few new clients, depending on my availability. Please email me with an inquiry and I will get back to you. I'm a general practice psychotherapist with over 30 years' experience. I work best with the older adolescent-to-adult range. I work with a broad variety of issues, including anxiety, depression and panic attacks; couples and relationship issues; substance abuse and eating disorders; trauma and abuse; sexuality and gender issues; and questions of identity and personal development.
I'm currently accepting very few new clients, depending on my availability. Please email me with an inquiry and I will get back to you. I'm a general practice psychotherapist with over 30 years' experience. I work best with the older adolescent-to-adult range. I work with a broad variety of issues, including anxiety, depression and panic attacks; couples and relationship issues; substance abuse and eating disorders; trauma and abuse; sexuality and gender issues; and questions of identity and personal development.
(269) 924-0131 View (269) 924-0131
Photo of Yasmine Ford, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Yasmine Ford
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
I am here to help you navigate difficult situations going on in your life. My goal is for you to feel safe and understood. I enjoy helping people from all backgrounds. My specialty areas include anxiety, depression, trauma, substance abuse, chronic pain, adjustment, and stress management. I believe therapy should take place in a safe, supportive, empowering, and confidential environment. Clients are active in the process, exploring areas including feelings, beliefs, and behaviors while working through personal history and identifying aspects of their lives they wish to change.
I am here to help you navigate difficult situations going on in your life. My goal is for you to feel safe and understood. I enjoy helping people from all backgrounds. My specialty areas include anxiety, depression, trauma, substance abuse, chronic pain, adjustment, and stress management. I believe therapy should take place in a safe, supportive, empowering, and confidential environment. Clients are active in the process, exploring areas including feelings, beliefs, and behaviors while working through personal history and identifying aspects of their lives they wish to change.
(269) 215-4946 View (269) 215-4946
Photo of Allyn Witchell, Marriage & Family Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Allyn Witchell
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Immediate evening openings for new clients. Are you looking for couples counseling, family therapy, or help for yourself to improve your relationships? Couples counseling can be a great avenue to improve and grow in a relationship; even before serious issues arise. Every family has challenges; through the therapeutic process, families can learn new techniques and skills to better support their loved ones.
Immediate evening openings for new clients. Are you looking for couples counseling, family therapy, or help for yourself to improve your relationships? Couples counseling can be a great avenue to improve and grow in a relationship; even before serious issues arise. Every family has challenges; through the therapeutic process, families can learn new techniques and skills to better support their loved ones.
(269) 215-2819 View (269) 215-2819
Photo of Ashley Lewis, Counselor in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Ashley Lewis
Counselor, MA, LLPC
Verified Verified
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
I know from personal experience how helpful and impactful therapy can be which is what ultimately led me to becoming a therapist. I use empathy and compassion to support children, teens and adults throughout the treatment process. My goal as a therapist is to ensure I am providing a safe and comfortable environment that my clients enjoy coming to. The types of techniques, tools and methods I use vary and are tailored to the client's specific needs.
I know from personal experience how helpful and impactful therapy can be which is what ultimately led me to becoming a therapist. I use empathy and compassion to support children, teens and adults throughout the treatment process. My goal as a therapist is to ensure I am providing a safe and comfortable environment that my clients enjoy coming to. The types of techniques, tools and methods I use vary and are tailored to the client's specific needs.
(269) 231-4057 View (269) 231-4057
Photo of Jennifer E Ranalli, Counselor in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Jennifer E Ranalli
Counselor, MA, LLPC, NCC
Verified Verified
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Do you feel as if your life is unmanageable? Are you struggling to manage your life as is? It’s no secret that life doesn’t fight fair. At times, it can seem that nothing goes the way we really want it to, no matter how well we plan. Fortunately, we were built to adapt and recover quickly. It is our own resilience that dictates what happens next and not life’s quirkiness or unpredictability. I collaborate with adults 18 and older to successfully manage life using healthy responses and sustainable coping skills. I have assisted individuals with addictions, complex-trauma, and personality disorders for 5+ years.
Do you feel as if your life is unmanageable? Are you struggling to manage your life as is? It’s no secret that life doesn’t fight fair. At times, it can seem that nothing goes the way we really want it to, no matter how well we plan. Fortunately, we were built to adapt and recover quickly. It is our own resilience that dictates what happens next and not life’s quirkiness or unpredictability. I collaborate with adults 18 and older to successfully manage life using healthy responses and sustainable coping skills. I have assisted individuals with addictions, complex-trauma, and personality disorders for 5+ years.
(269) 256-2529 View (269) 256-2529
Photo of Michelle Colpean, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Michelle Colpean
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Waitlist for new clients
I'm happy you're here! I hope to walk alongside you and provide the support you need to make changes in your life. I enjoy helping older adolescents and adults with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, stress management, boundary setting, and difficult life transitions. I utilize a holistic approach, helping you explore your physical, emotional, mental and spiritual health in a safe space. I believe that therapy is a collaborative process where we can seek a deeper understanding of ourselves and find a path to healing.
I'm happy you're here! I hope to walk alongside you and provide the support you need to make changes in your life. I enjoy helping older adolescents and adults with anxiety, depression, panic attacks, stress management, boundary setting, and difficult life transitions. I utilize a holistic approach, helping you explore your physical, emotional, mental and spiritual health in a safe space. I believe that therapy is a collaborative process where we can seek a deeper understanding of ourselves and find a path to healing.
(269) 256-1663 View (269) 256-1663
Photo of Nicole Allen, Limited Licensed Psychologist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Nicole Allen
Limited Licensed Psychologist, MA, TLLP
Verified Verified
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49009  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Sometimes we feel stressed, anxious, or struggle with adjusting to new circumstances in our lives. This is normal. There are times when we are able to navigate on our own, however, that may not always be the case. We will work together to help you create a better understanding of yourself, rediscover your strengths, and accomplish mental wellness.
Sometimes we feel stressed, anxious, or struggle with adjusting to new circumstances in our lives. This is normal. There are times when we are able to navigate on our own, however, that may not always be the case. We will work together to help you create a better understanding of yourself, rediscover your strengths, and accomplish mental wellness.
(269) 215-4751 View (269) 215-4751
Photo of Makenzie Edson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Makenzie Edson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LLMSW
Verified Verified
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Waitlist for new clients
Welcome to the therapy community, I’m so glad you’re here. In this safe and supportive space, we'll work together to explore your thoughts, emotions, and goals. I believe in a person centered approach where you are the expert. I’m here to assist you in navigating life's challenges, fostering growth, and achieving lasting well-being. Your journey towards healing and self-discovery begins here.
Welcome to the therapy community, I’m so glad you’re here. In this safe and supportive space, we'll work together to explore your thoughts, emotions, and goals. I believe in a person centered approach where you are the expert. I’m here to assist you in navigating life's challenges, fostering growth, and achieving lasting well-being. Your journey towards healing and self-discovery begins here.
(269) 520-7610 View (269) 520-7610
Photo of Brandan Mitchell, Master Social Work in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Brandan Mitchell
Master Social Work, LMSW
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Life experiences can impact us in surprising, often difficult and even traumatic ways leaving us feeling out of touch with ourselves and those around us. With over sixteen (16) years of experience working alongside individuals and families in a variety of clinical settings, my clinical approach begins with meeting you where you are at, without judgement or preconceived notions, to help create a safe, warm and welcoming environment for change. Combining my experience as a clinical social worker and as a parent, my aim is to provide resources and tools that can be used to breakdown the barriers that may exist in your life.
Life experiences can impact us in surprising, often difficult and even traumatic ways leaving us feeling out of touch with ourselves and those around us. With over sixteen (16) years of experience working alongside individuals and families in a variety of clinical settings, my clinical approach begins with meeting you where you are at, without judgement or preconceived notions, to help create a safe, warm and welcoming environment for change. Combining my experience as a clinical social worker and as a parent, my aim is to provide resources and tools that can be used to breakdown the barriers that may exist in your life.
(269) 241-8513 View (269) 241-8513
Photo of George K. Lockwood, Psychologist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
George K. Lockwood
Psychologist
Verified Verified
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
I completed a postdoctoral fellowship in Cognitive Therapy at the University of Pennsylvania under the supervision of Aaron Beck, M.D. in 1983. I am a Founding Fellow of the Academy for Cognitive Therapy. My primary interest and expertise is in helping people identify and break free from the negative life patterns that underlie long-standing depression, anxiety, and painful relationships. My style is systematic, focused, collaborative and flexible. I see my first task as creating a safe and stable foundation from which clients can begin to meet their core emotional needs and grow.
I completed a postdoctoral fellowship in Cognitive Therapy at the University of Pennsylvania under the supervision of Aaron Beck, M.D. in 1983. I am a Founding Fellow of the Academy for Cognitive Therapy. My primary interest and expertise is in helping people identify and break free from the negative life patterns that underlie long-standing depression, anxiety, and painful relationships. My style is systematic, focused, collaborative and flexible. I see my first task as creating a safe and stable foundation from which clients can begin to meet their core emotional needs and grow.
(269) 993-4636 View (269) 993-4636
Photo of Tara N Logan, Marriage & Family Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Tara N Logan
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LLPC, LLMFT
Verified Verified
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Are you struggling with a loss of interest in normal activities or with a feeling of hopelessness, do you feel consumed with grief, struggle meeting goals, maybe you find it difficult to communicate effectively with family, coworkers, or friends. Life has many transitions and you may need help coping with them (new or loss of a job, college, empty nest, separation, parenting etc). I offer you a safe nonjudgmental space to assist you with finding solutions to your concerns. I am a Limited Licensed Professional Counselor & Limited Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist & I can't wait to help you through your therapeutic journey.
Are you struggling with a loss of interest in normal activities or with a feeling of hopelessness, do you feel consumed with grief, struggle meeting goals, maybe you find it difficult to communicate effectively with family, coworkers, or friends. Life has many transitions and you may need help coping with them (new or loss of a job, college, empty nest, separation, parenting etc). I offer you a safe nonjudgmental space to assist you with finding solutions to your concerns. I am a Limited Licensed Professional Counselor & Limited Licensed Marriage & Family Therapist & I can't wait to help you through your therapeutic journey.
(269) 222-7626 View (269) 222-7626
Photo of Joe R. Keinath, Counselor in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Joe R. Keinath
Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
You deserve to live a life that leaves you excited to wake up every morning. Are you ready to make a change in your life? It takes courage to ask for help, but the rewards of doing so can lead to a lifetime of fulfillment. I understand and have experienced the emotional challenges life has to offer. In working together, we will cultivate growth by understanding the obstacles that you face and develop solutions that can help you gain control of your life and achieve your goals. Ultimately, therapy can lead you to greater self-awareness, self-esteem, and most importantly, a more fulfilling life. Evenings and Weekends work great!
You deserve to live a life that leaves you excited to wake up every morning. Are you ready to make a change in your life? It takes courage to ask for help, but the rewards of doing so can lead to a lifetime of fulfillment. I understand and have experienced the emotional challenges life has to offer. In working together, we will cultivate growth by understanding the obstacles that you face and develop solutions that can help you gain control of your life and achieve your goals. Ultimately, therapy can lead you to greater self-awareness, self-esteem, and most importantly, a more fulfilling life. Evenings and Weekends work great!
(269) 512-6045 View (269) 512-6045
Photo of Cristina Collins, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Cristina Collins
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, CAADC
Verified Verified
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007  (Online Only)
You have the skills and strength you need to make the changes and the life that you want. But maybe you need some support or encouragement along the way. It is so rewarding to see a client make lasting, positive changes and to be able to walk alongside them as they achieve their goals.
You have the skills and strength you need to make the changes and the life that you want. But maybe you need some support or encouragement along the way. It is so rewarding to see a client make lasting, positive changes and to be able to walk alongside them as they achieve their goals.
(269) 528-8509 View (269) 528-8509
Photo of Marisa Kowalski, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Marisa Kowalski
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LLMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49001
I have experience working with people who are facing challenges in their lives. Whether it be mental health, adjusting to a difficult time or stressful life transition, chronic illness and/or chronic pain, processing trauma and grief, work stress, or caregiver stress/burnout I provide a safe and comfortable environment for you to explore and resolve the issues you are dealing with.
I have experience working with people who are facing challenges in their lives. Whether it be mental health, adjusting to a difficult time or stressful life transition, chronic illness and/or chronic pain, processing trauma and grief, work stress, or caregiver stress/burnout I provide a safe and comfortable environment for you to explore and resolve the issues you are dealing with.
(269) 580-8281 View (269) 580-8281
Photo of Maureen Cafarelli, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Maureen Cafarelli
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, LICSW
Verified Verified
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49008  (Online Only)
Everyone goes through challenging situations in their life. I am here to help you find the healthiest way to navigate difficult situations, achieve personal goals and work toward getting you where you want to be in a mindful and meaningful way. I use evidenced based therapies to provide effective treatments for a variety of issues and situations. I have over 15 years of experience working with individuals going through some tough life changes! I look forward to helping you navigate some of these life changes!
Everyone goes through challenging situations in their life. I am here to help you find the healthiest way to navigate difficult situations, achieve personal goals and work toward getting you where you want to be in a mindful and meaningful way. I use evidenced based therapies to provide effective treatments for a variety of issues and situations. I have over 15 years of experience working with individuals going through some tough life changes! I look forward to helping you navigate some of these life changes!
(269) 906-9632 View (269) 906-9632
Photo of Amy Vliek, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Amy Vliek
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LMSW-C
Verified Verified
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
For some of us the world is a more difficult place that it is for others. It is not our fault and there is nothing wrong with us. For some of us the world is not safe, the people in our world have made it unsafe, and we have fought by ourselves and for ourselves. It is not our fault, and we should be proud that we are still here, that we still love ourselves enough to fight, and to ask for help. If this describes you - I am here to help. I will believe in you, challenge you, speak truth to you, teach you skills and techniques, and help you help yourself. Together, we can discover how to make your world what you want it to be.
For some of us the world is a more difficult place that it is for others. It is not our fault and there is nothing wrong with us. For some of us the world is not safe, the people in our world have made it unsafe, and we have fought by ourselves and for ourselves. It is not our fault, and we should be proud that we are still here, that we still love ourselves enough to fight, and to ask for help. If this describes you - I am here to help. I will believe in you, challenge you, speak truth to you, teach you skills and techniques, and help you help yourself. Together, we can discover how to make your world what you want it to be.
(269) 256-1609 View (269) 256-1609
Photo of Emma Wright, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Emma Wright
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MA, LLMSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
As your therapist, I hope to set the foundation for courage, creating a space to be open to vulnerability. In sessions we will reflect on your ability to navigate uncertainty, taking risks, and emotional exposure. Perhaps we will spend time developing healthier boundaries, developing stronger accountability, or engaging with the simple notion of owning our truths.
As your therapist, I hope to set the foundation for courage, creating a space to be open to vulnerability. In sessions we will reflect on your ability to navigate uncertainty, taking risks, and emotional exposure. Perhaps we will spend time developing healthier boundaries, developing stronger accountability, or engaging with the simple notion of owning our truths.
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Photo of Mallory Fountain, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI
Mallory Fountain
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI 49007
Making the steps towards healing and growth can be difficult. I am a strong believer that we were never designed to navigate through life alone. Life can be incredibly challenging at times, and more often than not in ways that we would never expect. Whether you are feeling depressed, anxious, hopeless, or maybe experiencing grief, you deserve a safe space to process. I strive to always meet my clients where they're at in an inclusive and non-judgmental space. My hope is that we can work collaboratively together to embrace challenges, identify your strengths and develop healthy coping skills to help you thrive.
Making the steps towards healing and growth can be difficult. I am a strong believer that we were never designed to navigate through life alone. Life can be incredibly challenging at times, and more often than not in ways that we would never expect. Whether you are feeling depressed, anxious, hopeless, or maybe experiencing grief, you deserve a safe space to process. I strive to always meet my clients where they're at in an inclusive and non-judgmental space. My hope is that we can work collaboratively together to embrace challenges, identify your strengths and develop healthy coping skills to help you thrive.
(269) 215-2988 View (269) 215-2988

See more therapy options for Downtown, Kalamazoo

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI

50+

Average cost per session

$142

Therapists in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI who prioritize treating:

95% Anxiety
86% Depression
84% Stress
77% Coping Skills
77% Self Esteem
71% Trauma and PTSD
64% Relationship Issues

Average years in practice

9 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

96% BlueCross and BlueShield
73% Blue Care Network
69% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH

How Therapists in Downtown, Kalamazoo, MI see their clients

84% In Person and Online
16% Online Only

Gender breakdown

86% Female
14% Male

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Downtown, Kalamazoo?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.