Therapists in Kalamazoo County, MI

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Morgyn Rose Poehlman
Counselor, MA, LLPC
Verified Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49009
“You cannot heal what you refuse to confront.” Is this a phrase that resonates with you? If so, then you are in the right place. Sometimes in life we get to a point where we realize that we are not living our truest life or our most actualized self. This can be anything from dealing with our daily turmoil and tribulations to confronting deep insecurities, distressing anxiety and depression, or past trauma. One of the key steps to overcoming these concerns is to turn inward and examine the self. In our counseling relationship, I promise to provide you with my most authentic self so that you can discover yours.
“You cannot heal what you refuse to confront.” Is this a phrase that resonates with you? If so, then you are in the right place. Sometimes in life we get to a point where we realize that we are not living our truest life or our most actualized self. This can be anything from dealing with our daily turmoil and tribulations to confronting deep insecurities, distressing anxiety and depression, or past trauma. One of the key steps to overcoming these concerns is to turn inward and examine the self. In our counseling relationship, I promise to provide you with my most authentic self so that you can discover yours.
(269) 215-2903 View (269) 215-2903
Photo of Alaina Knoedler, Licensed Professional Counselor in Kalamazoo County, MI
Alaina Knoedler
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Portage, MI 49002
Alaina Knoedler is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Illinois who has been practicing since 2017. Alaina firmly believes that healing is possible and can be found within each person that is willing to seek help! That being said, Alaina strives to first and foremost assist her clients in gaining deeper understanding and insight into what the main issues are that they are experiencing in their lives.
Alaina Knoedler is a Licensed Professional Counselor in Illinois who has been practicing since 2017. Alaina firmly believes that healing is possible and can be found within each person that is willing to seek help! That being said, Alaina strives to first and foremost assist her clients in gaining deeper understanding and insight into what the main issues are that they are experiencing in their lives.
(269) 257-2682 View (269) 257-2682
Photo of The Focused Mindfulness Center, Licensed Professional Counselor in Kalamazoo County, MI
The Focused Mindfulness Center
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Portage, MI 49024
As long as you have breath in your body, there will always be a need to talk to someone about life. What if we told you there is a difference between talking to someone and sharing your life experiences? As your therapist, it is important to express yourself in the best way you know how. It’s important that your decisions are respected in a safe space, so you feel comfortable, healthy and happy. It is our goal to empower you to engage in healthy behaviors through challenging alternative thoughts to increase your capability to recover from difficulties. we are in this with you. We celebrate your joys and process tough times with you.
As long as you have breath in your body, there will always be a need to talk to someone about life. What if we told you there is a difference between talking to someone and sharing your life experiences? As your therapist, it is important to express yourself in the best way you know how. It’s important that your decisions are respected in a safe space, so you feel comfortable, healthy and happy. It is our goal to empower you to engage in healthy behaviors through challenging alternative thoughts to increase your capability to recover from difficulties. we are in this with you. We celebrate your joys and process tough times with you.
(269) 443-1624 View (269) 443-1624
Photo of Christina Hamman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Kalamazoo County, MI
Christina Hamman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, CCTP
Verified Verified
Portage, MI 49024
Not accepting new clients
My intention as a psychotherapist is to create a comforting environment where people can bring their life challenges and trauma to work through without the fear of being judged or harmed. In sessions, I use a person-centered and strength-based lens in order to build the best possible therapeutic relationship with my clients. I approach each individual as whole beings by paying attention to the emotional, physical, spiritual, and societal components that make us all human. It is a joy to come alongside my clients with compassion, empathy, and support.
My intention as a psychotherapist is to create a comforting environment where people can bring their life challenges and trauma to work through without the fear of being judged or harmed. In sessions, I use a person-centered and strength-based lens in order to build the best possible therapeutic relationship with my clients. I approach each individual as whole beings by paying attention to the emotional, physical, spiritual, and societal components that make us all human. It is a joy to come alongside my clients with compassion, empathy, and support.
(616) 208-5388 View (616) 208-5388
Photo of Beth Hawver, Masters Social Worker in Kalamazoo County, MI
Beth Hawver
Masters Social Worker, LMSW, CAADC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49008
I am here to help you find the healthiest, most whole part of you. I believe recovery is EVERYWHERE. My primary purpose is to help you heal your whole self. Working under a philosophy based in compassion, acceptance and mindfulness, I want to partner with you to bring out your strengths and help find the joy that's waiting for you.
I am here to help you find the healthiest, most whole part of you. I believe recovery is EVERYWHERE. My primary purpose is to help you heal your whole self. Working under a philosophy based in compassion, acceptance and mindfulness, I want to partner with you to bring out your strengths and help find the joy that's waiting for you.
(269) 247-6193 View (269) 247-6193
Photo of Cortney Jebelian, Licensed Professional Counselor in Kalamazoo County, MI
Cortney Jebelian
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49001  (Online Only)
I specialize in OCD, anxiety, and perfectionism. People who come to me often feel anxious, misunderstood, and invalidated. They may have tried other types of therapy with limited results.
I specialize in OCD, anxiety, and perfectionism. People who come to me often feel anxious, misunderstood, and invalidated. They may have tried other types of therapy with limited results.
(269) 222-7837 View (269) 222-7837
Photo of Rob Chapuran, Licensed Professional Counselor in Kalamazoo County, MI
Rob Chapuran
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, CAADC
Verified Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49009
Hello! As a therapist, I strive to support individuals in reaching their fullest potential in any areas of life that may be unsatisfactory. I will create a safe space to share conversations and together we will work to reconcile any discomfort. I am humbled to be chosen to walk beside you on this journey and I commend you for taking the first step towards healing. I believe everyone can use extra support at various points in life and therapy can provide a method to learn new tools to have in your arsenal.
Hello! As a therapist, I strive to support individuals in reaching their fullest potential in any areas of life that may be unsatisfactory. I will create a safe space to share conversations and together we will work to reconcile any discomfort. I am humbled to be chosen to walk beside you on this journey and I commend you for taking the first step towards healing. I believe everyone can use extra support at various points in life and therapy can provide a method to learn new tools to have in your arsenal.
(269) 399-3508 View (269) 399-3508
Photo of Heather Crampton, Licensed Professional Counselor in Kalamazoo County, MI
Heather Crampton
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC
Verified Verified
Portage, MI 49002
Heather Crampton is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) with more than 7 years of experience working with clients of all ages, gender identities, sexual orientations, races, and ethnicities in various settings. Her specialties include, but are not limited to all anxiety disorders, depression, personality disorders, substance abuse, working with anxious youth and positive youth development, helping veterans and others who suffer from PTSD. Heather graduated from Western Michigan University with a Master's degree in Counselor Education-Clinical Mental Health.
Heather Crampton is a Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC) with more than 7 years of experience working with clients of all ages, gender identities, sexual orientations, races, and ethnicities in various settings. Her specialties include, but are not limited to all anxiety disorders, depression, personality disorders, substance abuse, working with anxious youth and positive youth development, helping veterans and others who suffer from PTSD. Heather graduated from Western Michigan University with a Master's degree in Counselor Education-Clinical Mental Health.
(269) 205-6422 View (269) 205-6422
Photo of Kalamazoo Neurofeedback and Counseling Center, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Kalamazoo County, MI
Kalamazoo Neurofeedback and Counseling Center
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LMSW
Verified Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49009
My goal is to help clients achieve improved functioning as quickly as possible. I believe the most powerful transformation comes from a combination of techniques to understand and reset non-adaptive patterns, including neurofeedback, other forms of biofeedback, such as heart rate variability, emotional freedom technique (EFT), and a personality assessment I use called the Enneagram, combined with behaviorally-based counseling, such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The combination of these techniques provide the foundation for holistically examining issues that stand in the way of a fuller life.
My goal is to help clients achieve improved functioning as quickly as possible. I believe the most powerful transformation comes from a combination of techniques to understand and reset non-adaptive patterns, including neurofeedback, other forms of biofeedback, such as heart rate variability, emotional freedom technique (EFT), and a personality assessment I use called the Enneagram, combined with behaviorally-based counseling, such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The combination of these techniques provide the foundation for holistically examining issues that stand in the way of a fuller life.
(269) 330-7030 View (269) 330-7030
Photo of Kristin Zimmerman, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Kalamazoo County, MI
Kristin Zimmerman
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, ACSW
Verified Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49009
I have been practicing clinical social work with children, adults and adolescents for twenty-five years. I strive to provide treatment that is supportive, accepting and one that encourages each individual's unique personal exploration and growth. I use a relaxed, interactive and educational approach to treating depression, anxiety, trauma, addiction and recovery, co-occurring disorders, parenting/family support and adjustment to life transitions.
I have been practicing clinical social work with children, adults and adolescents for twenty-five years. I strive to provide treatment that is supportive, accepting and one that encourages each individual's unique personal exploration and growth. I use a relaxed, interactive and educational approach to treating depression, anxiety, trauma, addiction and recovery, co-occurring disorders, parenting/family support and adjustment to life transitions.
(269) 580-8159 View (269) 580-8159
Photo of Christin Colon, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Kalamazoo County, MI
Christin Colon
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LLMSW
Verified Verified
Portage, MI 49002
Christin Colon is a Limited Licensed Master Social Worker in Michigan who has been practicing since 2021. She was EMDR trained by the Morsey Institute. Christin works on neutralizing trauma with EMDR. She can help people learn new ways of coping and thinking to help reduce levels of depression and anxiety with CBT, Mindfulness, Motivational Interviewing, etc. Sometimes people just need help making and achieving personal goals and Christin can help with that too. Additionally, she can help people work on their communication skills to help enrich their life.
Christin Colon is a Limited Licensed Master Social Worker in Michigan who has been practicing since 2021. She was EMDR trained by the Morsey Institute. Christin works on neutralizing trauma with EMDR. She can help people learn new ways of coping and thinking to help reduce levels of depression and anxiety with CBT, Mindfulness, Motivational Interviewing, etc. Sometimes people just need help making and achieving personal goals and Christin can help with that too. Additionally, she can help people work on their communication skills to help enrich their life.
(269) 340-3025 View (269) 340-3025
Photo of Lukas Pederson, Licensed Professional Counselor in Kalamazoo County, MI
Lukas Pederson
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49009
I have worked as an LPC for 17 years, much of it based in a school. I work with teens, parents, adults, and families and I am LGBTQIA+ affirming. I am committed to helping those who are struggling with depression, anxiety, self-esteem, self-harm, lack of motivation, life transitions, and other related challenges. I love to help clients find the best way to meet their own personal goals in a way that works best for them as an individual.
I have worked as an LPC for 17 years, much of it based in a school. I work with teens, parents, adults, and families and I am LGBTQIA+ affirming. I am committed to helping those who are struggling with depression, anxiety, self-esteem, self-harm, lack of motivation, life transitions, and other related challenges. I love to help clients find the best way to meet their own personal goals in a way that works best for them as an individual.
(269) 421-5357 View (269) 421-5357
Photo of Amy Vliek, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Kalamazoo County, MI
Amy Vliek
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, PhD, LMSW-C
Verified Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49007
For some of us the world is a more difficult place that it is for others. It is not our fault and there is nothing wrong with us. For some of us the world is not safe, the people in our world have made it unsafe, and we have fought by ourselves and for ourselves. It is not our fault, and we should be proud that we are still here, that we still love ourselves enough to fight, and to ask for help. If this describes you - I am here to help. I will believe in you, challenge you, speak truth to you, teach you skills and techniques, and help you help yourself. Together, we can discover how to make your world what you want it to be.
For some of us the world is a more difficult place that it is for others. It is not our fault and there is nothing wrong with us. For some of us the world is not safe, the people in our world have made it unsafe, and we have fought by ourselves and for ourselves. It is not our fault, and we should be proud that we are still here, that we still love ourselves enough to fight, and to ask for help. If this describes you - I am here to help. I will believe in you, challenge you, speak truth to you, teach you skills and techniques, and help you help yourself. Together, we can discover how to make your world what you want it to be.
(269) 256-1609 View (269) 256-1609
Photo of Carin Johnson, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Kalamazoo County, MI
Carin Johnson
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LLMSW
Verified Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49008
Does it feel like parts of you work against each other to hold you back? Do you find it difficult to escape the same problems coming up over and over again? I believe that our attachment experiences play a critical role for all of us in how we view and understand the world, and how we relate to others, but sometimes those things we've learned start holding us back rather than helping us thrive. I believe that we all possess the capacity for resilience and healing, and in therapy can regain access to, and build upon, our own internal strengths.
Does it feel like parts of you work against each other to hold you back? Do you find it difficult to escape the same problems coming up over and over again? I believe that our attachment experiences play a critical role for all of us in how we view and understand the world, and how we relate to others, but sometimes those things we've learned start holding us back rather than helping us thrive. I believe that we all possess the capacity for resilience and healing, and in therapy can regain access to, and build upon, our own internal strengths.
(269) 248-7017 View (269) 248-7017
Photo of Katie Cherry, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Kalamazoo County, MI
Katie Cherry
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49009
Life can be stressful, and I am privileged to have the opportunity to help guide and support individuals navigating change. Working collaboratively, I aim to assist clients with personal growth and increased life satisfaction. I offer a non-judgemental space and develop a positive therapeutic relationship to help empower internal changes. I help clients increase their understanding of thinking and behavior patterns and identify habits that are holding them back. I assist with developing strategies for stress management, communication, problem solving, and emotional regulation.
Life can be stressful, and I am privileged to have the opportunity to help guide and support individuals navigating change. Working collaboratively, I aim to assist clients with personal growth and increased life satisfaction. I offer a non-judgemental space and develop a positive therapeutic relationship to help empower internal changes. I help clients increase their understanding of thinking and behavior patterns and identify habits that are holding them back. I assist with developing strategies for stress management, communication, problem solving, and emotional regulation.
(269) 895-6970 View (269) 895-6970
Photo of Jay Maddock, Counselor in Kalamazoo County, MI
Jay Maddock
Counselor, MA, LPC, NCC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Kalamazoo, MI 49009
Hello! My name is Jay Maddock. As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I aim to foster an open, inclusive, and affirming space where clients feel safe to explore their concerns honestly and authentically. I believe in a person-centered therapeutic approach where I provide support and guidance to help clients build skills they need to grow and stretch as they confront issues in their lives. In my work with clients, I meet clients where they are with honesty, warmth, compassion, and humor. Together we will set goals that feel relevant and achievable and focus on what is important to you.
Hello! My name is Jay Maddock. As a Licensed Professional Counselor, I aim to foster an open, inclusive, and affirming space where clients feel safe to explore their concerns honestly and authentically. I believe in a person-centered therapeutic approach where I provide support and guidance to help clients build skills they need to grow and stretch as they confront issues in their lives. In my work with clients, I meet clients where they are with honesty, warmth, compassion, and humor. Together we will set goals that feel relevant and achievable and focus on what is important to you.
(269) 256-1232 View (269) 256-1232
Kate Holaday
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, ACSW, LPC
Verified Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49007  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
Are you grieving? Or facing cancer, other health issues, or life after treatment? Or are you tired of feeling anxious, frustrated, overwhelmed, or stressed? Maybe you're dealing with adult child or elderly parent issues, or having relationship problems. Or maybe you long to make changes in your life but feel stuck, unable to move forward. I have training and almost 20 years of experience helping people with these and other issues. I'd like to help you find what you need to experience yourself and your life in a way that feels more centered, confident, and satisfying.
Are you grieving? Or facing cancer, other health issues, or life after treatment? Or are you tired of feeling anxious, frustrated, overwhelmed, or stressed? Maybe you're dealing with adult child or elderly parent issues, or having relationship problems. Or maybe you long to make changes in your life but feel stuck, unable to move forward. I have training and almost 20 years of experience helping people with these and other issues. I'd like to help you find what you need to experience yourself and your life in a way that feels more centered, confident, and satisfying.
(269) 244-3669 View (269) 244-3669
Photo of Lucy Sternburgh, Licensed Professional Counselor in Kalamazoo County, MI
Lucy Sternburgh
Licensed Professional Counselor, PhD, LPC
Verified Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49009
Trauma leaves us feeling broken, damaged, and disconnected from our true selves. You may be fed up with feeling triggered in everyday situations, isolated from people who don't understand, or guilty over what happened to you. You may not even remember a time you didn’t feel like this. Either way, one thing is for sure: you’re ready for some relief. You’re ready to enjoy deep relationships without the past getting in the way. You’re ready to wake up each morning with purpose. Most of all, you’re ready to move forward with a sense of empowerment and get back to feeling like yourself again.
Trauma leaves us feeling broken, damaged, and disconnected from our true selves. You may be fed up with feeling triggered in everyday situations, isolated from people who don't understand, or guilty over what happened to you. You may not even remember a time you didn’t feel like this. Either way, one thing is for sure: you’re ready for some relief. You’re ready to enjoy deep relationships without the past getting in the way. You’re ready to wake up each morning with purpose. Most of all, you’re ready to move forward with a sense of empowerment and get back to feeling like yourself again.
(269) 280-0741 View (269) 280-0741
Photo of Joyce Obermeyer Pines, Limited Licensed Psychologist in Kalamazoo County, MI
Joyce Obermeyer Pines
Limited Licensed Psychologist, MA, LLP, CAADC, CCS
Verified Verified
Kalamazoo, MI 49009
I assist individuals and families in solving problems as they work toward recovery from addiction and other mental health conditions. I can serve as a guide, resource and source of strength for those who wish to undertake this journey. For individuals, I have an extensive background in substance use and other mental disorders and can help you work through the problems associated with those disorders. For families, I can also assist in helping parents, spouses and/or children understand what is happening to their loved one and provide coping skills for the challenges presented by the problems of the mind.
I assist individuals and families in solving problems as they work toward recovery from addiction and other mental health conditions. I can serve as a guide, resource and source of strength for those who wish to undertake this journey. For individuals, I have an extensive background in substance use and other mental disorders and can help you work through the problems associated with those disorders. For families, I can also assist in helping parents, spouses and/or children understand what is happening to their loved one and provide coping skills for the challenges presented by the problems of the mind.
(269) 795-6196 View (269) 795-6196
Photo of Amy Pradna-Waugaman, Marriage & Family Therapist in Kalamazoo County, MI
Amy Pradna-Waugaman
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LLMFT, LLC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Portage, MI 49024
I work with couples, families, & individuals. My work is rooted in relationships & clients come to me feeling disconnected & stuck in unsustainable patterns without knowing how break free from the cycle. Often, clients have inherited these patterns from dysfunctional families or developed them to survive difficult times. The cycles are harder to change when facing depression, anxiety, ADHD, trauma, betrayal, grief, rejection, or the burden of cultural, religious, & family of origin expectations. Eventually, clients want to find a way to liberate themselves from this pattern but don't know what that looks like or where to begin.
I work with couples, families, & individuals. My work is rooted in relationships & clients come to me feeling disconnected & stuck in unsustainable patterns without knowing how break free from the cycle. Often, clients have inherited these patterns from dysfunctional families or developed them to survive difficult times. The cycles are harder to change when facing depression, anxiety, ADHD, trauma, betrayal, grief, rejection, or the burden of cultural, religious, & family of origin expectations. Eventually, clients want to find a way to liberate themselves from this pattern but don't know what that looks like or where to begin.
(269) 367-8675 View (269) 367-8675

See more therapy options for Kalamazoo County

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Kalamazoo County, MI

500+

Average cost per session

$150

Therapists in Kalamazoo County, MI who prioritize treating:

95% Anxiety
91% Depression
76% Relationship Issues
75% Coping Skills
75% Self Esteem
74% Trauma and PTSD
74% Stress

Average years in practice

10 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

96% BlueCross and BlueShield
68% UnitedHealthcare UHC | UBH
67% Blue Care Network

How Therapists in Kalamazoo County, MI see their clients

78% In Person and Online
22% Online Only

Gender breakdown

80% Female
19% Male
1% Non-Binary

FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Kalamazoo County?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.