Depression Therapists in Detroit, MI

Photo of Lynette G Collins, Licensed Professional Counselor in Detroit, MI
Lynette G Collins
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48221  (Online Only)
I am a licensed clinical professional counselor providing therapy in MI and IL. I have 14 years of experience providing therapy to an array of clients such as caregivers of people living with Alzheimer's disease, as well as women, people of color and the LGBTQIA+ community. Do you want to get rid of imposter syndrome or learn how to love yourself? I have experience in working with people attempting to cope with many concerns such as depression, anxiety, stress, grief, relational issues, career & work situations, self-esteem and caregiver stress.
I am a licensed clinical professional counselor providing therapy in MI and IL. I have 14 years of experience providing therapy to an array of clients such as caregivers of people living with Alzheimer's disease, as well as women, people of color and the LGBTQIA+ community. Do you want to get rid of imposter syndrome or learn how to love yourself? I have experience in working with people attempting to cope with many concerns such as depression, anxiety, stress, grief, relational issues, career & work situations, self-esteem and caregiver stress.
(313) 637-6299 View (313) 637-6299
Photo of Latasha Chambliss, Counselor in Detroit, MI
Latasha Chambliss
Counselor
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48207  (Online Only)
Client who’s willing and ready to make a change and willing to work on everything that needs to happen. Issues include anxiety, depression, and adjustment issues. Goals include finding ways to manage the triggers and find healthy problem solving techniques
Client who’s willing and ready to make a change and willing to work on everything that needs to happen. Issues include anxiety, depression, and adjustment issues. Goals include finding ways to manage the triggers and find healthy problem solving techniques
(313) 513-5912 View (313) 513-5912
Photo of Suzanne Rodgers, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Detroit, MI
Suzanne Rodgers
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48202
My expertise is in depression, anxiety, dysfunctional patterns of behavior, and painful past childhood experiences.
I provide psychodynamic psychotherapy for adults, College students and adolescents. This approach allows you to express internal thoughts and feelings and worries you have, and it can begin to help you understand them in a deeper way. Many people suffer from negative thinking and get stuck in that state of mind, thinking those feelings are their reality. It is only a partial state of mind, it holds us back from being more productive and enjoying life.
My expertise is in depression, anxiety, dysfunctional patterns of behavior, and painful past childhood experiences.
I provide psychodynamic psychotherapy for adults, College students and adolescents. This approach allows you to express internal thoughts and feelings and worries you have, and it can begin to help you understand them in a deeper way. Many people suffer from negative thinking and get stuck in that state of mind, thinking those feelings are their reality. It is only a partial state of mind, it holds us back from being more productive and enjoying life.
(248) 648-9021 View (248) 648-9021
Photo of Shelby McCliggott, Licensed Professional Counselor in Detroit, MI
Shelby McCliggott
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, NBCC, ACS
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48225  (Online Only)
My role as a therapist is to create a safe, open and empathetic environment that will allow you, as the client, a space to feel secure while navigating with you through life's past or present hardships. I use a variety of therapeutic techniques such as CBT, Person Centered, EMDR, etc, however, I adjust treatment to fit each individual client and their needs. I have worked with clients ranging in age from preteen to 65+; with issues from anxiety, depression, trauma, substance abuse and more.
My role as a therapist is to create a safe, open and empathetic environment that will allow you, as the client, a space to feel secure while navigating with you through life's past or present hardships. I use a variety of therapeutic techniques such as CBT, Person Centered, EMDR, etc, however, I adjust treatment to fit each individual client and their needs. I have worked with clients ranging in age from preteen to 65+; with issues from anxiety, depression, trauma, substance abuse and more.
(248) 306-8736 View (248) 306-8736
Photo of Susan M. Cox, Licensed Professional Counselor in Detroit, MI
Susan M. Cox
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48216
We all face times of struggle in our lives. You do not have to face them alone. Counseling can help you identify the areas of change you desire in your life. Perhaps you desire healthier and improved relationships. Maybe you feel stuck at work or in school. Perhaps it feels like things won’t or can’t change for you. You could be experiencing sadness, depression or anxiety or trouble fulfilling daily responsibilities. It’s possible you don’t know what is wrong but things just don’t feel right you in your life. You can take the first step necessary to a healthier, happier, more balanced life. All sessions are secure e-Visits.
We all face times of struggle in our lives. You do not have to face them alone. Counseling can help you identify the areas of change you desire in your life. Perhaps you desire healthier and improved relationships. Maybe you feel stuck at work or in school. Perhaps it feels like things won’t or can’t change for you. You could be experiencing sadness, depression or anxiety or trouble fulfilling daily responsibilities. It’s possible you don’t know what is wrong but things just don’t feel right you in your life. You can take the first step necessary to a healthier, happier, more balanced life. All sessions are secure e-Visits.
(313) 879-0141 View (313) 879-0141
Photo of Daniellie Marie Conley, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Detroit, MI
Daniellie Marie Conley
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48224  (Online Only)
Daniellie is passionate about helping individuals and couples build healthy relationships. She believes the state of our relationships impacts our mood, work performance and overall quality of life. If you are struggling with depression, anxiety, stress or relationship challenges she wants to help. Daniellie will help you deal with depression, address your anxiety and develop strategies to manage stress. She is masterful at overcoming communication barriers and resolving conflict. Daniellie offers a safe space for you to be yourself and to grow. Together we will develop a plan of care to help you reach your goals.
Daniellie is passionate about helping individuals and couples build healthy relationships. She believes the state of our relationships impacts our mood, work performance and overall quality of life. If you are struggling with depression, anxiety, stress or relationship challenges she wants to help. Daniellie will help you deal with depression, address your anxiety and develop strategies to manage stress. She is masterful at overcoming communication barriers and resolving conflict. Daniellie offers a safe space for you to be yourself and to grow. Together we will develop a plan of care to help you reach your goals.
(313) 425-5171 View (313) 425-5171
Photo of Nishani Jayawardena, Licensed Professional Counselor in Detroit, MI
Nishani Jayawardena
Licensed Professional Counselor, NCC, EMDR-T
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48202  (Online Only)
I specialize in working with individuals who suffer from depression, anxiety, substance misuse, PTSD and complex trauma.
The approach I take to therapy is centered around supporting the needs of clients and guiding them towards self-actualization. By creating a safe space, an individual can explore their deepest and most authentic self. This personalized environment brings together multiculturalism, inclusivity, and perspectives that embrace diversity with open arms. If nothing else, I guarantee honesty; I stand true to the roots of therapy with a focus on authenticity.
I specialize in working with individuals who suffer from depression, anxiety, substance misuse, PTSD and complex trauma.
The approach I take to therapy is centered around supporting the needs of clients and guiding them towards self-actualization. By creating a safe space, an individual can explore their deepest and most authentic self. This personalized environment brings together multiculturalism, inclusivity, and perspectives that embrace diversity with open arms. If nothing else, I guarantee honesty; I stand true to the roots of therapy with a focus on authenticity.
(248) 955-2978 View (248) 955-2978
Photo of Raphael A. Tramble, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Detroit, MI
Raphael A. Tramble
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48221  (Online Only)
Do you ever want to feel validated, heard, understood, and not judged by others? Are you still recovering from pain due to grief or trauma? Some days it feels like you are alone and misunderstood, but it does not have to be that way. Based on my experience as a clinical therapist, I specialize in working with Teens and adults focusing on but not limited to anger management, anxiety, depression, grief and loss with a vision to empower clients to feel confident, assurance within themselves, closure and normalize feelings with reasonable solutions and coping skills to manage everyday life.
Do you ever want to feel validated, heard, understood, and not judged by others? Are you still recovering from pain due to grief or trauma? Some days it feels like you are alone and misunderstood, but it does not have to be that way. Based on my experience as a clinical therapist, I specialize in working with Teens and adults focusing on but not limited to anger management, anxiety, depression, grief and loss with a vision to empower clients to feel confident, assurance within themselves, closure and normalize feelings with reasonable solutions and coping skills to manage everyday life.
(313) 513-5695 View (313) 513-5695
Photo of Justin Kennard, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Detroit, MI
Justin Kennard
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48202
I provide a welcoming, safe and non-judgmental space. I work with people who seek support for anxiety, depression, grief, loss, trauma, relationships, family issues, social challenges, identity, substance use, life balance, and life transitions/stressors. I support people with areas such as work, school, productivity, immigration, illness and self-care. I have experience working with, and welcome, people of different sexual orientations, gender identities, race, spirituality, and cultural backgrounds. I also have experience working with social workers and therapists.
I provide a welcoming, safe and non-judgmental space. I work with people who seek support for anxiety, depression, grief, loss, trauma, relationships, family issues, social challenges, identity, substance use, life balance, and life transitions/stressors. I support people with areas such as work, school, productivity, immigration, illness and self-care. I have experience working with, and welcome, people of different sexual orientations, gender identities, race, spirituality, and cultural backgrounds. I also have experience working with social workers and therapists.
(347) 673-0225 View (347) 673-0225
Photo of Atha Jiva Mindful Therapy And Wellness, Pre-Licensed Professional in Detroit, MI
Atha Jiva Mindful Therapy And Wellness
Pre-Licensed Professional, LLPC, CRC, MA, IAYT, cHYP
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48203  (Online Only)
I have experience working with a range of client concerns such as Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Stress and Anger Management, Depression, Panic Attacks, Chronic Pain, Couple and Relationship Counseling as well as Career Counseling. I encourage clients to unpack and release emotional, mental, and physical discomfort and trauma with a range of clinical as well as holistic interventions. Together in the therapeutic alliance, my clients are supported to break through old patterns of thinking and reacting that impact their mental health and impede their personal and professional growth.
I have experience working with a range of client concerns such as Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Stress and Anger Management, Depression, Panic Attacks, Chronic Pain, Couple and Relationship Counseling as well as Career Counseling. I encourage clients to unpack and release emotional, mental, and physical discomfort and trauma with a range of clinical as well as holistic interventions. Together in the therapeutic alliance, my clients are supported to break through old patterns of thinking and reacting that impact their mental health and impede their personal and professional growth.
(313) 710-8999 View (313) 710-8999
Photo of Jorden Reid, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Detroit, MI
Jorden Reid
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48228  (Online Only)
Hello and congratulations to you for beginning this journey! My name is Jorden and I am a licensed clinical social worker. I have experience working in an individual treatment setting with adults and older teens who struggle with depression, anxiety, mood disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Hello and congratulations to you for beginning this journey! My name is Jorden and I am a licensed clinical social worker. I have experience working in an individual treatment setting with adults and older teens who struggle with depression, anxiety, mood disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
(586) 281-9230 View (586) 281-9230
Photo of Therapy House, LLC, Licensed Professional Counselor in Detroit, MI
Therapy House, LLC
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48202
Sometimes we need to understand what brought us to this point in life. Many individuals experience symptoms associated with painful and traumatic circumstance, others experience fear and hopelessness. Whether it's feeling overwhelmed by anxiety or depression, or feeling stuck and defeated because you haven't reached a life goal -- having someone to help guide you through those issues may be what you need. Therapy is an opportunity to talk with someone trained to listen in a confidential, safe space by providing a non-judgmental and supportive environment to help you heal and grow.
Sometimes we need to understand what brought us to this point in life. Many individuals experience symptoms associated with painful and traumatic circumstance, others experience fear and hopelessness. Whether it's feeling overwhelmed by anxiety or depression, or feeling stuck and defeated because you haven't reached a life goal -- having someone to help guide you through those issues may be what you need. Therapy is an opportunity to talk with someone trained to listen in a confidential, safe space by providing a non-judgmental and supportive environment to help you heal and grow.
(313) 209-9396 View (313) 209-9396
Photo of Kelly Haven, Marriage & Family Therapist in Detroit, MI
Kelly Haven
Marriage & Family Therapist, MA, LMFT
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48227
Among my areas of expertise are Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), trauma, depression, anxiety, parenting, relational, and marital issues.
We all struggle at times to see our inner strengths and capabilities due to the life experiences which have shaped us. I work in the belief that we each have everything we need to achieve a fulfilled and successful life already present within us; sometimes we just need a little help accessing it. Using a multi-modality approach I encourage my clients to work in the small steps, not the giant leaps, that bring us to self awareness, acceptance, and lasting change.
Among my areas of expertise are Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), trauma, depression, anxiety, parenting, relational, and marital issues.
We all struggle at times to see our inner strengths and capabilities due to the life experiences which have shaped us. I work in the belief that we each have everything we need to achieve a fulfilled and successful life already present within us; sometimes we just need a little help accessing it. Using a multi-modality approach I encourage my clients to work in the small steps, not the giant leaps, that bring us to self awareness, acceptance, and lasting change.
(707) 593-5669 View (707) 593-5669
Photo of Evolution Counseling and Consulting, Licensed Professional Counselor in Detroit, MI
Evolution Counseling and Consulting
Licensed Professional Counselor, MA, LPC, CRC, LBSW
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48202  (Online Only)
Some topics that I service are Depressive Disorders , Post- Partum Depression, Adjustment Disorder, Anxiety, Grief, Relationship Issues, Adolescent relational issues and Stress.
My ideal client is YOU. Yes, because you're currently seeking support and are courageous enough to take the biggest step. My ideal client is someone seeking to evolve, grow and work on themselves. If you're feeling like you're not growing in some area of your life, then let's work on a growth plan. Counseling is an opportunity for you to have a supportive, confidential, and safe place to discuss your concerns, increase knowledge about yourself, perceived challenges and strengthen you.
Some topics that I service are Depressive Disorders , Post- Partum Depression, Adjustment Disorder, Anxiety, Grief, Relationship Issues, Adolescent relational issues and Stress.
My ideal client is YOU. Yes, because you're currently seeking support and are courageous enough to take the biggest step. My ideal client is someone seeking to evolve, grow and work on themselves. If you're feeling like you're not growing in some area of your life, then let's work on a growth plan. Counseling is an opportunity for you to have a supportive, confidential, and safe place to discuss your concerns, increase knowledge about yourself, perceived challenges and strengthen you.
(947) 282-2737 View (947) 282-2737
Photo of Jacqueline Maria Beavers, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Detroit, MI
Jacqueline Maria Beavers
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48202  (Online Only)
Do you feel overwhelmed by the challenges of life? Are you feeling stuck, disconnected, unsettled with life? Do you experience difficulty expressing your thoughts, feelings, or needs; or feel you have no one who you can talk to? I understand how life can sometimes challenge our ability to cope and, left unaddressed, create inner conflict and disrupt our joy. Whether you are experiencing personal struggles or distressing relationships, I can help. I have experience treating clients for trauma, anxiety, stress, depression, domestic violence, sexual trauma, family difficulties, anger management, and interpersonal conflict.
Do you feel overwhelmed by the challenges of life? Are you feeling stuck, disconnected, unsettled with life? Do you experience difficulty expressing your thoughts, feelings, or needs; or feel you have no one who you can talk to? I understand how life can sometimes challenge our ability to cope and, left unaddressed, create inner conflict and disrupt our joy. Whether you are experiencing personal struggles or distressing relationships, I can help. I have experience treating clients for trauma, anxiety, stress, depression, domestic violence, sexual trauma, family difficulties, anger management, and interpersonal conflict.
(947) 282-5484 View (947) 282-5484
Photo of Jeana Spencer-Rooks, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Detroit, MI
Jeana Spencer-Rooks
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48219  (Online Only)
Clients in my practice share they learn skills to focus on restoring their mental health and or physical health They will develop skills to identify triggers and barriers which can be impacted by include past trauma, lack of knowledge, depression and anxiety
Clients in my practice share they learn skills to focus on restoring their mental health and or physical health They will develop skills to identify triggers and barriers which can be impacted by include past trauma, lack of knowledge, depression and anxiety
(734) 224-6796 View (734) 224-6796
Photo of Dr. Jemour Maddux Psychologist, Accepting Patients, Psychologist in Detroit, MI
Dr. Jemour Maddux Psychologist, Accepting Patients
Psychologist, PsyD, ABPP
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48243  (Online Only)
I offer a solution-focused & direct approach for issues like depression, anxiety, trauma, OCD, anger & family/relationship problems.
Professional - Doctoral Level - Theologically Sensitive - TeleHealth Friendly, Dr. Maddux offers tools for escaping bothersome thoughts, behaviors & reactions so you can reclaim self-control, fresh perspectives, stable relationships, energy & hope. I also understand that faith is important. I completed postdoctoral Theology & Ministry education at Princeton Theological Seminary to ethically combine faith-based tools & evidence-based psychotherapies, such as CBT & ERP. My style is time-limited & practical. Get a "Game Plan" for reaching your social, emotional & relationship goals.
I offer a solution-focused & direct approach for issues like depression, anxiety, trauma, OCD, anger & family/relationship problems.
Professional - Doctoral Level - Theologically Sensitive - TeleHealth Friendly, Dr. Maddux offers tools for escaping bothersome thoughts, behaviors & reactions so you can reclaim self-control, fresh perspectives, stable relationships, energy & hope. I also understand that faith is important. I completed postdoctoral Theology & Ministry education at Princeton Theological Seminary to ethically combine faith-based tools & evidence-based psychotherapies, such as CBT & ERP. My style is time-limited & practical. Get a "Game Plan" for reaching your social, emotional & relationship goals.
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Photo of Jessica Mayfield-Ashwood, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Detroit, MI
Jessica Mayfield-Ashwood
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48223  (Online Only)
Waitlist for new clients
My approach to therapy is first and foremost person-centered. Each person on my caseload, whether it be a child, adolescent, teen, or adult, is given respect and are involved in the therapeutic process of achieving goals they set for themselves. I am particularly passionate about serving youth and young adults who are impacted by anxiety, depression, trauma, anger, and low self-esteem.
My approach to therapy is first and foremost person-centered. Each person on my caseload, whether it be a child, adolescent, teen, or adult, is given respect and are involved in the therapeutic process of achieving goals they set for themselves. I am particularly passionate about serving youth and young adults who are impacted by anxiety, depression, trauma, anger, and low self-esteem.
(313) 986-4599 View (313) 986-4599
Photo of Ebony Morales, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Detroit, MI
Ebony Morales
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, LCSW
Verified Verified
Detroit, MI 48243  (Online Only)
The impact of chronic anxiety, depression, or experiencing trauma can be overwhelming, affecting all aspects of your life. I help folks who are struggling with feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, frustration, excessive worry, sadness, and lack of motivation to work towards conquering these debilitating symptoms. We'll work to alleviate your symptoms and empower you with the skills and insights necessary for long-term emotional well-being.
The impact of chronic anxiety, depression, or experiencing trauma can be overwhelming, affecting all aspects of your life. I help folks who are struggling with feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, frustration, excessive worry, sadness, and lack of motivation to work towards conquering these debilitating symptoms. We'll work to alleviate your symptoms and empower you with the skills and insights necessary for long-term emotional well-being.
(734) 984-5495 View (734) 984-5495
Photo of Cynthia R Finnegan, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Detroit, MI
Cynthia R Finnegan
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW, QMHP
Not Verified Not Verified
4 Endorsed
Detroit, MI 48235
Waitlist for new clients
In addition to 20+ years experience, I have specialized training in depression, anxiety & trauma.
I am not your typical nor traditional therapist! If you're looking for a therapist who is stuffy and uptight, or if you prefer clinical jargon and lots of big words, I am NOT the therapist for you. I’m the therapist who may show up wearing jeans and sandals one week and a long dress the next. I have tattoos and don’t try to hide them. I will call you on your crap when appropriate, and I might even swear while doing so. I support BLM, LGBTQIA+ and I believe in Science. I may not be a "typical" therapist, yet I am me & I am genuine. If you want to become the best YOU possible, give me a call! I know I can help.
In addition to 20+ years experience, I have specialized training in depression, anxiety & trauma.
I am not your typical nor traditional therapist! If you're looking for a therapist who is stuffy and uptight, or if you prefer clinical jargon and lots of big words, I am NOT the therapist for you. I’m the therapist who may show up wearing jeans and sandals one week and a long dress the next. I have tattoos and don’t try to hide them. I will call you on your crap when appropriate, and I might even swear while doing so. I support BLM, LGBTQIA+ and I believe in Science. I may not be a "typical" therapist, yet I am me & I am genuine. If you want to become the best YOU possible, give me a call! I know I can help.
(313) 251-0614 View (313) 251-0614
Depression Therapists

What is the goal of therapy for depression?

Therapy for depression has several major goals. One is to relieve the mental pain of depression, which distorts feeling and thinking so that sufferers cannot see beyond their current state of mind or envision feeling better. Another is to give people the mental tools to recognize and correct the kinds of distorted thinking that turn a problem into a catastrophe and lead to despair. Therapy also teaches people how to process negative emotions in constructive ways, so they have more control over their own emotional reactivity. And it helps people regain the ability to see themselves positively, the motivation to do things, and the capacity for pleasure.

What happens in therapy for depression?

Perhaps most important, no matter the type of therapy, patients form an alliance with the therapist; that connection is therapeutic in itself, plus it becomes an instrument of change. Patients learn to identify and to challenge their own erroneous beliefs and thoughts that amplify the effects of negative experiences. They learn to identify situations in which they are especially vulnerable. And they learn new patterns of thinking and behaving. They may be given “homework” assignments in which they practice their developing skills. In addition, good therapists regularly monitor patients to assess whether and how much the condition is improving.

What therapy types help with depression?

Several types of short-term therapy have been found effective, each targeting one or more areas of dysfunction. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) helps clients challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs, learn new behavioral strategies, and curb reactivity to distressing situations. Behavioral activation (BA) is a form of therapy often used in conjunction with CBT; it focuses on engagement in rewarding activity as a pathway to changing negative feelings and disturbed mood. Another widely used approach is interpersonal therapy (IPT), which targets the social difficulties that both give rise to and get exacerbated by depression. Therapists may combine approaches as needed.

Can therapy for depression be done online?

Studies have found that online therapy can be highly effective for treating depression, although it may be more challenging to build a good therapist-patient alliance on screen than in person—at least at first. However, online therapy can offer considerable advantages. Accessibility and convenience are tops among them. Some people actually find it easier to talk about problems online than in person. While online therapy typically limits visibility of facial expression and body gestures that give important nonverbal cues to a patient’s state of mind, it can give therapists a glimpse into a patient’s world and life, providing information that can be highly useful in guiding therapy.

How effective is therapy for depression?

Many studies show that therapy is highly effective provided that patients complete the prescribed course of therapy, commonly 16 to 20 sessions. Over the long term, it is more effective than medication and the effects are more enduring. As a result, psychotherapy has the power not just to relieve current suffering but to prevent future episodes of the disorder. Therapy reverses the dysfunction in neural circuitry that disposes individuals to a negative view of themselves, the world, and their future and they acquire coping techniques, problem-solving skills, and understanding of their own vulnerabilities that are useful over the course of a lifetime.