Therapists in Prince Frederick, MD

Photo of Therapy Café®, Marriage & Family Therapist in Prince Frederick, MD
Therapy Café®
Marriage & Family Therapist, LCMFT, LCPC
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678  (Online Only)
Not accepting new clients
Hello, my name is Angelique Bridges. I am a Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor (LCPC) and a Licensed Clinical Marriage and Family Therapist (LCMFT) in Maryland. I value creating a relaxed and open therapeutic space for my clients to safely process things in a respectful manner without judgement. I believe that therapy is a collaborative process; I assist my clients in increasing their self-awareness and personal strengths so that they can gain new perspectives, decrease their symptoms, and have a more meaningful life experience.
Hello, my name is Angelique Bridges. I am a Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor (LCPC) and a Licensed Clinical Marriage and Family Therapist (LCMFT) in Maryland. I value creating a relaxed and open therapeutic space for my clients to safely process things in a respectful manner without judgement. I believe that therapy is a collaborative process; I assist my clients in increasing their self-awareness and personal strengths so that they can gain new perspectives, decrease their symptoms, and have a more meaningful life experience.
(410) 648-9758 View (410) 648-9758
Photo of Sarah Ackley, Counselor in Prince Frederick, MD
Sarah Ackley
Counselor, EdS, NCSP, LGPC
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
I believe that we all harbor strength and resilience within, yet we sometimes need help recognizing and building these traits. In therapy, I meet you where you are and take time to honor individual needs while building skills. In addition to providing therapy, I have 14 years of experience as a school psychologist providing comprehensive psychoeducational assessments for various developmental, learning, and emotional needs including Autism, ADHD, and Specific Learning Disabilities. My goal is to motivate and empower clients to not only make positive changes in their lives, but to thrive.
I believe that we all harbor strength and resilience within, yet we sometimes need help recognizing and building these traits. In therapy, I meet you where you are and take time to honor individual needs while building skills. In addition to providing therapy, I have 14 years of experience as a school psychologist providing comprehensive psychoeducational assessments for various developmental, learning, and emotional needs including Autism, ADHD, and Specific Learning Disabilities. My goal is to motivate and empower clients to not only make positive changes in their lives, but to thrive.
(410) 989-4850 View (410) 989-4850
Photo of Southern Maryland Mental Health, Licensed Professional Counselor in Prince Frederick, MD
Southern Maryland Mental Health
Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC, LGPC, ABSNP, NCSP
Verified Verified
4 Endorsed
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
Accepting New Clients! Are you struggling with anxiety, effects of trauma, stress and/or depression? If so, you're not alone. I specialize in helping motivated adults who want to better understand how their past has impacted them. As a therapist and founder of Southern Maryland Mental Health, LLC, I can help you navigate these challenges and find your way to healing. I offer individual therapy and use a variety of therapeutic approaches including Brainspotting EMDR to help you reach your goals.
Accepting New Clients! Are you struggling with anxiety, effects of trauma, stress and/or depression? If so, you're not alone. I specialize in helping motivated adults who want to better understand how their past has impacted them. As a therapist and founder of Southern Maryland Mental Health, LLC, I can help you navigate these challenges and find your way to healing. I offer individual therapy and use a variety of therapeutic approaches including Brainspotting EMDR to help you reach your goals.
(410) 618-4670 View (410) 618-4670
Photo of Angela Dilworth, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Prince Frederick, MD
Angela Dilworth
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
I am a Licensed MSW in Maryland and soon DC. I use a cognitive-behavioral approach that is based upon the idea that our thoughts cause our feelings and behaviors. I am a firm believer that we can change the way we think to feel and act better even if the situation does not change. I specialize in working with adult clients that experience anxiety, low self-esteem, perfectionism, depression and unhealthy attachments. I look forward to helping clients find compassionate towards themselves and others while providing a safe space to understand and embrace their authentic selves.
I am a Licensed MSW in Maryland and soon DC. I use a cognitive-behavioral approach that is based upon the idea that our thoughts cause our feelings and behaviors. I am a firm believer that we can change the way we think to feel and act better even if the situation does not change. I specialize in working with adult clients that experience anxiety, low self-esteem, perfectionism, depression and unhealthy attachments. I look forward to helping clients find compassionate towards themselves and others while providing a safe space to understand and embrace their authentic selves.
(410) 847-7359 View (410) 847-7359
Photo of Steia Williams, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Prince Frederick, MD
Steia Williams
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, PsyD
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Prince Frederick, MD 20678  (Online Only)
I believe that therapy is a collaborative process, therefore my role is to assist you in working towards solutions that benefit you in the best way possible. My methods include mindfulness practice, distress tolerance, and cognitive behavioral techniques to target depression, anxiety, and trauma. I provide a safe, warm, and welcoming environment in order to help my clients feel comfortable in expressing their themselves. I strive to create a creative, unorthodox approach by using humor in order to appeal to adolescence.
I believe that therapy is a collaborative process, therefore my role is to assist you in working towards solutions that benefit you in the best way possible. My methods include mindfulness practice, distress tolerance, and cognitive behavioral techniques to target depression, anxiety, and trauma. I provide a safe, warm, and welcoming environment in order to help my clients feel comfortable in expressing their themselves. I strive to create a creative, unorthodox approach by using humor in order to appeal to adolescence.
(443) 295-8955 View (443) 295-8955
Sellina Kaylor
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
Painful suffering is an experience of being human that can leave us feeling very alone; yet, we were not designed to suffer alone. When tended to (and therapy is one way of tending), our suffering can ultimately be transformed. What previously was hidden, buried, trampled on, or worse, can be seen and gently reclaimed. Therapy is a process that relies on relationship, and getting to know you and what's important to you is where we begin.
Painful suffering is an experience of being human that can leave us feeling very alone; yet, we were not designed to suffer alone. When tended to (and therapy is one way of tending), our suffering can ultimately be transformed. What previously was hidden, buried, trampled on, or worse, can be seen and gently reclaimed. Therapy is a process that relies on relationship, and getting to know you and what's important to you is where we begin.
(410) 914-1167 View (410) 914-1167
Photo of Susan P Sferra, Marriage & Family Therapist in Prince Frederick, MD
Susan P Sferra
Marriage & Family Therapist, LCMFT
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
I work with individuals, couples, and families around a variety of issues including depression, anxiety, relationships, divorce, blended families, parenting, anger management, and low self esteem. My goal is to help lesson the emotional pain of my clients, and to help them make changes towards the life they really want to have.
I work with individuals, couples, and families around a variety of issues including depression, anxiety, relationships, divorce, blended families, parenting, anger management, and low self esteem. My goal is to help lesson the emotional pain of my clients, and to help them make changes towards the life they really want to have.
(410) 927-5631 View (410) 927-5631
Photo of Anamae Franek, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Prince Frederick, MD
Anamae Franek
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
Not accepting new clients
We believe that every client has their own strengths and tools to get through difficult times and to grow. However, sometimes we just need a little navigation to discover those strengths. Our goal is to work together in identifying your strengths and empowering you to use them. We strive to create a warm and open atmosphere so you have a comfortable space to share your thoughts, feelings and challenges.
We believe that every client has their own strengths and tools to get through difficult times and to grow. However, sometimes we just need a little navigation to discover those strengths. Our goal is to work together in identifying your strengths and empowering you to use them. We strive to create a warm and open atmosphere so you have a comfortable space to share your thoughts, feelings and challenges.
(410) 886-7980 View (410) 886-7980
Photo of Tia Myers, Counselor in Prince Frederick, MD
Tia Myers
Counselor, MA, LCPC
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678  (Online Only)
Life is full of transitions and it can be difficult dealing with the day to day challenges of family, work, school, health concerns, loss of a friend/family, marriage, or divorce . The help of a Professional Counselor may be necessary to get through some of these moments. My passion is to work with individuals (children and adults) and families to cope with life's stressors. Whether you are looking to work through an unexpected difficult situation or need assistance with developing a short or long term plan to achieve your personal or family mental health goals, I am here to help.
Life is full of transitions and it can be difficult dealing with the day to day challenges of family, work, school, health concerns, loss of a friend/family, marriage, or divorce . The help of a Professional Counselor may be necessary to get through some of these moments. My passion is to work with individuals (children and adults) and families to cope with life's stressors. Whether you are looking to work through an unexpected difficult situation or need assistance with developing a short or long term plan to achieve your personal or family mental health goals, I am here to help.
(667) 660-4310 View (667) 660-4310
Photo of CMA Counseling, Licensed Professional Counselor in Prince Frederick, MD
CMA Counseling
Licensed Professional Counselor, LCPC, NCC, BC-TMH, CMIP
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
Waitlist for new clients
Are you ready to make a change, but unsure where to start? Are you feeling anxious about how to move forward? Are you lacking the confidence to meet your personal goals? You have come to the right place to face your fears, achieve personal growth, accomplish your goals, and improve your overall wellness. CMA Counseling supports adults by addressing their concerns and helping them to improve their quality of life through individual collaborative sessions.
Are you ready to make a change, but unsure where to start? Are you feeling anxious about how to move forward? Are you lacking the confidence to meet your personal goals? You have come to the right place to face your fears, achieve personal growth, accomplish your goals, and improve your overall wellness. CMA Counseling supports adults by addressing their concerns and helping them to improve their quality of life through individual collaborative sessions.
(240) 201-2360 View (240) 201-2360
Photo of Aaron Burchett, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Prince Frederick, MD
Aaron Burchett
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LMSW
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
Waitlist for new clients
I am a Licensed Master Social Worker (LMSW) with experience working with individuals struggling with mental health challenges. I am a passionate therapist who has helped individuals navigate anxiety, depression, trauma, substance use, crisis stabilization, and has worked with adolescents. Through a compassionate and empathetic approach, I have helped individuals overcome their struggles and achieve personal growth.
I am a Licensed Master Social Worker (LMSW) with experience working with individuals struggling with mental health challenges. I am a passionate therapist who has helped individuals navigate anxiety, depression, trauma, substance use, crisis stabilization, and has worked with adolescents. Through a compassionate and empathetic approach, I have helped individuals overcome their struggles and achieve personal growth.
(410) 989-4275 View (410) 989-4275
Photo of Therapy Café® in Prince Frederick, MD
Therapy Café®
BS, ICF, Coach, DD
Verified Verified
3 Endorsed
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
I am a certified professional Spiritual/Life/Executive Coach and Ordained Minister who specializes in personal growth, relationship. romance, sex and career coaching. I am part of a private practice in Prince Frederick, Maryland. I serve as a private practitioner working with a broad spectrum of clients. I am a collaborative, solution-focused Life Coach. Through this approach, I provide support and practical feedback to help clients effectively address personal life challenges.
I am a certified professional Spiritual/Life/Executive Coach and Ordained Minister who specializes in personal growth, relationship. romance, sex and career coaching. I am part of a private practice in Prince Frederick, Maryland. I serve as a private practitioner working with a broad spectrum of clients. I am a collaborative, solution-focused Life Coach. Through this approach, I provide support and practical feedback to help clients effectively address personal life challenges.
(443) 295-8955 View (443) 295-8955
Photo of By The Bay Counseling Solutions, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Prince Frederick, MD
By The Bay Counseling Solutions
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, MSW, LCSW-C
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
Not accepting new clients
We believe that every client has their own strengths and tools to get through difficult times and to grow. However, sometimes we just need a little navigation to discover those strengths. Our goal is to work together in identifying your strengths and empowering you to use them. We strive to create a warm and open atmosphere so you have a comfortable space to share your thoughts, feelings and challenges.
We believe that every client has their own strengths and tools to get through difficult times and to grow. However, sometimes we just need a little navigation to discover those strengths. Our goal is to work together in identifying your strengths and empowering you to use them. We strive to create a warm and open atmosphere so you have a comfortable space to share your thoughts, feelings and challenges.
(443) 247-5061 View (443) 247-5061
Photo of Vera Montgomery, Psychological Associate in Prince Frederick, MD
Vera Montgomery
Psychological Associate, MS, PA
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
Feelings can be overwhelming. Life can be overwhelming. Unresolved issues from the past can block present and future progress. What if there was someone that could guide you in processing those feelings to make the overwhelming more manageable? Let me be that guide. You will find a safe judgment free zone here. Let's work together to seek understanding, gain perspective, and bring about change that you desire.
Feelings can be overwhelming. Life can be overwhelming. Unresolved issues from the past can block present and future progress. What if there was someone that could guide you in processing those feelings to make the overwhelming more manageable? Let me be that guide. You will find a safe judgment free zone here. Let's work together to seek understanding, gain perspective, and bring about change that you desire.
(410) 304-6492 View (410) 304-6492
Photo of Erica Gunther Linville, Counselor in Prince Frederick, MD
Erica Gunther Linville
Counselor, LCPC
Verified Verified
2 Endorsed
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
Hi, my name is Erica Linville. I am a Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor (LCPC). I enjoy working with both adults and adolescents, tailoring my therapeutic techniques to each client's unique needs. I believe in the ability of each client to build on their individual strengths to obtain overall mental, physical, and behavioral health.
Hi, my name is Erica Linville. I am a Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor (LCPC). I enjoy working with both adults and adolescents, tailoring my therapeutic techniques to each client's unique needs. I believe in the ability of each client to build on their individual strengths to obtain overall mental, physical, and behavioral health.
(443) 733-6667 View (443) 733-6667
Photo of Michael H Gillooly, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Prince Frederick, MD
Michael H Gillooly
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, EFT, EMDR
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
Relationships can sometimes hit a rough patch as life has a habit of "getting in the way", adding stressors that even the strongest relationships find hard to navigate without professional support from time to time. Sometimes it can be challenging for a couple to be kind or thoughtful of each others needs or find the time to talk about current problems without escalating the issues. It is not uncommon for couples to experience problems listening to each other or enjoying each others company. I have helped hundreds of couples find their way back to the loving relationship they want and need!
Relationships can sometimes hit a rough patch as life has a habit of "getting in the way", adding stressors that even the strongest relationships find hard to navigate without professional support from time to time. Sometimes it can be challenging for a couple to be kind or thoughtful of each others needs or find the time to talk about current problems without escalating the issues. It is not uncommon for couples to experience problems listening to each other or enjoying each others company. I have helped hundreds of couples find their way back to the loving relationship they want and need!
(301) 812-4583 View (301) 812-4583
Photo of Heidi Tracey Llc, Counselor in Prince Frederick, MD
Heidi Tracey Llc
Counselor, MA CAS, LGPC, NCSP
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678  (Online Only)
Whether you are going through a life transition yourself, struggling emotionally, facing an impending loss, or a circumstance that makes you feel like you have no control over your life, it can be difficult to try to keep moving forward. Are you having trouble controlling the intensity of your emotions? Making unhelpful choices? Experiencing negative impacts to your personal life? Professional/school life? Having trouble understanding your actions or the actions of others? Struggling with negative thought patterns? Lacking the skills to deal with the heavy stress you are feeling? Struggling to take clear steps to reach your goals?
Whether you are going through a life transition yourself, struggling emotionally, facing an impending loss, or a circumstance that makes you feel like you have no control over your life, it can be difficult to try to keep moving forward. Are you having trouble controlling the intensity of your emotions? Making unhelpful choices? Experiencing negative impacts to your personal life? Professional/school life? Having trouble understanding your actions or the actions of others? Struggling with negative thought patterns? Lacking the skills to deal with the heavy stress you are feeling? Struggling to take clear steps to reach your goals?
(667) 285-8548 View (667) 285-8548
Photo of Maryland Mediation (dot) Services in Prince Frederick, MD
Maryland Mediation (dot) Services
MSW, CAC-AD-, CTS, CCMC, Mediato
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Prince Frederick, MD 20678  (Online Only)
Susan Saunders, MSW,Mediator/ Parenting Corridinator, envisions her ideal client as someone struggling with divorce, child custody and visitation with complex emotional turmoil, perhaps stemming from interpersonal conflicts, traumatic experiences, or challenging life transitions. These individuals seek resolution, understanding, in the process of divorce their issues may include unresolved trauma, communication breakdowns, or navigating difficult relationships. Their needs revolve around finding a safe space to express themselves, gain perspective, and work towards solutions that honor their well-being and dignity.
Susan Saunders, MSW,Mediator/ Parenting Corridinator, envisions her ideal client as someone struggling with divorce, child custody and visitation with complex emotional turmoil, perhaps stemming from interpersonal conflicts, traumatic experiences, or challenging life transitions. These individuals seek resolution, understanding, in the process of divorce their issues may include unresolved trauma, communication breakdowns, or navigating difficult relationships. Their needs revolve around finding a safe space to express themselves, gain perspective, and work towards solutions that honor their well-being and dignity.
(240) 209-9110 View (240) 209-9110
Photo of Hope and Healing Therapy and Wellness Center, Clinical Social Work/Therapist in Prince Frederick, MD
Hope and Healing Therapy and Wellness Center
Clinical Social Work/Therapist, LCSW-C, LCPC, PsyD, LMSW
Verified Verified
1 Endorsed
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
We have immediate openings for private pay clients. Feeling ashamed, lost, afraid, alone? Reliving terrifying moments? Wondering when the dreams will stop? No matter what the road of life has put in your way, there is hope for recovery. By telling your story and learning skills for coping with life you can build hope and strength and finding healing. Our providers include: Jennifer Voorhaar, LCSW-C, Anastasia Newberry, LCSW-C, Meredith Drumm, LCPC, Alison Thir, PsyD, Kristen Wilson, LCSW-C, Erica Cavin, LCSW-C, Sara Smith, LCPC, Alexes Boutin, LMSW, Glori VanBrunt, LCPC, Anna Guy, LMSW.
We have immediate openings for private pay clients. Feeling ashamed, lost, afraid, alone? Reliving terrifying moments? Wondering when the dreams will stop? No matter what the road of life has put in your way, there is hope for recovery. By telling your story and learning skills for coping with life you can build hope and strength and finding healing. Our providers include: Jennifer Voorhaar, LCSW-C, Anastasia Newberry, LCSW-C, Meredith Drumm, LCPC, Alison Thir, PsyD, Kristen Wilson, LCSW-C, Erica Cavin, LCSW-C, Sara Smith, LCPC, Alexes Boutin, LMSW, Glori VanBrunt, LCPC, Anna Guy, LMSW.
(240) 808-2225 View (240) 808-2225
Photo of Amber Ariemma, Counselor in Prince Frederick, MD
Amber Ariemma
Counselor, LCPC, NCC, CCTP
Verified Verified
Prince Frederick, MD 20678
Life can be very challenging sometimes, but no difficult experience is meaningless if we use it to grow. I am available to help tweens, teens, and adults through issues including depression, anxiety, adjustment issues, and PTSD. It is my privilege to support clients in an intuitive, authentic, non-judgmental way. Whether your concern is current or pervasive, we can work towards your healing.
Life can be very challenging sometimes, but no difficult experience is meaningless if we use it to grow. I am available to help tweens, teens, and adults through issues including depression, anxiety, adjustment issues, and PTSD. It is my privilege to support clients in an intuitive, authentic, non-judgmental way. Whether your concern is current or pervasive, we can work towards your healing.
(443) 492-2083 View (443) 492-2083

See more therapy options for Prince Frederick

How does your Therapist compare?

Number of Therapists in Prince Frederick, MD

30+

Average cost per session

$145

Therapists in Prince Frederick, MD who prioritize treating:

89% Depression
83% Anxiety
71% Relationship Issues
71% Coping Skills
69% Self Esteem
69% Stress
66% Life Transitions

Average years in practice

12 Years

Top 3 insurances accepted

92% BlueCross and BlueShield
84% CareFirst
80% Cigna and Evernorth

How Therapists in Prince Frederick, MD see their clients

66% In Person and Online
34% Online Only

Gender breakdown

88% Female
12% Male
FAQs - About Therapy and Counseling

How can I find a therapist in Prince Frederick?

Search for nearby therapists or counselors by inputting your city, town, or suburb; or zip code; or a provider’s name into the search bar. From there, you can filter providers by the issues they treat, cost, insurance, gender, and other factors to find providers who are well-suited to your needs. To navigate between locations within the same country, enter a new city or zip code into the search bar.

Learn more about how to find a therapist

Is everyone in the Psychology Today Therapy Directory a licensed therapist?

The Psychology Today directory lists providers who offer legitimate mental health services to the public, including psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counselors.

Many have been licensed by the country or state where they practice; providers whose license or primary credential has been verified by Psychology Today are signified by a “Verified” symbol. Some clinicians or organizations provide services for which their state or country does not offer licenses, such as pastoral counseling. They may be selectively included without the “Verified” seal.

What’s the difference between a psychologist, a therapist, and a counselor?

Therapists, psychologists, and counselors are all licensed mental health professionals. In the US, psychologists have earned a doctoral degree. The terms “therapist” and “counselor” are used somewhat interchangeably, but generally therapists offer longer-term, mental health care, while counselors offer shorter-term care that may focus on one domain, such as marriage, career, or academic challenges.

Clients should consider factors such as insurance coverage and their primary reason(s) for seeking therapy to determine the type of professional best suited to their needs. Someone struggling with mental health challenges such as depression or anxiety, for example, may wish to seek out a clinical psychologist or therapist, while someone navigating career obstacles or marital upheaval may benefit from seeing a counselor who can offer short-term, targeted support.

What type of therapy is right for me?

The type of therapy best suited to a particular individual depends on several factors, including their primary reason for seeking therapy, their preferred timeline (some therapy types last for a set number of sessions, while others are open-ended), and their personality and preferences—some may prefer a more structured approach. For many individuals, multiple types of therapy could provide a good fit.

How much does therapy cost?

The cost of therapy depends on a number of variables, including location and the therapist’s experience and training. On average, a therapy session in the United States could cost between $100 and $200 or more. If you have insurance, the expense of mental health care is typically lower, but it varies based on your insurance plan details and whether you choose an in-network or out-of-network mental healthcare provider.

What are more affordable or low cost therapy solutions?

Many therapists offer sliding scale payments, usually on a limited number of slots, which consists in an agreement between the therapist and a client to pay a reduced rate. Therapists who provide such arrangements often consider the client's income or ability to pay, but the extent of the discount is ultimately at the therapist's discretion. Furthermore, while group therapy may have different goals and benefits compared to individual therapy, it can be a more affordable solution to address certain types of issues.

Is online therapy cheaper than in-person therapy?

Many therapists charge the same amount for online therapy as they do for in-person therapy—though clients may still find this cost-effective if it cuts down on their transportation costs. Health insurance plans often offer equivalent coverage for online and in-person therapy; indeed, in many places, they are legally required to do so. Text-based or on-demand therapy apps may be cheaper than traditional one-on-one psychotherapy; however, the practice may be less effective and is not likely to be covered by insurance.

Is online therapy a good option?

Therapy conducted online can be just as effective as in-person therapy, as long as there is a strong alliance between the client and the therapist. To find a therapist who provides telehealth services to clients in your area, click “Online Therapy” on the directory homepage and search by your city or town or your zip code.

Are therapy sessions confidential?

Confidentiality is a crucial part of the therapeutic relationship. Therapists in the United States are bound by the regulations set out by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), which aims to protect sensitive health information. With very few exceptions, a therapist will only discuss their client with others when the client has given their written permission. The instances in which a therapist would be required to disclose personal information are: if a client poses a danger to themselves or others, if the therapist suspects the abuse of a child or an elderly or otherwise dependent adult, or if they are legally forced to by court order. These exceptions to the confidentiality agreement are usually discussed with a client before their first session.